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Biogas
Biogas
Biogas
typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen. Biogas
Biogas
can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste or food waste. Biogas
Biogas
is a renewable energy source. Biogas
Biogas
can be produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms, which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials.[1] Biogas
Biogas
is primarily methane (CH 4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H 2S), moisture and siloxanes. The gases methane, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide (CO) can be combusted or oxidized with oxygen. This energy release allows biogas to be used as a fuel; it can be used for any heating purpose, such as cooking
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Organic Matter
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments. It is matter composed of organic compounds that has come from the remains of organisms such as plants and animals and their waste products in the environment.[1] Organic molecules can also be made by chemical reactions that don't involve life.[2] Basic structures are created from cellulose, tannin, cutin, and lignin, along with other various proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates
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Anaerobic Organism
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth. It may react negatively or even die if oxygen is present. (In contrast, an aerobic organism (aerobe) is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.) An anaerobic organism may be unicellular (e.g
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Fermentation (biochemistry)
Fermentation
Fermentation
is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen. The products are organic acids, gases, or alcohol. It occurs in yeast and bacteria, and also in oxygen-starved muscle cells, as in the case of lactic acid fermentation. The science of fermentation is known as zymology. In microorganisms, fermentation is the primary means of producing ATP by the degradation of organic nutrients anaerobically.[1] Humans have used fermentation to produce drinks and beverages since the Neolithic age. For example, fermentation is used for preservation in a process that produces lactic acid as found in such sour foods as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurt (see fermentation in food processing), as well as for producing alcoholic beverages such as wine (see fermentation in winemaking) and beer
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Carbon Dioxide
Carbon
Carbon
dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air. Carbon
Carbon
dioxide consists of a carbon atom covalently double bonded to two oxygen atoms. It occurs naturally in Earth's atmosphere
Earth's atmosphere
as a trace gas. The current concentration is about 0.04% (405 ppm) by volume, having risen from pre-industrial levels of 280 ppm. Natural sources include volcanoes, hot springs and geysers, and it is freed from carbonate rocks by dissolution in water and acids. Because carbon dioxide is soluble in water, it occurs naturally in groundwater, rivers and lakes, ice caps, glaciers and seawater. It is present in deposits of petroleum and natural gas
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Sewage
Sewage
Sewage
(or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people. It is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical and toxic constituents, and its bacteriologic status (which organisms it contains and in what quantities). It consists mostly of greywater (from sinks, tubs, showers, dishwashers, and clothes washers), blackwater (the water used to flush toilets, combined with the human waste that it flushes away); soaps and detergents; and toilet paper (less so in regions where bidets are widely used instead of paper). Sewage
Sewage
usually travels from a building's plumbing either into a sewer, which will carry it elsewhere, or into an onsite sewage facility (of which there are many kinds). Whether it is combined with surface runoff in the sewer depends on the sewer design (sanitary sewer or combined sewer)
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Plant Material
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally. There are also two meristems associated with vascular tissue: the vascular cambium and the cork cambium. All the vascular tissues within a particular plant together constitute the vascular tissue system of that plant. The cells in vascular tissue are typically long and slender. Since the xylem and phloem function in the conduction of water, minerals, and nutrients throughout the plant, it is not surprising that their form should be similar to pipes. The individual cells of phloem are connected end-to-end, just as the sections of a pipe might be. As the plant grows, new vascular tissue differentiates in the growing tips of the plant. The new tissue is aligned with existing vascular tissue, maintaining its connection throughout the plant
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Municipal Waste
Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage in the United States and as refuse or rubbish in Britain, is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. "Garbage" can also refer specifically to food waste, as in a garbage disposal; the two are sometimes collected separately. In the European Union, the semantic definition is 'mixed municipal waste,' given waste code 20 03 01 in the European Waste Catalog. Although the waste may originate from a number of sources that has nothing to do with a municipality, the traditional role of municipalities in collecting and managing these kinds of waste have produced the particular etymology 'municipal.'Contents1 Composition 2 Components of solid waste management2.1 Collection 2.2 Waste handling and separation, storage and processing at the source 2.3 Segregation and processing and transformation of solid wastes 2.4 Transfer and transport 2.5 Disposal 2.6 Reusing 2.7 Landfills 2.8
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Manure
Manure
Manure
is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now very rare.Contents1 Types1.1 Animal manure1.1.1 Human manure1.2 Compost 1.3 Green manure2 Uses of manure2.1 Animal manure3 Issues3.1 Livestock antibiotics4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTypes There are three main classes of manures used in soil management: Animal manureCement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water
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Energy Conservation
Energy
Energy
conservation are efforts made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service. This can be achieved either by using energy more efficiently (using less energy for a constant service) or by reducing the amount of services used (for example, by driving less). Energy
Energy
conservation is a part of the concept of eco-sufficiency
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Gas
Gas
Gas
is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma). A pure gas may be made up of individual atoms (e.g. a noble gas like neon), elemental molecules made from one type of atom (e.g. oxygen), or compound molecules made from a variety of atoms (e.g. carbon dioxide). A gas mixture would contain a variety of pure gases much like the air. What distinguishes a gas from liquids and solids is the vast separation of the individual gas particles. This separation usually makes a colorless gas invisible to the human observer. The interaction of gas particles in the presence of electric and gravitational fields are considered negligible as indicated by the constant velocity vectors in the image. One type of commonly known gas is steam. The gaseous state of matter is found between the liquid and plasma states,[1] the latter of which provides the upper temperature boundary for gases
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Green Vehicle
A green vehicle, or clean vehicle, or eco-friendly vehicle or environmentally friendly vehicle is a road motor vehicle that produces less harmful impacts to the environment than comparable conventional internal combustion engine vehicles running on gasoline or diesel, or one that uses certain alternative fuels.[3][4][5] Presently, in some countries the term is used for any vehicle complying or surpassing the more stringent European emission standards
European emission standards
(such as Euro6), or California's zero-emissions vehicle standards (such as ZEV, ULEV, SULEV, PZEV), or the low-carbon fuel standards enacted in several countries.[6] Green vehicl
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Fossil Fuel Phase-out
Fossil fuel
Fossil fuel
phase out refers to the discontinuation of the use of fossil fuels, through the decommissioning of operating fossil fuel-fired power plants, the prevention of the construction of new ones, and the use of alternative energy to replace the role of fossil fuels. The purpose of fossil fuel phase-out is to reduce the negative externalities that use of fossil fuels cause. Negative externalities refer to the costs a certain activity has over people who did not choose to incur in them. A direct negative externality from fossil fuels' use is air pollution, and an indirect negative externality are mining accidents, that happen as a consequence of the extraction of fossil fuels
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Siloxane
A siloxane is a functional group in organosilicon chemistry with the Si–O–Si linkage. The parent siloxanes include the oligomeric and polymeric hydrides with the formulae H(OSiH2)nOH and (OSiH2)n.[1] Siloxanes also include branched compounds, the defining feature of which is that each pair of silicon centres is separated by one oxygen atom. The siloxane functional group forms the backbone of silicones, the premier example of which is polydimethylsiloxane.[2] The functional group (RO)3Si is called siloxy.Contents1 Structure 2 Synthesis of siloxanes 3 Reactions 4 Cyclomethicones 5 Nomenclature 6 Safety and environmental considerations 7 Literature 8 References 9 External linksStructure[edit] Siloxanes generally adopt structures expected for linked tetrahedral ("sp3-like") centers
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Carbon-neutral Fuel
The term "carbon-neutral fuel" can refer to a variety of energy fuels or energy systems which have no net greenhouse gas emissions or carbon footprint. One class is synthetic fuel (including methane, gasoline, diesel fuel, jet fuel or ammonia[1]) produced from sustainable or nuclear energy used to hydrogenate waste carbon dioxide recycled from power plant flue exhaust gas or derived from carbonic acid in seawater
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Hydrogen
Hydrogen
Hydrogen
is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1. With a standard atomic weight of 7000100800000000000♠1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.[7][note 1] Non-remnant stars are mainly composed of hydrogen in the plasma state. The most common isotope of hydrogen, termed protium (name rarely used, symbol 1H), has one proton and no neutrons. The universal emergence of atomic hydrogen first occurred during the recombination epoch. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula H2. Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most nonmetallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water or organic compounds
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