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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE, also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the SPECIFIC NAME or SPECIFIC EPITHET – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens . Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
rex is probably the most widely known binomial
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Family Name
A SURNAME or FAMILY NAME is a name added to a given name . In many cases, a surname is a family name and many dictionaries define "surname" as a synonym of "family name". In the English-speaking world , it is commonly synonymous with LAST NAME because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two or more surnames may be used. In Hungary
Hungary
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, China
China
, Japan
Japan
, Korea
Korea
, Madagascar
Madagascar
, Taiwan
Taiwan
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, and parts of India
India
, the family name is placed before a person's given name
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Given Name
A GIVEN NAME (also known as a FIRST NAME or a FORENAME) is a part of a person's personal name . It identifies a specific person, and differentiates that person from other members of a group, such as a family or clan , with whom that person shares a common surname . The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person, normally given to a child by its parents at or near the time of birth. This contrasts with a surname (also known as a family name, last name, or gentile name), which is normally inherited and shared with other members of the child's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special types of given names, as they are given to adults upon them receiving a crown or entering a religious order and as such are replacing the original given name of those persons. Given names are often used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations
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Alexander The Great
ALEXANDER III OF MACEDON (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT (Greek : Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas Koine Greek: ), was a king (basileus ) of the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty . He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world by the age of thirty, stretching from Greece
Greece
to northwestern India
India
. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders
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Psittacidae
Psittacinae Arinae The family PSITTACIDAE is one of three families of true parrots . It comprises the approximately 10 species of subfamily Psittacinae (the Old World
Old World
or Afrotropical parrots) and 148 species of subfamily Arinae (the New World
New World
or Neotropical parrots), as well as several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries. Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World
New World
parrots and the African grey parrot
African grey parrot
among the Old World
Old World
parrots
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum
Augusta Treverorum
Sirmium
Sirmium

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John Tradescant The Younger
JOHN TRADESCANT the Younger ( /trəˈdɛskənt/ ; 4 August 1608 – 22 April 1662), son of John Tradescant the elder
John Tradescant the elder
, was a botanist and gardener, born in Meopham , Kent
Kent
and educated at The King\'s School, Canterbury . Like his father, who collected specimens and rarities on his many trips abroad, he undertook collecting expeditions to Virginia between 1628 and 1637 (and possibly two more trips by 1662, though Potter and other authors doubt this). Among the seeds he brought back, to introduce to English gardens were great American trees, like Magnolias , Bald Cypress and Tulip tree , and garden plants such as phlox and asters. Portrait by William Dobson
William Dobson
John Tradescant the Younger
John Tradescant the Younger
added his American acquisitions to the family's cabinet of curiosities , known as The Ark
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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Chionodoxa
See text. CHIONODOXA, known as GLORY-OF-THE-SNOW, is a small genus of bulbous perennial flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
, subfamily Scilloideae
Scilloideae
, often included in Scilla
Scilla
. The genus is endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, specifically Crete, Cyprus and Turkey. The blue, white or pink flowers appear early in the year making them valuable garden ornamentals. The common name of the genus is based on the habit of flowering in high alpine zones when the snow melts in spring. CONTENTS* 1 Taxonomy * 1.1 Species * 2 Cultivation * 3 Notes and references * 4 Bibliography TAXONOMY Close-up of a flower, showing the 'cup' formed by the flattened filaments of the stamens
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Rhododendron
FORMER SUBGENERA: * Candidastrum * Mumeazalea * Pentanthera * Tsutsusi RHODODENDRON /ˌroʊdəˈdɛndrən/ (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous , and found mainly in Asia
Asia
, although it is also widespread throughout the highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America
North America
. It is the national flower of Nepal
Nepal
. Most species have brightly coloured flowers which bloom from late winter through to early summer. Azaleas make up two subgenera of Rhododendron. They are distinguished from "true" rhododendrons by having only five anthers per flower
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Aymara Language
AYMARA /aɪməˈrɑː/ (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes
Andes
. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers. Aymara, along with Quechua and Spanish , is an official language of Bolivia
Bolivia
and Peru . It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile
Chile
, where it is a recognized minority language . Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua . That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage
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Latin
LATIN (Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets , and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium
Latium
, in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
. Through the power of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire . Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages
Romance languages
, such as Italian , Portuguese , Spanish , French , and Romanian
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Fossil
A FOSSIL (from Classical Latin
Latin
fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age . Examples include bones, shells, exoskeletons , stone imprints of animals or microbes , hair, petrified wood , oil, coal, and DNA
DNA
remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology
Paleontology
is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance. Specimens are usually considered to be fossils if they are over 10,000 years old. The oldest fossils are from around 3.48 billion years old to 4.1 billion years old. The observation in the 19th century that certain fossils were associated with certain rock strata led to the recognition of a geological timescale and the relative ages of different fossils
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Scilla
SCILLA (/ˈsɪlə/ ; SQUILL) is a genus of about 50 to 80 bulb -forming perennial herbs in the family Asparagaceae
Asparagaceae
, subfamily Scilloideae
Scilloideae
, native to woodlands, subalpine meadows , and seashores throughout Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and the Middle-East . A few species are also naturalized in Australia
Australia
, New Zealand
New Zealand
and North America
North America
. Their flowers are usually blue, but white, pink, and purple types are known; most flower in early spring, but a few are autumn-flowering
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Bauhin
BAUHIN — a family of physicians and scientists . * Jean Bauhin (1511–1582): a French physician, who moved with his family to Basel
Basel
after conversion to Protestantism
Protestantism
.* His two sons: * Gaspard Bauhin , or CASPAR BAUHIN (1560–1624): Swiss-French botanist . * Johann Bauhin , or JEAN BAUHIN (1541–1613): Swiss-French botanist.The genus of plants Bauhinia was named after the brothers. This page lists people with the surname BAUHIN
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Sweden
Coordinates : 63°N 16°E / 63°N 16°E / 63; 16 Kingdom of Sweden Konungariket Sverige Flag Greater coat of arms MOTTO: (royal) "För Sverige – i tiden" "For Sweden
Sweden
– With the Times" ANTHEM: Du gamla, Du fria Thou ancient, thou free ROYAL ANTHEM :
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