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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracuse (663–669, Eastern) LANGUAGES * Latin (official until 610) * Greek (official after 610) * Regional / local languages RELIGION * Before AD 380: Imperial cult -driven polytheism * From AD 380: Christiani
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Roman Naming Conventions
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans
Romans
and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names . Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen , nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD. The names developed as part of this system became a defining characteristic of Roman civilization, and although the system itself vanished during the early Middle Ages, the names themselves exerted a profound influence on the development of European naming practices, and many continue to survive in modern languages
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Binomial Voting System
The BINOMIAL SYSTEM is a voting system that was used in the parliamentary elections of Chile between 1989 and 2013. From a voting system point of view, it is a multiple-winner method of proportional representation with open lists , where winning candidates are chosen through the D\'Hondt method . Its particularity comes from the fact that only two candidates are elected in each district, resulting in an over-representation of the second majority list. Its use was prescribed in the respective constitutional organic law during the Pinochet regime . The binomial system was invented in Poland
Poland
in the 1980s under the Wojciech Jaruzelski
Wojciech Jaruzelski
regime, in order to foster political stability in the democratization process, maintaining the preeminence of the Polish United Workers\' Party against the rise of the opposition movement Solidarność , being recognized as a system that promoted consensus and negotiation between opposing sides of government. The binomial system was considered by most analysts as the main constitutional lock that prevented completion of the transition to democracy . CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Rationale * 3 Criticism * 4 References * 5 Bibliography CHARACTERISTICSThe system works in the following manner: Parties and independent candidates group themselves into lists or coalitions, basically electoral blocs
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature ). For example, _ Boa constrictor _ is one of four species of the _Boa _ genus. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being . In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time
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Latin Grammar
LATIN is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order . Nouns are inflected for number and case ; pronouns and adjectives (including participles ) are inflected for number, case, and gender ; and verbs are inflected for person , number, tense , voice , and mood . The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs. Thus verbs can take any of over 100 different endings to express different meanings: regō "I rule", regor "I am ruled", regere "to rule", regī "to be ruled", rēxisset "he would have ruled", and so on. Nouns can have up to five different endings if singular, and four if plural. These are called the cases of the noun. The main cases are these: nominative case rēx "the king" (subject), accusative case rēgem "the king" (object), genitive case rēgis "of the king", dative case rēgī "to the king", ablative case rēge "with the king". The set of different endings for any particular noun is called its declension . One of the difficulties of Latin
Latin
is that not all nouns use the same set of endings. For example, the genitive case (meaning "of") of puella ("girl") is puellae; that of servus ("slave") is servī; that of rēx ("king") is rēgis. Nouns are therefore classified into five different groups according to the pattern of their endings
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e. phylogenetic analysis should clearly demonstrate both monophyly and validity as a separate lineage ). * reasonable compactness – a genus should not be expanded needlessly; and * distinctness – with respect to evolutionarily relevant criteria, i.e
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Homo
_ Homo sapiens_ †_ Homo erectus_ †_ Homo floresiensis_ †_ Homo habilis_ †_ Homo heidelbergensis_ †_ Homo naledi_ †_ Homo neanderthalensis_ _other species or subspecies suggested, see below ._ SYNONYMS Synonyms * _Africanthropus_ Dreyer, 1935 * _Atlanthropus_ Arambourg, 1954 * _Cyphanthropus_ Pycraft, 1928 * _Pithecanthropus_ Dubois, 1894 * _Protanthropus_ Haeckel, 1895 * _Sinanthropus_ Black, 1927 * _Tchadanthropus_ Coppens, 1965 * _Telanthropus_ Broom ">_ Evolutionary treechart emphasizing the subfamily Homininaeand the tribe Hominini. After diverging from the line to Ponginaethe early Homininaesplit into the tribes Hominini and Gorillini. The early Homininisplit further, separating the line to Homo_ from the lineage of _Pan_. Currently, _tribe_ Hominini designates the _subtribes_ Hominina, containing genus _Homo_; Panina , genus _Pan_; and Australopithecina, with several extinct genera—the subtribes are not labelled on this chart. Further information: List of alternative names for the human species _See Homininaefor an overview of taxonomy._ The Latinnoun _homō_ (genitive _hominis_) means "human being" or "man " in the generic sense of "human being, mankind"
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Homo Sapiens
†_ Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu _ _ Homo sapiens sapiens _ _HOMO SAPIENS_ ( Latin
Latin
: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the only extant human species. _ Homo
Homo
_ is the human genus , which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominin ; _H. sapiens_ is the only surviving species of the genus _Homo_. Modern humans are the subspecies _Homo sapiens sapiens _, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, _ Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu _. The ingenuity and adaptability of _ Homo
Homo
sapiens_ has led to it becoming the most influential species on Earth
Earth
; it is currently deemed of least concern on the Red List of endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature . CONTENTS * 1 Name and taxonomy * 2 Origin * 3 Evolution * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links NAME AND TAXONOMY Further information: Homo
Homo
and Names for the human species The binomial name _ Homo
Homo
sapiens_ was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758). The Latin
Latin
noun _homō_ (genitive _hominis_) means "man , human being". Subspecies
Subspecies
of _H
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala . In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals, plants, and minerals, and published several volumes. At the time of his death, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe
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Species Plantarum
_SPECIES PLANTARUM_ ( Latin
Latin
for "The Species
Species
of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus , originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera . It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants . CONTENTS * 1 Publication * 2 Importance * 3 Contents * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links PUBLICATION_ Species
Species
Plantarum_ was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes. A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second. Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow , the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden ; the fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes. IMPORTANCE _ Before Species
Species
Plantarum_, this plant was referred to as "_ Plantago foliis ovato-lanceolatis pubescentibus, spica cylindrica, scapo tereti_"; Linnaeus renamed it _ Plantago media _
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Gaspard Bauhin
GASPARD BAUHIN or CASPAR BAUHIN (Latinised _Casparus Bauhinus_; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose _Phytopinax_ (1596) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus . He was a disciple of the famous Italian physician Girolamo Mercuriale and he also worked on human anatomical nomenclature. Linnaeus honored the Bauhin brothers Gaspard and Jean in the genus name _ Bauhinia _. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY _ Caspar Bauhin (1623), Pinax Theatri Botanici_, page 291. On this page, a number of _Tithymalus_ species (now _ Euphorbia _) is listed, described and provided with synonyms and references. Bauhin already used binomial names but did not consistently give all species throughout the work binomials. Jean and Gaspard were the sons of Jean Bauhin (1511–1582), a French physician who had to leave his native country on becoming a convert to Protestantism. Gaspard was born at Basel
Basel
and studied medicine at Padua , Montpellier , and in Germany
Germany
. Returning to Basel
Basel
in 1580, he was admitted to the degree of doctor, and gave private lectures in botany and anatomy
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise. The Code is meant to guide only the nomenclature of animals, while leaving zoologists freedom in classifying new taxa . In other words, whether a species itself is or is not a recognized entity is a subjective decision, but what name should be applied to it is not. The Code applies only to the latter, not to the former
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
The _INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR ALGAE, FUNGI, AND PLANTS_ (ICN) is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". :Preamble, para. 8 It was formerly called the _INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE_ (ICBN); the name was changed at the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne
Melbourne
in July 2011 as part of the _ Melbourne
Melbourne
Code_ which replaces the _ Vienna
Vienna
Code_ of 2005. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress (on Saturday 23 July 2011), but the documentation of the code in its final form was not finished until some time after the congressional meeting. Preliminary wording of some of the articles with the most significant changes has been published in September 2011. The name of the _Code_ is partly capitalized and partly not. The lower-case for "algae, fungi, and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades , but indicate groups of organisms that were historically known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists , mycologists , and botanists
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Proper Noun
A PROPER NOUN is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as _ London
London
_, _ Jupiter
Jupiter
_, _ Sarah
Sarah
_, or _Microsoft _, as distinguished from a COMMON NOUN, which usually refers to a class of entities (_city, planet, person, corporation_), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a _city_, another _planet_, these _persons_, our _corporation_). Some proper nouns occur in plural form (optionally or exclusively), and then they refer to _groups_ of entities considered as unique (the _Hendersons_, the _ Everglades _, _the Azores
Azores
_, the _Pleiades _). Proper nouns can also occur in secondary applications, for example modifying nouns (the _Mozart_ experience; his _Azores_ adventure), or in the role of common nouns (he's no _Pavarotti_; a few would-be _Napoleons_). The detailed definition of the term is problematic and to an extent governed by convention. A distinction is normally made in current linguistics between PROPER NOUNS and PROPER NAMES. By this strict distinction, because the term _noun_ is used for a class of single words (_tree_, _beauty_), only single-word proper names are proper nouns: _Peter_ and _Africa_ are both proper names and proper nouns; but _Peter the Great_ and _South Africa_, while they are proper names, are not proper nouns
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Thomas Drummond (botanist)
THOMAS DRUMMOND (1793 — March 1835), was a Scottish botanical collector. LIFEThomas Drummond was the younger brother of the botanist James Drummond . He was born in Scotland, and during the early part of his life was at Don's nursery, Forfar
Forfar
. He first became known to botanists by his distributed sets of mosses, ‘Musci Scotici,’ and afterwards was attached as assistant-naturalist to Dr. Richardson in Sir John Franklin 's second land expedition. He accordingly sailed from Liverpool
Liverpool
on 16 February 1825 and reached New York on the 15th of the following month. The expedition moved westward by the river Hudson and lakes Ontario and Winnipeg to the Mackenzie river . Drummond quit the main party at Cumberland House to explore the Rocky Mountains . On 3 June 1827 Drummond met David Douglas at Carlton House as Douglas was venturing overland from Fort Vancouver toward York Factory, Manitoba on his return trip to London, collecting for the Royal Horticultural Society . In the spring of 1831 Drummond journeyed on foot by the Alleghany Mountains , reaching St. Louis
St. Louis
in July, where he fell ill. In consequence of this delay he was unable to join the fur traders on their expedition to the north. He therefore was compelled to confine his explorations to New Orleans
New Orleans
and thereabouts
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