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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum (286–402, Western ) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna (402–476, Western) Nicomedia (286–330, Eastern ) Constantinople (330–1453, Eastern) Syracu
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Roman Naming Conventions
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans
Romans
and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names . Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen , nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD. The names developed as part of this system became a defining characteristic of Roman civilization, and although the system itself vanished during the early Middle Ages, the names themselves exerted a profound influence on the development of European naming practices, and many continue to survive in modern languages
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Binomial Voting System
The BINOMIAL SYSTEM is a voting system that was used in the parliamentary elections of Chile between 1989 and 2013. From a voting system point of view, it is a multiple-winner method of proportional representation with open lists , where winning candidates are chosen through the D\'Hondt method . Its particularity comes from the fact that only two candidates are elected in each district, resulting in an over-representation of the second majority list. Its use was prescribed in the respective constitutional organic law during the Pinochet regime
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA , morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Latin Grammar
LATIN is a heavily inflected language with largely free word order . Nouns are inflected for number and case ; pronouns and adjectives (including participles ) are inflected for number, case, and gender ; and verbs are inflected for person , number, tense , voice , and mood . The inflections are often changes in the ending of a word, but can be more complicated, especially with verbs. Thus verbs can take any of over 100 different endings to express different meanings: regō "I rule", regor "I am ruled", regere "to rule", regī "to be ruled", rēxisset "he would have ruled", and so on. Nouns can have up to five different endings if singular, and four if plural. These are called the cases of the noun. The main cases are these: nominative case rēx "the king" (subject), accusative case rēgem "the king" (object), genitive case rēgis "of the king", dative case rēgī "to the king", ablative case rēge "with the king"
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. _ Felis catus _ and _ Felis silvestris _ are two species within the genus _ Felis _. _Felis_ is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. There are some general practices used, however, including the idea that a newly defined genus should fulfill these three criteria to be descriptively useful: * monophyly – all descendants of an ancestral taxon are grouped together (i.e
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Homo
_ Homo sapiens_ †_ Homo erectus_ †_ Homo floresiensis_ †_ Homo habilis_ †_ Homo heidelbergensis_ †_ Homo naledi_ †_ Homo neanderthalensis_ _other species or subspecies suggested, see below ._ SYNONYMS Synonyms * _Africanthropus_ Dreyer, 1935 * _Atlanthropus_ Arambourg, 1954 * _Cyphanthropus_ Pycraft, 1928 * _Pithecanthropus_ Dubois, 1894 * _Protanthropus_ Haeckel, 1895 * _Sinanthropus_ Black, 1927 * _Tchadanthropus_ Coppens, 1965 * _Telanthropus_ Broom ">_ Evolutionary treechart emphasizing the subfamily Homininaeand the tribe Hominini. After diverging from the line to Ponginaethe early Homininaesplit into the tribes Hominini and Gorillini. The early Homininisplit further, separating the line to Homo_ from the lineage of _Pan_
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Homo Sapiens
†_ Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu _ _ Homo sapiens sapiens _ _HOMO SAPIENS_ ( Latin
Latin
: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the only extant human species. _ Homo
Homo
_ is the human genus , which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominin ; _H. sapiens_ is the only surviving species of the genus _Homo_. Modern humans are the subspecies _Homo sapiens sapiens _, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, _ Homo
Homo
sapiens idaltu _. The ingenuity and adaptability of _ Homo
Homo
sapiens_ has led to it becoming the most influential species on Earth
Earth
; it is currently deemed of least concern on the Red List of endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin , and his name is rendered in Latin as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland , in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his _ Systema Naturae _ in the Netherlands. He then returned to Sweden, where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala
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Species Plantarum
SPECIES PLANTARUM ( Latin
Latin
for "The Species
Species
of Plants") is a book by Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
, originally published in 1753, which lists every species of plant known at the time, classified into genera . It is the first work to consistently apply binomial names and was the starting point for the naming of plants . CONTENTS * 1 Publication * 2 Importance * 3 Contents * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 External links PUBLICATION Species
Species
Plantarum was published on 1 May 1753 by Laurentius Salvius in Stockholm, in two volumes. A second edition was published in 1762–1763, and a third edition in 1764, although this "scarcely differed" from the second. Further editions were published after Linnaeus' death in 1778, under the direction of Karl Ludwig Willdenow , the director of the Berlin Botanical Garden ; the fifth edition (1800) was published in four volumes
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Gaspard Bauhin
GASPARD BAUHIN or CASPAR BAUHIN (Latinised Casparus Bauhinus; 17 January 1560 – 5 December 1624), was a Swiss botanist whose Phytopinax (1596) described thousands of plants and classified them in a manner that draws comparisons to the later binomial nomenclature of Linnaeus . He was a disciple of the famous Italian physician Girolamo Mercuriale and he also worked on human anatomical nomenclature. Linnaeus honored the Bauhin brothers Gaspard and Jean in the genus name Bauhinia
Bauhinia
. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHY Caspar Bauhin (1623), Pinax Theatri Botanici, page 291. On this page, a number of Tithymalus species (now Euphorbia
Euphorbia
) is listed, described and provided with synonyms and references. Bauhin already used binomial names but did not consistently give all species throughout the work binomials
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International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature
The INTERNATIONAL CODE OF ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE (ICZN) is a widely accepted convention in zoology that rules the formal scientific naming of organisms treated as animals . It is also informally known as the ICZN CODE, for its publisher, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (which shares the acronym "ICZN"). The rules principally regulate: * How names are correctly established in the frame of binominal nomenclature * Which name must be used in case of name conflicts * How scientific literature must cite namesZoological nomenclature is independent of other systems of nomenclature, for example botanical nomenclature . This implies that animals can have the same generic names as plants. The rules and recommendations have one fundamental aim: to provide the maximum universality and continuity in the naming of all animals, except where taxonomic judgment dictates otherwise
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International Code Of Nomenclature For Algae, Fungi, And Plants
INTERNATIONAL mostly means something (a company , language , or organization ) involving more than a single country . The term international as a word means involvement of, interaction between or encompassing more than one nation, or generally beyond national boundaries. For example, international law , which is applied by more than one country and usually everywhere on Earth
Earth
, and international language which is a language spoken by residents of more than one country. CONTENTS * 1 Origin of the word * 2 Meaning in particular fields * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links * 6 Sources ORIGIN OF THE WORDThe term international was coined by the utilitarian philosopher Jeremy Bentham in his Introduction to Principles of Morals and Legislation , which was printed for publication in 1780 and published in 1789
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Proper Noun
A PROPER NOUN is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as _ London
London
_, _ Jupiter
Jupiter
_, _ Sarah
Sarah
_, or _Microsoft _, as distinguished from a COMMON NOUN, which usually refers to a class of entities (_city, planet, person, corporation_), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a _city_, another _planet_, these _persons_, our _corporation_). Some proper nouns occur in plural form (optionally or exclusively), and then they refer to _groups_ of entities considered as unique (the _Hendersons_, the _ Everglades _, _the Azores
Azores
_, the _Pleiades _). Proper nouns can also occur in secondary applications, for example modifying nouns (the _Mozart_ experience; his _Azores_ adventure), or in the role of common nouns (he's no _Pavarotti_; a few would-be _Napoleons_)
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Thomas Drummond (botanist)
THOMAS DRUMMOND (1793 — March 1835), was a Scottish botanical collector. LIFEThomas Drummond was the younger brother of the botanist James Drummond . He was born in Scotland, and during the early part of his life was at Don's nursery, Forfar . He first became known to botanists by his distributed sets of mosses, ‘Musci Scotici,’ and afterwards was attached as assistant-naturalist to Dr. Richardson in Sir John Franklin 's second land expedition. He accordingly sailed from Liverpool
Liverpool
on 16 February 1825 and reached New York on the 15th of the following month. The expedition moved westward by the river Hudson and lakes Ontario and Winnipeg to the Mackenzie river
Mackenzie river
. Drummond quit the main party at Cumberland House to explore the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains

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