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Binomial Nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
("two-term naming system") also called binominal nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin
Latin
grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomial name (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; more informally it is also called a Latin
Latin
name. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus Homo
Homo
and within this genus to the species Homo
Homo
sapiens
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Roman Naming Conventions
Over the course of some fourteen centuries, the Romans
Romans
and other peoples of Italy employed a system of nomenclature that differed from that used by other cultures of Europe and the Mediterranean, consisting of a combination of personal and family names. Although conventionally referred to as the tria nomina, the combination of praenomen, nomen, and cognomen that have come to be regarded as the basic elements of the Roman name in fact represent a continuous process of development, from at least the seventh century BC to the end of the seventh century AD
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Chionodoxa Siehei
Chionodoxa
Chionodoxa
siehei or Siehe's glory-of-the-snow is a bulbous perennial from west Turkey
Turkey
flowering in early spring. After flowering, it goes into dormancy until the next spring. It seeds readily to form colonies.Contents1 Description 2 Cultivation 3 Notes and references 4 BibliographyDescription[edit]Self-sown carpet of Chionodoxa
Chionodoxa
siehei under a deciduous shrub, flowering in early April in the West Midlands, England.This is the commonest species grown in gardens, where it is often wrongly called C. luciliae. Some botanists consider C. siehei to be the same species as C. forbesii, which is then the correct name. The Royal Horticultural Society
Royal Horticultural Society
treats them as distinct.[1] Like all members of the genus Chionodoxa, the bases of the stamens are flattened and closely clustered in the middle of the flower
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John Tradescant The Younger
John Tradescant the Younger
John Tradescant the Younger
( /trəˈdɛskənt/; 4 August 1608 – 22 April 1662), son of John Tradescant the elder, was a botanist and gardener, born in Meopham, Kent
Kent
and educated at The King's School, Canterbury.[1] Like his father, who collected specimens and rarities on his many trips abroad, he undertook collecting expeditions to Virginia
Virginia
between 1628 and 1637 (and possibly two more trips by 1662, though Potter and other authors doubt this). Among the seeds he brought back, to introduce to English gardens were great American trees, like Magnolias, Bald Cypress and Tulip tree, and garden plants such as phlox and asters.Portrait by William Dobson John Tradescant the Younger
John Tradescant the Younger
added his American acquisitions to the family's cabinet of curiosities, known as The Ark
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Psittacidae
Psittacinae ArinaeThe family Psittacidae
Psittacidae
is one of three families of true parrots. It comprises the rough 10 species of subfamily Psittacinae
Psittacinae
(the Old World or Afrotropical parrots) and 157 of subfamily Arinae
Arinae
(the New World
New World
or Neotropical parrots), as well as several species that have gone extinct in recent centuries.[1][2] Some of the most iconic birds in the world are represented here, such as the blue-and-gold macaw among the New World
New World
parrots and the African grey parrot
African grey parrot
among the Old World parrots. These parrots are found in tropical and subtropical zones and inhabit Mexico, Central and South America, the Caribbean islands, sub-Saharan Africa, and the island of Madagascar, and the Arabian Peninsula
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Red-breasted Parakeet
The red-breasted parakeet ( Psittacula
Psittacula
alexandri) is among the more widespread species of the genus and is the species which has the most geographical variations. It is easily identified by the large reddish patch on its breast. An alternative name is the moustached parakeet depending on subspecies. Most of the subspecies are confined to small islands or a cluster of islands in Indonesia. One subspecies occurs in the Andaman islands, and one subspecies occurs in continental Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and partly extending to northeastern parts of South Asia along the foothills of the Himalayas. Some of the island races may be threatened by the wild bird trade
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Alexander The Great
Alexander
Alexander
III of Macedon
Macedon
(20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander
Alexander
the Great (Ancient Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, translit. Aléxandros ho Mégas, Koine
Koine
Greek: [a.lék.san.dros ho mé.gas]), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon[a] and a member of the Argead
Argead
dynasty. He was born in Pella
Pella
in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty
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Family Name
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).[1] Depending on the culture all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. In the English-speaking world, a surname is commonly referred to as a last name because it is usually placed at the end of a person's full name, after any given names. In many parts of Asia, as well as some parts of Europe
Europe
and Africa, the family name is placed before a person's given name. In most Spanish-speaking and Portuguese-speaking countries, two surnames are commonly used and in some families that claim a connection to nobility even three are used. Surnames have not always existed and today are not universal in all cultures. This tradition has arisen separately in different cultures around the world
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Given Name
A given name (also known as a first name, forename) is a part of a person's personal name.[1] It identifies a specific person, and differentiates that person from the other members of a group (typically a family or clan) who have a common surname. The term given name refers to the fact that the name usually is bestowed upon a person, normally to a child by his or her parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian
Christian
name, a first name which historically was given at baptism, is now also typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are often used in a familiar and friendly manner.[1] In more formal situations, a person's surname is more commonly used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname
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Nomenclature Code
Nomenclature codes or codes of nomenclature are the various rulebooks that govern biological taxonomic nomenclature, each in their own broad field of organisms. To an end-user who only deals with names of species, with some awareness that species are assignable to families, it may not be noticeable that there is more than one code, but beyond this basic level these are rather different in the way they work. The successful introduction of two-part names for species by Linnaeus was the start for an ever-expanding system of nomenclature. With all naturalists worldwide adopting this approach to thinking up names there arose several schools of thought about the details. It became ever more apparent that a detailed body of rules was necessary to govern scientific names. From the mid-nineteenth century onwards there were several initiatives to arrive at worldwide-accepted sets of rules
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Chionodoxa
See text.Chionodoxa, known as glory-of-the-snow, is a small genus of bulbous perennial flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae, often included in Scilla. The genus is endemic to the eastern Mediterranean, specifically Crete, Cyprus
Cyprus
and Turkey. The blue, white or pink flowers appear early in the year making them valuable garden ornamentals
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Scilla
Scilla
Scilla
(/ˈsɪlə/; Squill)[2] is a genus of about 50 to 80[3] bulb-forming perennial herbs in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae,[4] native to woodlands, subalpine meadows, and seashores throughout Europe, Africa
Africa
and the Middle-East
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Biological Classification
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Latinized Name
Latinisation (also spelled Latinization[1]: see spelling differences) is the practice of rendering a non- Latin
Latin
name (or word) in a Latin style.[1] It is commonly found with historical personal names, with toponyms and in the standard binomial nomenclature of the life sciences. It goes further than romanisation, which is the transliteration of a word to the Latin
Latin
alphabet from another script (e.g. Cyrillic). This was often done in the classical to emulate Latin
Latin
authors, or to present a more impressive image. In a scientific context, the main purpose of Latinisation may be to produce a name which is internationally consistent. Latinisation may be carried out by:transforming the name into Latin
Latin
sounds (e.g. Geber for Jabir), or adding Latinate suffixes to the end of a name (e.g
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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