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Bijan Jalali
Bijan Jalali (Persian: بیژن جلالی‎; 1927 in Tehran, Iran – January 2000) was a modern Persian poet. His works include: The Color of Water, Days, Dailies, Our Heart and the World, Play of Light, and The Water and the Sun.[1] See also[edit]Poetry portalNima Yooshij Persian literatureReferences[edit]^ "Asymptote"
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Tehran
Tehran
Tehran
(/tɛˈræn, -ˈrɑːn, ˌtɛhə-, ˌteɪə-/; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tʰehˈɾɒːn] ( listen)) is the capital of Iran
Iran
and Tehran
Tehran
Province. With a population of around 8.8 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran
Tehran
is the most populous city in Iran
Iran
and Western Asia,[4] and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East
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Al-Ghazali
Great Seljuq Empire
Seljuq Empire
(Nishapur)[1]:292 Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
(Baghdad) / (Jerusalem) / (Damascus) [1]:292Religion IslamDenomination Sun
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Bal'ami
Abu Ali Muhammad Bal'ami (Persian: ابو علی محمد‎), also called Amirak Bal'ami (امیرک بلعمی) and Bal'ami-i Kuchak (بلعمی کوچک, "Bal'ami the Younger"), was a Persian historian, writer, and vizier to the Samanids.Contents1 Biography 2 Work 3 References 4 Sources 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was born in Lashjerd in the district of Merv, then part of the Samanid Empire. He was the son of Abu'l-Fadl al-Bal'ami (also called Bal'am-i Buzurg; “Bal'ami the Elder”).[1] Muhammad was appointed vizier during the late reign of Abd al-Malik I (r. 954-961) and he kept holding the office under Abd al-Malik's successor Mansur I
Mansur I
(r. 961-976). According to Gardizi, Muhammad died in March 974 while serving in office, but according to the Persian historian al-Utbi, he was later removed the vizierate office, but was reappointed as the vizier of Nuh II
Nuh II
(r
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Iran
Iran
Iran
(Persian: ایران‎ Irān [ʔiːˈɾɒːn] ( listen)), also known as Persia[10] (/ˈpɜːrʒə/),[11] officially the Islamic Republic
Islamic Republic
of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān ( listen)),[12] is a sovereign state in Western Asia.[13][14] With over 81 million inhabitants,[6] Iran
Iran
is the world's 18th-most-populous country.[15] Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East
Middle East
and the 17th-largest in the world
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Zand-i Wahman Yasn
The Zand-i Wahman Yasn is a medieval Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
apocalyptical text in Middle Persian. It professes to be a prophetical work, in which Ahura Mazda gives Zoroaster
Zoroaster
an account of what was to happen to the behdin (those of the "good religion", i.e. the Zoroastrians) and their religion in the future. The oldest surviving manuscript (K20, in Copenhagen) is from about 1400, but the text itself is older, written and edited over the course of several generations. The work is also known as the Bahman Yasht and Zand-i wahman yasht. These titles are scholastic mistakes,[1] in the former case due to 18th century Anquetil Du Perron, and the latter due to 19th century Edward William West. The text is neither a Yasht, nor is it in any way related to the Avesta's (lost) Bahman Yasht (see note below)
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Unsuri
Abul Qasim Hasan Unsuri Balkhi (Persian: ابوالقاسم حسن عنصری بلخی‎) (died 1039/1040) was a 10-11th century (4 -5th solar Hejri) Persian poet. ‘Unṣurī is said to have been born in Balkh, today located in Afghanistan, and he eventually became a poet of the royal court of Mahmud of Ghazni, and was given the title Malik-us Shu'ara (King of Poets) under Sultan Maḥmūd of Ghazna.[1] His Divan is said to have contained 30,000 distichs, of which only 2500 remain today. It includes the romance epic Vāmiq u ‘Adhrā. The following dialog between an eagle and a crow, translated by Iraj Bashiri, is an example
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Menog-i Khrad
The Mēnōg-ī Khrad (ˈmeːnoːgiː xrad) or Spirit of Wisdom is one of the most important secondary texts in Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
written in Middle Persian. Also transcribed in Pazend
Pazend
as Minuy-e X(e/a)rad and New Persian Minu-ye Xeræd, the text is a Zoroastrian Pahlavi book in sixty-three chapters (a preamble and sixty-two questions and answers), in which a symbolic character called Dānāg (lit., “knowing, wise”) poses questions to the personified Spirit of Wisdom, who is extolled in the preamble and identified in two places (2.95, 57.4) with innate wisdom (āsn xrad). The book, like most Middle Persian
Middle Persian
books, is based on oral tradition and has no known author. According to the preamble, Dānāg, searching for truth, traveled to many countries, associated himself with many savants, and learned about various opinions and beliefs
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Bundahishn
Bundahishn[pronunciation?], meaning "Primal Creation", is the name traditionally given to an encyclopediaic collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi.[1] The original name of the work is not known. Although the Bundahishn draws on the Avesta
Avesta
and develops ideas alluded to in those texts, it is not itself scripture. The content reflects Zoroastrian scripture, which, in turn, reflects both ancient Zoroastrian and pre-Zoroastrian beliefs
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Shahrestanha-ye Eranshahr
The modern Persian name of Iran (ایران) derives immediately from 3rd-century Sassanian Middle Persian
Middle Persian
ērān (Pahlavi spelling: ʼyrʼn), where it initially meant "of the Iranians",[1] but soon also acquired a geographical connotation in the sense of "(lands inhabited by) Iranians".[1] In both geographic and demonymic senses, ērān is distinguished from its antonymic anērān, meaning "non-Iran(ian)".[1][2] In the geographic sense, ērān was also distinguished from ērānšahr, the Sassanians' own name for their empire, and which also included territories that were not primarily inhabited by ethnic Iranians.[1]Contents1 In pre-Islamic usage 2 In early Islamic times 3 Modern usage 4 ReferencesIn pre-Islamic usage[edit] The word ērān is first attested in the inscriptions that accompany the investiture relief of Ardashir I
Ardashir I
(r
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Dana-i Menog Khrat
The Dana-i Menog-i khrat[pronunciation?], (Persian:دانای مینوی خرد) or 'opinions of the spirit of wisdom', a Middle Persian book which was written about 8th century. It comprises the replies of that spirit to sixty-two inquiries, or groups of inquiries, made by a certain wise man regarding various subjects connected with the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
religion. This treatise contains about 11,000 words, and was long known, like the Shikand-gumanic Vichar (53), only through its Pazand version, prepared by a Persian zoroastrian writer, Neryosang in middle age. This book is translated to English by West in 1871
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Abu-Shakur Balkhi
Balkhi (Persian: بلخی‎, "from Balkh," a city in modern-day Afghanistan) may refer to: People: Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (787-886), Persian astrologer, astronomer and Islamic philosopher Abu-Shakur Balkhi (915-?), Persian poet Abu Zayd al-Balkhi (850-
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Shahid Balkhi
Shahid
Shahid
and Shaheed (Arabic: شهيد‎ šahīd, plural: شُهَدَاء šuhadāʾ ; female: šahīda) originates from the Quranic Arabic word meaning "witness" and is also used to denote a martyr.[1] It is used as a honorific for Muslims who have died fulfilling a religious commandment, especially those who die waging jihad, or historically in the military expansion of Islam. The act of martyrdom is istishhad. The word shahid in Arabic means "witness"
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Behistun Inscription
The Behistun Inscription
Behistun Inscription
(also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; Persian: بیستون‎, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun
Mount Behistun
in the Kermanshah Province
Kermanshah Province
of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah
Kermanshah
in western Iran. It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform script. Authored by Darius the Great
Darius the Great
sometime between his coronation as king of the Persian Empire in the summer of 522 BC and his death in autumn of 486 BC, the inscription begins with a brief autobiography of Darius, including his ancestry and lineage
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Nizam Al-Mulk
Abu Ali Hasan ibn Ali Tusi (April 10, 1018 – October 14, 1092), better known by his honorific title of Nizam al-Mulk
Nizam al-Mulk
(Persian: نظام‌الملک‎, "Order of the Realm" [2]) was a Persian[3][4] scholar and vizier of the Seljuq Empire. He held near absolute power for 20 years after the assassination of Alp Arslan
Alp Arslan
in 1072.[5] One of his most important legacies was founding schools in cities throughout the Seljuk Empire
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Persian Language
Persian (/ˈpɜːrʒən/ or /ˈpɜːrʃən/), also known by its endonym Farsi[8][9] (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(officially known as Dari since 1958),[10] and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era),[11] and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran
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