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Bibliothèque Nationale De France
The _BIBLIOTHèQUE NATIONALE DE FRANCE_ (BNF; French: ) is the National Library of France
France
, located in Paris
Paris
. It is the national repository of all that is published in France. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 New buildings * 3 Mission * 4 Manuscript
Manuscript
collection * 5 Digital library
Digital library
* 6 Popular culture * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links HISTORYThe National Library of France
France
traces its origin to the royal library founded at the Louvre Palace by Charles V in 1368. Charles had received a collection of manuscripts from his predecessor, John II , and transferred them to the Louvre
Louvre
from the Palais de la Cité . The first librarian of record was Claude Mallet, the king's valet de chambre, who made a sort of catalogue, _Inventoire des Livres du Roy nostre Seigneur estans au Chastel du Louvre_. Jean Blanchet made another list in 1380 and Jean de Bégue one in 1411 and another in 1424. Charles V was a patron of learning and encouraged the making and collection of books. It is known that he employed Nicholas Oresme , Raoul de Presle and others to transcribe ancient texts
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Benzyl Fluoride
BENZYL FLUORIDE is an organic compound consisting of a benzene ring substituted with a fluoromethyl group. SEE ALSO * Benzyl chloride * Benzyl bromide * Benzyl iodide REFERENCES * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics _, 90. Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 2009, ISBN 978-1-4200-9084-0 , Section 3, _Physical Constants of Organic Compounds_, p. 3-260. _ This article about an organic compound is a stub . You can help by expanding it ._ * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Benzyl_fluoride additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Gallica (other)
GALLICA , the digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France. GALLICA may also refer to: * Gallic in Latin * Legio III Gallica , a Roman legion * Legio XVI Gallica , a Roman legion * Via Gallica * Rosa gallica , a species of flowering plant in the rose family SEE ALSO * Gallico * Gallicum * Gallicus This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title GALLICA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gallica_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Paris
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 _Population without double counting _: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. PARIS (locally ( listen )) is the capital and most populous city of France
France
. It has an area of 105 square kilometres (41 square miles) and a population of 2,229,621 in 2015 within its administrative limits. The city is both a commune and department and forms the centre and headquarters of the Île-de- France
France
, or Paris
Paris
Region, which has an area of 12,012 square kilometres (4,638 square miles) and a population in 2016 of 12,142,802, comprising roughly 18 percent of the population of France. By the 17th century, Paris
Paris
was one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The Paris Region had a GDP
GDP
of €649.6 billion (US $763.4 billion) in 2014, accounting for 30.4 percent of the GDP
GDP
of France. According to official estimates, the Paris Region has the fourth-highest GDP
GDP
in the world and the largest regional GDP
GDP
in the EU
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban centres include Marseille , Lyon , Lille , Nice , Toulouse and Bordeaux . During the Iron Age , what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls , a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome , which held Gaul until 486, when the Germanic Franks conquered the region and formed the Kingdom of France
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Book
A BOOK is a set of sheets of paper , parchment , or similar materials that are fastened together to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is a leaf , and each side of a leaf is a page . Writing or images can be printed or drawn on a book's pages. An electronic image that is formatted to resemble a book on a computer screen, smartphone or e-reader device is known as an electronic book or e-book . The term "books" may also refer to a body of works of literature , or a main division of literature (e.g., children\'s literature ) . In library and information science , a book is called a monograph , to distinguish it from serial periodicals such as magazines , journals , or newspapers . In novels and sometimes other types of books (for example, biographies), a book may be divided into several large sections, also called books ( Book 1, Book 2, Book 3, and so on). An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookshop or bookstore. Books are also sold in some department stores, drugstores and newspaper vendors. Books can also be borrowed from libraries . Google has estimated that as of 2010, approximately 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books , though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015
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Academic Journal
An ACADEMIC or SCHOLARLY JOURNAL is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny and discussion of research. They are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research , review articles , and book reviews . The purpose of an academic journal, according to the first editor of the world's oldest academic journal Henry Oldenburg , is to give researchers a venue to "impart their knowledge to one another, and contribute what they can to the Grand design of improving natural knowledge, and perfecting all Philosophical Arts, and Sciences." The term _academic journal_ applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Scientific journals and journals of the quantitative social sciences vary in form and function from journals of the humanities and qualitative social sciences; their specific aspects are separately discussed
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Newspaper
A NEWSPAPER is a serial publication containing news about current events , other informative articles about politics, sports, arts, and so on, and advertising . A newspaper is usually, but not exclusively, printed on relatively inexpensive, low-grade paper such as newsprint . The journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves often metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers developed in the 17th century, as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers. As of 2017, most newspapers are now published online as well as in print . The online versions are called online newspapers or news websites. A wide variety of material is published in newspapers, including opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, obituaries , birth notices, crosswords , editorial cartoons , comic strips , and advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, and they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales , and advertising revenue. Some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, and large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record
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Magazine
A MAGAZINE is a publication , usually a periodical publication , which is printed or electronically published (sometimes referred to as an online magazine ). Magazines are generally published on a regular schedule and contain a variety of content . They are generally financed by advertising , by a purchase price , by prepaid subscriptions , or a combination of the three. At its root, the word "magazine" refers to a collection or storage location. In the case of written publication, it is a collection of written articles. This explains why magazine publications share the word root with gunpowder magazines , artillery magazines , firearms magazines , and, in French, retail stores such as department stores . CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 Distribution * 2.1 Paid circulation * 2.2 Non-paid circulation * 2.3 Controlled circulation * 3 History * 3.1 Britain * 3.2 France * 3.3 United States * 3.3.1 Late 19th century * 3.3.2 Progressive Era: 1890s-1920s * 3.3.3 21st century * 4 Women\'s magazines * 4.1 Fashion * 5 See also * 5.1 Lists * 5.2 Categories * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 7.1 United States * 8 External links DEFINITION _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Sound Recording
SOUND RECORDING AND REPRODUCTION is an electrical , mechanical , electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, singing, instrumental music , or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog recording and digital recording . Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems for encoding and reproducing instrumental music, such as wind-up music boxes and, later, player pianos . Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that can detect and sense the changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and record them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record (in which a stylus cuts grooves on a record). In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current , which is then converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet , which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves
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Patent
A PATENT (/ˈpætənt/ or /ˈpeɪtənt/ ) is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention . An invention is a solution to a specific technological problem and is a product or a process. :17 Patents are a form of intellectual property . The procedure for granting patents, requirements placed on the patentee, and the extent of the exclusive rights vary widely between countries according to national laws and international agreements. Typically, however, a granted patent application must include one or more claims that define the invention. A patent may include many claims, each of which defines a specific property right. These claims must meet relevant patentability requirements, such as novelty , usefulness , and non-obviousness . The exclusive right granted to a patentee in most countries is the right to prevent others, or at least to try to prevent others, from commercially making, using, selling, importing, or distributing a patented invention without permission. Under the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
's (WTO) TRIPS Agreement , patents should be available in WTO member states for any invention, in all fields of technology, provided they are new, involve an inventive step, and are capable of industrial application
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Database
A DATABASE is an organized collection of data . It is the collection of schemas , tables , queries , reports, views , and other objects. The data are typically organized to model aspects of reality in a way that supports processes requiring information, such as modelling the availability of rooms in hotels in a way that supports finding a hotel with vacancies. A DATABASE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DBMS) is a computer software application that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database itself to capture and analyze data. A general-purpose DBMS
DBMS
is designed to allow the definition, creation, querying, update, and administration of databases. Well-known DBMSs include MySQL , PostgreSQL , MongoDB , MariaDB , Microsoft SQL Server , Oracle , Sybase , SAP HANA , MemSQL , SQLite and IBM DB2 . A database is not generally portable across different DBMSs, but different DBMS
DBMS
can interoperate by using standards such as SQL
SQL
and ODBC or JDBC to allow a single application to work with more than one DBMS. Database management systems are often classified according to the database model that they support; the most popular database systems since the 1980s have all supported the relational model as represented by the SQL
SQL
language
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Map
A MAP is a symbolic depiction emphasizing relationships between elements of some space, such as objects , regions , or themes. Many maps are static, fixed to paper or some other durable medium, while others are dynamic or interactive. Although most commonly used to depict geography, maps may represent any space , real or imagined, without regard to context or scale , such as in brain mapping , DNA mapping, or computer network topology mapping. The space being mapped may be two dimensional, such as the surface of the earth, three dimensional, such as the interior of the earth, or even more abstract spaces of any dimension, such as arise in modeling phenomena having many independent variables. Although the earliest maps known are of the heavens, geographic maps of territory have a very long tradition and exist from ancient times. The word "map" comes from the medieval Latin
Latin
_Mappa mundi_, wherein _mappa_ meant napkin or cloth and _mundi_ the world. Thus, "map" became the shortened term referring to a two-dimensional representation of the surface of the world
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Postage Stamp
A POSTAGE STAMP is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage. Typically, stamps are printed on special custom-made paper , show a national designation and a denomination (value) on the front, and have an adhesive gum on the back or are self-adhesive . Postage stamps are purchased from a postal administration (post office) or other authorized vendor, and are used to pay for the costs involved in moving mail, as well as other business necessities such as insurance and registration. They are sometimes a source of net profit to the issuing agency, especially when sold to collectors who will not actually use them for postage. Stamps are usually rectangular, but triangles or other shapes are occasionally used. The stamp is affixed to an envelope or other postal cover (e.g., packet, box, mailing cylinder) the customer wishes to send. The item is then processed by the postal system, where a postmark , sometimes known as a cancellation mark, is usually applied in overlapping manner to stamp and cover. This procedure marks the stamp as used to prevent its reuse. In modern usage, postmarks generally indicate the date and point of origin of the mailing. The mailed item is then delivered to the address the customer has applied to the envelope or parcel
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Printmaking
PRINTMAKING is the process of making artworks by printing , normally on paper . Printmaking
Printmaking
normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting. Except in the case of monotyping , the process is capable of producing multiples of the same piece, which is called a PRINT. Each print produced is not considered a "copy" but rather is considered an "original". This is because typically each print varies to an extent due to variables intrinsic to the printmaking process, and also because the imagery of a print is typically not simply a reproduction of another work but rather is often a unique image designed from the start to be expressed in a particular printmaking technique. A print may be known as an IMPRESSION.