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Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA is the official national motto of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The phrase is Old Javanese translated as " Unity in Diversity " (Different but One). It is inscribed in the Indonesian national symbol, Garuda Pancasila
Garuda Pancasila
(written on the scroll gripped by the Garuda's claws), and is mentioned specifically in article 36A of the Constitution of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The Garuda is a mythical bird and the mount of Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
. It is a quotation from an Old Javanese poem Kakawin Sutasoma , written by Mpu Tantular during the reign of the Majapahit empire sometime in the 14th century, under the reign of King Rājasanagara, also known as Hayam Wuruk. Kakawin contains epic poems written in metres . This poem is notable as it promotes tolerance between Hindus (especially Shivaites) and Buddhists
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Buddhist
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali
Pali
: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism
Hinduism
. It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term Hindu
Hindu
has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus
Indus
in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu
Hindu
implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus
Indus
) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims
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Poetic Meter
In poetry , METRE is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse . Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse metre, or a certain set of metres alternating in a particular order. The study and the actual use of metres and forms of versification are both known as PROSODY
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Shiva
SHIVA (/ˈʃivə/ ; IAST : Śiva, lit. the auspicious one) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism
Shaivism
, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism. Shiva
Shiva
is the "destroyer and transformer" within the Trimurti
Trimurti
, the Hindu
Hindu
trinity that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Vishnu . In Shaivism tradition, Shiva
Shiva
is the Supreme being who creates, protects and transforms the universe. In the goddess tradition of Hinduism called Shaktism
Shaktism
, the goddess is described as supreme, yet Shiva
Shiva
is revered along with Vishnu and Brahma. A goddess is stated to be the energy and creative power (Shakti) of each, with Parvati the equal complementary partner of Shiva
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New Delhi
NEW DELHI (/ˌnjuː ˈdɛli/ ( listen )) is the capital of India and one of Delhi
Delhi
city's 11 districts . Although colloquially Delhi
Delhi
and New Delhi
Delhi
are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi. The National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi
Delhi
along with adjoining districts. The foundation stone of the city was laid by George V, Emperor of India
India
during the Delhi
Delhi
Durbar of 1911 . It was designed by British architects, Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker . The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India
India
Lord Irwin
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Indonesian National Revolution
Dutch military victory Indonesian political victory * Indonesia
Indonesia
secured its independence * Dutch recognised United States of Indonesia in Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference BELLIGERENTS Indonesia
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List Of Earthquakes In Indonesia
This is an incomplete list of more recent recorded major earthquakes that have occurred within the boundaries of Indonesia
Indonesia
—as indicated by the geology of the region, and the volcanic activity—much large numbers of earthquakes of smaller magnitude occur very regularly due to the meeting of major tectonic plates in the region. CONTENTS * 1 Earthquakes * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links EARTHQUAKES DATE REGION MAG
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Wayback Machine
The WAYBACK MACHINE is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet
Internet
created by the Internet Archive
Internet Archive
, a nonprofit organization , based in San Francisco
San Francisco
, California
California
, United States . The Internet Archive
Internet Archive
launched the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat , and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet . The service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Since 1996, the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux
Linux
nodes
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Kakawin
KAKAWIN are long narrative poems composed in Old Javanese , also called "Kawi ", written in verse form with rhythms and metres derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature. Poets used a formalized literary language, rather than the vernacular. Poets composed and performed the poems at the courts of central and east Java kings between the 9th and 16th centuries, and in Bali
Bali
. Although the poems depict events and characters from Hindu
Hindu
mythology, the narratives are set in the local landscapes of the islands. They are rich sources of information about courtly society in Java and Bali. CONTENTS * 1 Structure of a kakawin * 2 List of notable kakawin * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading STRUCTURE OF A KAKAWINA kakawin stanza consists of four lines
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Gautama Buddha
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of Buddha , was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha and Kosala . Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood
Buddhahood
, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering
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Old Javanese
OLD JAVANESE is the oldest phase of the Javanese language
Javanese language
that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java
Central Java
and the whole of East Java
East Java
. It has strong Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. While evidence of writing in Java dates to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Tarumanegara inscription" of 450, the oldest example written entirely in Javanese, called the " Sukabumi inscription", is dated March 25, 804. This inscription , located in the district of Pare in the Kediri Regency of East Java, is actually a copy of the original, dated some 120 years earlier; only this copy has been preserved. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (nowadays Srinjing)
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Mythical
MYTHOLOGY or GODLORE refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths. Myths
Myths
are the stories people tell to explain nature, history , and customs . Myth is a feature of every culture . Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena , to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing ritual s. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging , shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons . The study of myth began in ancient history . Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus , Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance
Renaissance
mythographers
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Vishnu
VISHNU ( Sanskrit pronunciation: ; Sanskrit : विष्णु, IAST : Viṣṇu) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism
Hinduism
, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
tradition. Vishnu
Vishnu
is the "preserver" in the Hindu
Hindu
trinity ( Trimurti
Trimurti
) that includes Brahma
Brahma
and Shiva
Shiva
. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu
Vishnu
is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman , the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan
Svayam Bhagavan
, who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil, chaos, and destructive forces
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Deforestation In Indonesia
DEFORESTATION IN INDONESIA involves the long-term loss of forests and foliage across much of the country; it has had massive environmental and social impacts. Indonesia
Indonesia
is home to some of the most biologically diverse forests in the world and ranks third in number of species behind Brazil
Brazil
and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Democratic Republic of Congo
. As late as 1900, Indonesia
Indonesia
was still a densely forested country: forests represented 84 percent of the total land area. Deforestation intensified in the 1970s and has accelerated further since then. The estimated forest cover of 170 million hectares around 1900 decreased to less than 100 million hectares by the end of the 20th century. In 2008, it was estimated that tropical rainforests in Indonesia
Indonesia
would be logged out in a decade
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Environmental Issues In Indonesia
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN INDONESIA are associated with the country's high population density and rapid industrialisation , and they are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels, and an under-resourced governance. Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal ) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanisation and economic development , including air pollution , traffic congestion , garb