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Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
BHINNEKA TUNGGAL IKA is the official national motto of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The phrase is Old Javanese translated as " Unity in Diversity " (Different but One). It is inscribed in the Indonesian national symbol, Garuda Pancasila
Garuda Pancasila
(written on the scroll gripped by the Garuda's claws), and is mentioned specifically in article 36A of the Constitution of Indonesia
Indonesia
. The Garuda
Garuda
is a mythical bird and the mount of Lord Vishnu
Vishnu
. It is a quotation from an Old Javanese poem Kakawin Sutasoma , written by Mpu Tantular during the reign of the Majapahit
Majapahit
empire sometime in the 14th century, under the reign of King Rājasanagara, also known as Hayam Wuruk. Kakawin contains epic poems written in metres
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National Motto
This page lists STATE AND NATIONAL MOTTOS for the world's nations. The mottos for some states lacking general international recognition , extinct states , non sovereign nations, and territories are listed, but their names are not bolded. A state motto is used to describe the intent or motivation of the state in a short phrase. For example, it can be included on a country's flag , coat of arms , or currency . Some countries choose not to have a national motto. Contents * A * B * C * D * E * F * G * H * I * J * K * L * M * N * O * P * Q * R * S * T * U * V * W * X * Y * Z A The national motto of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
: لا إله إلا الله، محمد رسول الله ( Lā ʾilāha ʾillāl–lāh, Muhammadun rasūl allāh) There is no god but God; Muhammad is the messenger of God. (Shahada ), is inscribed on the Coat of arms
Coat of arms
of Afghanistan
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by
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Old Javanese
OLD JAVANESE is the oldest phase of the Javanese language
Javanese language
that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java
Central Java
and the whole of East Java . It has strong Sanskrit
Sanskrit
influence. While evidence of writing in Java dates to the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
"Tarumanegara inscription" of 450, the oldest example written entirely in Javanese, called the " Sukabumi
Sukabumi
inscription", is dated March 25, 804. This inscription , located in the district of Pare in the Kediri Regency
Kediri Regency
of East Java, is actually a copy of the original, dated some 120 years earlier; only this copy has been preserved. Its contents concern the construction of a dam for an irrigation canal near the river Śrī Hariñjing (nowadays Srinjing)
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Unity In Diversity
UNITY IN DIVERSITY (Latin: unitas in varetite) is a political motto advocating federalism or multiculturalism . The phrase is a deliberate oxymoron , the rhetorical combination of two antonyms, unitas "unity, oneness" and varietas "variety, variousness". The phrase can be traced to Leibniz
Leibniz
, who uses it as a definition of "harmony " (Harmonia est unitas in varietate) in his Elementa verae pietatis, sive de amore dei super omnia (1677/8). In modern politics it was first used, as In varietate unitas, by Ernesto Teodoro Moneta in the context of Italian Unification
Italian Unification
. In 1943 it invoked by Adélard Godbout , Premier of Quebec, in the context of the situation of French Canadians within Canada. The variant In varietate concordia was adopted as the motto of the European Union
European Union
in 2000
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Garuda Pancasila
The NATIONAL EMBLEM OF INDONESIA is called GARUDA PANCASILA. The main part of Indonesian national emblem is the Garuda
Garuda
with a heraldic shield on its chest and a scroll gripped by its legs. The shield's five emblems represent Pancasila , the five principles of Indonesia's national ideology . The Garuda
Garuda
claws gripping a white ribbon scroll inscribed with the national motto Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
Bhinneka Tunggal Ika
written in black text, which can be loosely translated as "Unity in Diversity". Garuda
Garuda
Pancasila was designed by Sultan Hamid II
Sultan Hamid II
from Pontianak , supervised by Sukarno
Sukarno
, and was adopted as the national emblem on 11 February 1950
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Constitution Of Indonesia
The CONSTITUTION OF INDONESIA (Indonesian : Undang-Undang Dasar Republik Indonesia
Indonesia
1945, UUD '45) is the basis for the government of the Indonesia
Indonesia
. The constitution was written in June, July and August 1945, when Indonesia
Indonesia
was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II . It was abrogated by the Federal Constitution of 1949 and the Provisional Constitution of 1950 , but restored on 5 July 1959 . The 1945 Constitution then set forth the Pancasila , the five nationalist principles devised by Sukarno
Sukarno
, as the embodiment of basic principles of an independent Indonesian state. It provides for a limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial powers
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Garuda
The GARUDA is a large legendary bird , bird-like creature, or humanoid bird that appears in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology . Garuda is the mount (_vahana_) of the Lord Vishnu . Garuda is the Hindu name for the constellation Aquila . The brahminy kite and phoenix are considered to be the contemporary representations of Garuda. Indonesia adopts a more stylistic approach to the Garuda's depiction as its national symbol, where it depicts a Javanese eagle (being much larger than a kite )
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Mythical
MYTHOLOGY or GODLORE refers variously to the collected myths of a group of people or to the study of such myths. Myths
Myths
are the stories people tell to explain nature, history , and customs . Myth is a feature of every culture . Many sources for myths have been proposed, ranging from personification of nature or personification of natural phenomena , to truthful or hyperbolic accounts of historical events to explanations of existing ritual s. A culture's collective mythology helps convey belonging , shared and religious experiences, behavioral models, and moral and practical lessons . The study of myth began in ancient history . Rival classes of the Greek myths
Greek myths
by Euhemerus , Plato
Plato
and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists
Neoplatonists
and later revived by Renaissance mythographers
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Vishnu
VISHNU ( Sanskrit pronunciation: ; IAST : _Viṣṇu_) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism , and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition. Vishnu is the "preserver" in the Hindu trinity ( Trimurti ) that includes Brahma and Shiva . In Vaishnavism, Vishnu is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman , the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan , who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil, chaos, and destructive forces. His avatars (incarnations) most notably include Krishna in the _ Mahabharata _ and Rama in the _ Ramayana _. He is also known as Narayana , Jagannath , Vasudeva, Vithoba , and Hari
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Kakawin Sutasoma
KAKAWIN SUTASOMA is an Old Javanese poem in poetic metres (kakawin or kavya ). It is the source of the motto of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Bhinneka Tunggal Ika , which is usually translated as Unity in Diversity, although literally it means '(Although) in pieces, yet One'. It is not without reason that the motto was taken from this kakawin as the kakawin teaches religious tolerance, specifically between the Hindu and Buddhist religions. The Kakawin tells the epic story of Lord Sutasoma , and was written by Mpu Tantular in the 14th Century. CONTENTS * 1 Summary * 2 Historical Context * 3 Publication * 4 References SUMMARY Figure of gold from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada Buddha-to-be ( Bodhisattva ) was reincarnated as Sutasoma, the son of the King of Hastinapura
Hastinapura

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Majapahit
The MAJAPAHIT EMPIRE (Javanese : ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀, _Karaton Majapahit_, Indonesian : _Kerajaan Majapahit_) was a vast thalassocracy based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia) from 1293 to around 1500. Majapahit reached its peak of glory during the era of Hayam Wuruk , whose reign from 1350 to 1389 was marked by conquest which extended through Southeast Asia. His achievement is also credited to his prime minister, Gajah Mada
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Kakawin
KAKAWIN are long narrative poems composed in Old Javanese , also called "Kawi ", written in verse form with rhythms and metres derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature. Poets used a formalized literary language, rather than the vernacular. Poets composed and performed the poems at the courts of central and east Java kings between the 9th and 16th centuries, and in Bali
Bali
. Although the poems depict events and characters from Hindu
Hindu
mythology, the narratives are set in the local landscapes of the islands. They are rich sources of information about courtly society in Java and Bali. CONTENTS * 1 Structure of a kakawin * 2 List of notable kakawin * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Further reading STRUCTURE OF A KAKAWINA kakawin stanza consists of four lines
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Poetic Meter
In poetry , METRE is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse . Many traditional verse forms prescribe a specific verse metre, or a certain set of metres alternating in a particular order. The study and the actual use of metres and forms of versification are both known as PROSODY
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Hindu
HINDU ( pronunciation (help ·info )) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism . It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to South Asia . The historical meaning of the term _Hindu_ has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era, the term Hindu implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent around or beyond the Sindhu ( Indus ) river. By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims. The historical development of Hindu self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear
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Buddhist
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
( Pali