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Bhaktamara Stotra
BHAKTAMARA STOTRA is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga (seventh century CE). The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal). The prayer praises Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(adinath) , the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Legend * 3 History * 4 Verses * 5 Art * 6 References * 7 Sources OVERVIEW Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn ), somewhat interchangeably
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Diwali
DIWALI or DEEPAVALI is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere)
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Arihant (Jainism)
ARIHANT (Hindi: अरिहंत , Jain Prakrit: अरिहन्त , Pali: अर्हत् , Arihanta) may refer to: * Arihant (Jainism) , in Jainism, a siddha who has not yet died * Arhat
Arhat
, in Buddhism, a person who has attained nirvaana, the perfected one* Arihant class submarine , a class
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India
India
: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India
India
: Nepal
Nepal
: 1,669 Nepalis in 2011 Nepal census reported Sanskrit
Sanskrit
as their mother tongue. LANGUAGE FAMILY Indo-European * Indo-Iranian * Indo-Aryan * SANSKRIT EARLY FORM Vedic Sanskrit WRITING SYSTEM Devanagari
Devanagari
(official) Also written in various Brahmic scripts
Brahmic scripts

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Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh
BHOJPUR is a town of historical and religious importance in Raisen District of Madhya Pradesh , India
India
. Bhojpur temple present at center of OM Valley CONTENTS * 1 Geography and hydrology * 2 History * 3 Places of historical, archaeological and religious interest * 3.1 Jain
Jain
temples * 3.1.1 Main Temple "> Site plan of Bhojpur 23° 6'1.69"N 77°34'47.70"E, showing the location of the temple, palace and dams River Betwā at Bhojpur, showing remains of the southern dam Bhojpur is situated on the Betwā River, 28 km from Bhopal
Bhopal
, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh . The site is located on sandstone ridges typical of central India, next to a deep gorge through which the Betwā River flows. Two large dams, constructed of massive hammer-dressed stones, were built in the eleventh century to divert and block the Betwā, so creating a large lake
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
SAMANTABHADRA was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada . The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami but before Pujyapada . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Praise * 5 References * 6 Sources LIFESamantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty
Chola dynasty
. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist. He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India. Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger)
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Śvētāmbara
The ŚVēTāMBARA (/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/ ; Sanskrit : श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main sects of Jainism
Jainism
, the other being the Digambara
Digambara
. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics ' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity. Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha . Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara , Māllīnātha , was a woman
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Haribhadra
HARIBHADRA SURI was a Svetambara mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti , a more likely choice would be sometime after 650. In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life. He wrote several books on Yoga, such as the Yogadṛṣṭisamuccaya and on comparative religion, outlining and analyzing the theories of Hindus, Buddhists and Jains
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Siddhasena
SIDDHASēNA DIVāKARA (Magadhi Prakrit
Prakrit
: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy and epistemology. He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Thought * 3 Works * 4 Notes * 5 References LIFE Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi
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Ganadhara
In Jainism
Jainism
, the term GANADHARA is used to refer the chief disciple of a Tirthankara . In samavasarana , the Tīrthankara sat on a throne without touching it (about two inches above it). Around, the Tīrthankara sits the Ganadharas. According to Digambara
Digambara
tradition, only a disciple of exceptional brilliance and accomplishment (riddhi) is able to fully assimilate, without doubt, delusion, or misapprehension, the anekanta teachings of a Tirthankara. The presence of such a disciple is mandatory in the samavasarana before Tirthankara delivers his sermons. Ganadhara
Ganadhara
interpret and mediate to other people the divine sound (divyadhwani) which the Jains claim emanates from Tirthankara 's body when he preaches
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Parshvanatha
PARSHVANATHA (Pārśvanātha), also known as PARSHVA (Pārśva), was the 23rd of 24 Tirthankaras (ford-maker, teacher) of Jainism
Jainism
. He is the earliest Jain Tirthankara who is generally acknowledged as a historical figure. His biography is uncertain, with Jain sources placing him between the 9th and 8th century BC, and historians stating he may have lived in 8th or 7th century BC. Along with Mahavira , Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
and Neminatha , Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
is one of the four Tirthankaras who attracts the most devotional worship among the Jains. His iconography is notable for the serpent hood over his head, and his worship often includes Dharanendra and Padmavati – the serpent god and goddess of Jainism
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History Of Jainism
HISTORY OF JAINISM concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
Ancient India
. Jains trace their history through twenty-four tirthankara and revere Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
as the first tirthankara (in the present time-cycle). The last two tirthankara, the 23rd tirthankara Parshvanatha
Parshvanatha
(c. 872 – c. 772 BCE) and the 24th tirthankara Mahavira (c. 599 – c. 527 BCE) are considered historical figures, though many historians date them both about a century later because the Mahavira is widely accepted as a contemporary of the Buddha
Buddha
, and significantly more historical evidence is available for the Buddha. According to Jain texts, the 22nd Tirthankara arsth-Nami lived about 85,000 years ago and was the cousin of Hindu god Krishna
Krishna
. Jains consider their religion to be eternal
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Kundakunda
ACHARYA KUNDAKUNDA is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts such as: Samayasara , Niyamasara , Pancastikayasara , Pravachanasara , Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Jain acharyas . Modern scholarship has found it difficult to locate him chronologically, with a possible low date in the 2nd-3rd centuries CE and a late date in 8th century. CONTENTS * 1 Names * 2 Biography * 3 Thought * 4 Works * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links NAMESHis proper name was Padmanandin, he is popularly referred to as Kundakunda
Kundakunda
possibly because the modern village of Kondakunde in Anantapur district of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
might represent his native home. A.N
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Jain Symbols
JAIN SYMBOLS are symbols based on the Jain philosophy . CONTENTS * 1 Swastika
Swastika
* 2 Symbol
Symbol
of Ahimsa * 3 Jain emblem * 3.1 Fundamental concepts * 3.2 Usage * 4 Jain flag
Jain flag
* 5 Om * 6 Om * 6.1 Other symbols * 7 Photo gallery * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References SWASTIKA Main article: Swastika
Swastika
The swastika is an important Jain symbol. The four arms of the swastika symbolize the four states of existence as per Jainism
Jainism
: * Heavenly beings (devas encantadia") * Human beings * Hellish being * Tiryancha (subhuman like flora or fauna)It represents the perpetual nature of the universe in the material world, where a creature is destined to one of those states based on their karma
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Paryushana
PARYUSHANA (Pajjosavana in Magadhi Prakrit : पज्जोसण) or DASLAKSHANA is the most important annual holy events for Jains and is usually celebrated in August or September. It lasts 8–10 days and is a time when Śrāvakas (lay people) increase their level of spiritual intensity often using fasting and prayer/meditation to help. The five main vows are emphasized during this time. There are no set rules, and followers are encouraged to practice according to their ability and desires. Normally, Digambaras refer it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana
Paryushana
("abiding" or "coming together"). The duration of Paryushana
Paryushana
is for eight days for Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
Jains and ten days for Jains belonging to the Digambara sect. The festival ends with the celebration of Kshamavani (forgiveness day)
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Samvatsari
SAṃVATSARī (INTERNATIONAL FORGIVENESS DAY) is the last day of Paryushana
Paryushana
—the eight days festival of Switember Jain and ten days festival of Digamber Jain . It is the holiest day of the Jain calendar . Many Jains observe a complete fast on this day. The whole day is spent in prayers and contemplation. A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called saṃvatsarī pratikramana is performed on this day. After the pratikramana Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world whom they may have harmed knowingly or unknowingly by uttering the phrase— Micchami Dukkadam , "Khamau Sa" , or "Khamat Khamna". As a matter of ritual, they personally greet their friends and relatives Micchami Dukkadam . No private quarrel or dispute may be carried beyond Saṃvatsarī and messages , telephone calls are made to the outstation friends and relatives asking their forgiveness. REFERENCES * ^ Shah, Nathubhai (1998)
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