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Bhaktamara Stotra
Bhaktamara Stotra
Stotra
is a famous Jain
Jain
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
prayer. It was composed by Acharya Manatunga
Manatunga
(seventh century CE).[1] The name Bhaktamara comes from a combination of two sanskrit names, "Bhakta" (Devotee) and "Amar" (Immortal).Illustrative of Rishabhanatha, Folio Bhaktamara StotraThe prayer praises Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
(adinath), the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
of Jainism. There are forty-eight verses in total. The last verse gives the name of the author Manatunga. Bhaktamar verses have been recited as a stotra (prayer), and sung as a stavan (hymn), somewhat interchangeably
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Bhojpur, Madhya Pradesh
A pradesh refers to a province or territories in various South Asian languages. It is written प्रदेश in Devanagari script
Devanagari script
(used for Hindi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Konkani and Nepali), প্রদেশ in Eastern Nagari script
Eastern Nagari script
(used for Assamese prôdex, Bengali prodesh, and Bishnupriya Manipuri), ପ୍ରଦେଶ in Odia script, પ્રદેશ in Gujarati script, ಪ್ರದೇಶ in Kannada script, പ്രദേശം in Malayalam script, ప్రదేశ్ in Telugu script, பிரதேசம் piratecam in Tamil script, and پردیش‬ in Nasta'liq script. It derives from the Sanskrit pradeśa, meaning "Sub-region or Sub-Country"
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Dharma (Jainism)
Dharma
Dharma
(/ˈdɑːrmə/;[8] Sanskrit: धर्म, translit. dharma, pronounced [dʱəɾmə] ( listen); Pali: धम्म, translit. dhamma, translit
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Diwali
Diwali
Diwali
or Deepavali is the Hindu
Hindu
festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).[4][5] It is an official holiday in Fiji, Guyana, India,[6] Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago
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Sanskrit
A few attempts at revival have been reported in Indian and Nepalese newspapers. India: 14,135 Indians claimed Sanskrit
Sanskrit
to be their mother tongue in the 2001 Census of India:[2] Nepal: 1,669 Nepalis
Nepalis
in 2011
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Jainism
Jainism
Jainism
(/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/),[1] traditionally known as Jain
Jain
Dharma,[2] is an ancient Indian religion.[3] Followers of Jainism
Jainism
are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life.[4] Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra
Mahāvīra
around 500 BCE
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Arihant (Jainism)
Arihant (Jain Prakrit: arihant, Sanskrit: árhat "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.[1] Arihant are also called kevalins (omniscient beings) as they possess Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(pure infinite knowledge).[2][3] An arihant is also called a jina "victor". At the end of their life, arihants destroy all four gathiya karmas and attain moksha (liberation) and become siddhas, liberated souls
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Ganadhara
In Jainism, the term Ganadhara
Ganadhara
is used to refer the chief disciple of a Tirthankara. In samavasarana, the Tīrthankara sat on a throne without touching it (about two inches above it).[1] Around, the Tīrthankara sits the Ganadharas.[2] According to Digambara
Digambara
tradition, only a disciple of exceptional brilliance and accomplishment (riddhi) is able to fully assimilate, without doubt, delusion, or misapprehension, the anekanta teachings of a Tirthankara.[3] The presence of such a disciple is mandatory in the samavasarana before Tirthankara
Tirthankara
delivers his sermons
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Kundakunda
Acharya
Acharya
Kundakunda
Kundakunda
is a revered Digambara
Digambara
Jain monk and philosopher. He authored many Jain texts
Jain texts
such as: Samayasara, Niyamasara, Pancastikayasara, Pravachanasara, Atthapahuda and Barasanuvekkha. He occupies the highest place in the tradition of the Digambara
Digambara
Jain acharyas, a position comparable to Christ in Christianity and Muhammad in Islam. All Digambara
Digambara
Jains say his name before starting to read the scripture
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Siddhasena
Siddhasēna Divākara (Jain Prakrit: सिद्दसेन दिवाकर) was an Digambara
Digambara
monk in the fifth century CE who wrote works on Jain philosophy
Jain philosophy
and epistemology.[1] He was like the illuminating lamp of the Jain order and therefore came to be known as Divākara "Lamp-Maker". He is credited with the authorship of many books, most of which are not available. Sanmatitarka (‘The Logic of the True Doctrine’) is the first major Jain work on logic written in Sanskrit.[2][3]Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Notes 5 ReferencesLife[edit] Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara is said to have lived from 500 CE to 610 CE. He was a Brahmin by birth and a scholar. He was initiated by Acharya Vruddhavadi.[4] According to the tradition, Siddhasena
Siddhasena
Divakara once planned to translate all the Jaina works from prakrit to Sanskrit
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Samantabhadra (Jain Monk)
Samantabhadra was a Digambara
Digambara
acharya (head of the monastic order) who lived about the later part of the second century CE[1][2] He was a proponent of the Jaina doctrine of Anekantavada. The Ratnakaranda śrāvakācāra is the most popular work of Samantabhadra. Samantabhadra lived after Umaswami
Umaswami
but before Pujyapada.Contents1 Life 2 Thought 3 Works 4 Praise 5 References 6 SourcesLife[edit] Samantabhadra is said to have lived from 150 CE to 250 CE. He was from southern India during the time of Chola dynasty. He was a poet, logician, eulogist and an accomplished linguist.[3] He is credited with spreading Jainism
Jainism
in southern India.[4] Samantabhadra, in his early stage of asceticism, was attacked with a disease known as bhasmaka (the condition of insatiable hunger).[5] As, digambara monks don't eat more than once in a day, he endured great pain
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Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Haribhadra
Suri was a Svetambara
Svetambara
mendicant Jain leader and author. There are multiple contradictory dates assigned to his birth. According to tradition, he lived c. 459–529 CE. However, in 1919, a Jain monk named Jinavijayi pointed out that given his familiarity with Dharmakirti, a more likely choice would be sometime after 650.[1] In his writings, Haribhadra
Haribhadra
identifies himself as a student of Jinabhadra and Jinadatta of the Vidyadhara Kula. There are several, somewhat contradictory, accounts of his life
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History Of Jainism
History of Jainism
Jainism
concerns a religion founded in Ancient India
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Śvētāmbara
The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
(/ʃwɛˈtʌmbərə/; Sanskrit: श्वेतांबर or श्वेतपट śvētapaṭa; also spelled Svetambar, Shvetambara, Shvetambar, Swetambar or Shwetambar) is one of the two main branches of Jainism, the other being the Digambara. Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
"white-clad" is a term describing its ascetics' practice of wearing white clothes, which sets it apart from the Digambara
Digambara
"sky-clad" Jainas, whose ascetic practitioners go naked. Śvētāmbaras, unlike Digambaras, do not believe that ascetics must practice nudity.[1] Śvētāmbaras also believe that women are able to obtain moksha. Śvētāmbaras maintain that the 19th Tirthankara, Māllīnātha, was a woman.Contents1 History 2 Denominations 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The Śvētāmbara
Śvētāmbara
tradition follows the lineage of Sthulabhadra
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Tirthankara
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit: tīrthaṅkara; English: literally a 'Ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).[1] The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha[2], which is a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on his own and made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana
Kevala Jnana
(omniscience), and the first Tirthankara
Tirthankara
refounds Jainism
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Jain Flag
The flag of Jainism
Jainism
has five colours: orange or red, yellow, white, green and black or dark blue. These five colours represent the Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
Pañca-Parameṣṭhi
(five supreme beings). It also represents the five main vows, small as well as great.Contents1 Overview1.1 Colours 1.2 Swastika 1.3 Three Dots 1.4 Siddhashila
Siddhashila
Chakra2 Photo gallery 3 See also 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Colours[edit] These five colours represent the "Pañca-Parameṣṭhi" and the five vows, small as well as great:[1]White - represents the arihants, souls who have conquered all passions (anger, attachments, aversion) and have attained omniscience and eternal bliss through self-realization. It also denotes peace or ahimsa (nonviolence). Red - represents the siddha, souls that have attained salvation and truth. It also denotes truthfulness (satya). Yellow - represents the acharya the Masters of Adepts
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