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Betchworth Castle
BETCHWORTH CASTLE is a mostly crumbled ruin of a fortified medieval stone house with some tall, two-storey corners strengthened in the 18th century, in the north of the semi-rural parish of Brockham . It is built on a sandstone spur overlooking the western bank of the Mole in Surrey
Surrey
in England
England
. The ruin is a Scheduled Ancient Monument and is in the lowest category of listed architecture, Grade II, 1.2 miles (1.9 km) due east of Dorking railway station in Dorking and 4 miles (6.4 km) due west of Reigate . Although close to the river and edge of the course it is surrounded by " Betchworth
Betchworth
Park" Golf Course named after the village 1 mile (1.6 km) east. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Medieval period * 1.2 Browne landowners * 1.3 Post-Restoration of monarchy and the enlightenment * 2 Hauntings * 3 Use * 4 Future * 5 External links * 6 References HISTORYMEDIEVAL PERIOD Betchworth
Betchworth
(or Beechworth among other forms) Castle
Castle
was the seat of the manor of West Betchworth
Betchworth
and was held by Richard de Tonbridge at the time of the Domesday Survey. It started as an earthwork fortress built by Robert Fitz Gilbert in the 11th century. It was granted in 1373 to Richard FitzAlan, 3rd or 10th Earl of Arundel
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Civil Parishes In England
In England, a CIVIL PARISH is a territorial designation which is the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties , or their combined form, the unitary authority . It is an administrative parish , in contrast to an ecclesiastical parish . A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 80,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. In a limited number of cases a parish might include a whole city where city status has been granted by the Monarch . Reflecting this diverse nature, a civil parish may be known as a town, village, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council . Approximately 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England. On 1 April 2014, Queen\'s Park became the first civil parish in Greater London . Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough
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Brockham
BROCKHAM is a village and civil parish in the Mole Valley district of Surrey , England. It is approximately 1.5 miles (2.4 km) east of Dorking and 4 miles (6.4 km) west of Reigate . The village lies south of Box Hill , with the River Mole flowing west through the village. At the 2011 census, it had a population of 2,868. CONTENTS * 1 Name * 2 Landmarks * 3 Village green * 4 Industry * 5 Education * 6 Governance * 7 Demography and housing * 8 Nearest Settlements * 9 References * 10 External links NAMEBrockham, originally 'Broc-ham' is so called from the Anglo Saxon meaning 'river meadow by the brook' and is first recorded in 1241. It is often mistakenly believed that there is an association with badgers but this is a modern affectation from the 1950s when Cecily M Rutley created Brock the Badger in a children's story . LANDMARKSOn a spur of land to the north west of the village stands Betchworth Castle , originally built by Richard FitzGilbert on land granted to him by William the Conqueror soon after the Norman invasion in 1066, but later replaced by a medieval house which was probably built in the mid-to-late 14th century. Only a few ruins survive today. Christ Church, the parish church is relatively recent in origin, having been commissioned in 1847 by Sir Henry Goulburn , who served as both Chancellor of the Exchequer and Home Secretary . VILLAGE GREENThe village green is a focal point for the village
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River Mole, Surrey
The RIVER MOLE is a tributary of the River Thames in southern England . It rises in West Sussex near Horsham and flows northwest through Surrey for 80 km (50 mi) to the Thames at East Molesey , opposite Hampton Court Palace . The river gives its name to the Surrey district of Mole Valley . The Mole crosses the North Downs between Dorking and Leatherhead , where it cuts a steep-sided valley, known as the Mole Gap, through the chalk. Much of the catchment area lies on impermeable rock (including Wealden Clay and London Clay ), meaning that the river level responds rapidly to heavy rainfall. During the second half of the 20th century pollution levels in the river were high, however since 1995 the water quality has improved dramatically and the Mole now boasts the greatest diversity of fish species of any river in England. Twelve Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) that include wetland habitats are located within the Mole catchment area and the stretch of river through Leatherhead has been designated a Local Nature Reserve . The Mole Gap forms part of a Special Area of Conservation and is an SSSI of European importance. The river has captured the imagination of several authors and poets , particularly since in very hot summers the river channel can become dry between Dorking and Leatherhead (most recently during the 1976 drought )
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Surrey
SURREY /ˈsʌri/ is a county in the south east of England . It shares borders with Kent to the east, East Sussex to the south-east, West Sussex to the south, Hampshire to the west and south-west, and Berkshire to the north-west and Greater London to the north-east. The county town is Guildford . Surrey County Council sits outside its jurisdiction in Kingston upon Thames , a town which has been administered as part of Greater London since 1965. With a resident population of 1.1 million, Surrey is the most densely populated and third-most-populous county in the South East region. Today, administrative Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge , Epsom and Ewell , Guildford , Mole Valley , Reigate and Banstead , Runnymede , Spelthorne , Surrey Heath , Tandridge , Waverley , and Woking . Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, education, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, birth, marriage, and death registration, and social and children's services are administered by Surrey County Council . The London boroughs of Lambeth , Southwark , Wandsworth , and parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey until 1889
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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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Scheduled Ancient Monument
In the United Kingdom , a SCHEDULED MONUMENT is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change. The various pieces of legislation used for legally protecting heritage assets from damage and destruction are grouped under the term ‘designation’. The protection provided to scheduled monuments is given under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 , which is a different law from that used for listed buildings (which fall within the town and country planning system). A heritage asset is a part of the historic environment that is valued because of its historic, archaeological, architectural or artistic interest. Only some of these are judged to be important enough to have extra legal protection through designation. There are about 20,000 scheduled monuments in England representing about 37,000 heritage assets. Of the tens of thousands of scheduled monuments in the UK, most are inconspicuous archaeological sites, but some are large ruins . According to the 1979 Act, a monument cannot be a structure which is occupied as a dwelling, used as a place of worship or protected under the Protection of Wrecks Act 1973 . As a rule of thumb, a protected historic asset that is occupied would be designated as a listed building
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Listed Building
A LISTED BUILDING or LISTED STRUCTURE, in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, is one that has been placed on the Statutory List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historic Interest. The statutory bodies maintaining the list are Historic England in England
England
; Cadw (The Historic Environment Service of the Welsh Government) in Wales
Wales
; Historic Scotland in Scotland
Scotland
; and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. The term has also been used in the Republic of Ireland , where buildings are surveyed for the National Inventory of Architectural Heritage in accordance with the country's obligations under the Granada Convention . However, the preferred term in Ireland is _protected structure_. A listed building may not be demolished, extended, or altered without special permission from the local planning authority, which typically consults the relevant central government agency, particularly for significant alterations to the more notable listed buildings. In England
England
and Wales, a national amenity society must be notified of any work to a listed building which involves any element of demolition
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Dorking Railway Station
DORKING RAILWAY STATION is one of three railway stations that serve the town of Dorking in Surrey , England . The station is within walking distance of Dorking Deepdene station and interchange on a through ticket is permitted. Dorking West and Dorking (Deepdene) are on the North Downs Line . There are two trains per hour towards London Waterloo , two towards London Victoria and an hourly service to Horsham (Monday to Saturday off-peak). South Western Railway services to London Waterloo typically use Platform 2. Southern services to Horsham generally depart from platform 3. The station, previously called Dorking North, was rebuilt in the 1980s and is now part of the office block which houses the headquarters of Biwater . Ticket barriers were installed in 2010. CONTENTS * 1 Construction * 2 Electrification * 3 Signal box * 4 Services * 5 Typical journey times * 6 References * 7 External links CONSTRUCTIONThe Mole Gap between Dorking and Leatherhead is one of the few natural breaches in the North Downs and its potential as a rail corridor was realised as early as 1830 when a line linking London to Brighton was proposed. In 1845-6, the "Direct London and Portsmouth Railway" was authorised by parliament to run south from Epsom to Dorking on to Godalming , Havant and Portsmouth . The scheme failed to attract sufficient investment and was dropped in favour of the Woking , Guildford and Havant route from London Waterloo
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Dorking
DORKING /ˈdɔːr.kɪŋ/ is a market town in Surrey , England between Ranmore Common in the North Downs range of hills and Leith Hill in the Greensand Ridge , centred 21 miles (34 km) from London . In the Georgian and Victorian periods six prominent sites in the former parish or on its boundaries became grand country estates : Leith Hill Place , Denbies (today a vineyard/hotel) , Norbury Park , Polesden Lacey , Wotton House and Deepdene ; five of which along with nearby Box Hill 's promontory and chalk grassland slopes belong to the National Trust . Dorking is a commuter and retirement settlement with three railway stations and a few large offices of multinational companies. Similarly, Malden in 1911, noted the place was "almost entirely residential and agricultural, with some lime works on the chalk, though not so extensive as those in neighbouring parishes, a little brick-making, water-mills (corn) at Pixham Mill, and timber and saw-mills". Fine sand often in veins of pink, used for mortar and in glassmaking was dug, particularly in the 19th century — the Dorking Caves were accordingly excavated under southern parts of the town centre itself. Dorking chickens with short five-toed legs are a major breed
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Reigate
REIGATE /ˈraɪɡeɪt/ is a town of over 20,000 inhabitants in eastern Surrey
Surrey
, England. It is in the London
London
commuter belt and one of three towns in the borough of Reigate and Banstead
Reigate and Banstead
. It is sited at the foot of the North Downs
North Downs
and extends over part of the Greensand Ridge . Reigate
Reigate
has a medieval castle and has been a market town since the medieval period, when it also became a parliamentary borough . Colley Hill, one mile (1.6 km) north-west of Reigate, is 722 feet (220 m) high. Reigate
Reigate
Hill, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) due east of Colley Hill, is 771 feet (235 m) high, and they both have panoramas along the North Downs
North Downs
Way
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Betchworth
BETCHWORTH is a village and civil parish in the Mole Valley district of Surrey , England. The village centre is on the north bank of the River Mole and south of the A25 road , almost 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Dorking and 3 miles (4.8 km) west of Reigate . London is 19.5 miles (31.4 km) north of the village. Service sector occupations dominate Betchworth's economy – its station and road links make it a part of the London commuter belt – combined with crop agriculture and services for a relatively large retired proportion of the population. A former lime quarry, rebuilt manor house and Grade I-listed church are within its boundaries. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Etymology * 1.2 Pre-Roman settlement * 1.3 Dark and Middle Ages * 2 Post-Reformation * 3 Post-Industrial Revolution * 3.1 Betchworth lime quarries * 4 Landmarks * 4.1 Betchworth Castle * 4.2 St Michael\'s Church * 4.3 Betchworth House * 5 Local government * 6 Geography * 6.1 Elevation * 6.2 Geology and soil * 7 Demography and housing * 8 Economy * 9 Culture and community * 9.1 Village hall * 9.2 Public house * 9.3 Village Green * 10 Transport * 10.1 Railways * 10.2 Roads * 11 Notable people * 12 Education * 13 Religious sites * 14 Notes and references * 15 External links HISTORYETYMOLOGYState records show the name as Becesworde, (11th century), Beceswrde, (12th century), Bechesworth, (13th century)
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Castle
A CASTLE (from Latin : _castellum_) is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility . Scholars debate the scope of the word _castle_, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble. This is distinct from a palace , which is not fortified; from a fortress, which was not always a residence for nobility; and from a fortified settlement, which was a public defence – though there are many similarities among these types of construction. Usage of the term has varied over time and has been applied to structures as diverse as hill forts and country houses. Over the approximately 900 years that castles were built, they took on a great many forms with many different features, although some, such as curtain walls and arrowslits , were commonplace. A European innovation, castles originated in the 9th and 10th centuries, after the fall of the Carolingian Empire resulted in its territory being divided among individual lords and princes. These nobles built castles to control the area immediately surrounding them, and the castles were both offensive and defensive structures; they provided a base from which raids could be launched as well as protection from enemies. Although their military origins are often emphasised in castle studies, the structures also served as centres of administration and symbols of power
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Manor
A MANOR in English law is an estate in land to which is incident the right to hold a court termed court baron , that is to say a manorial court . The proper unit of tenure under the feudal system is the fee (or fief), on which the manor became established through the process of time, akin to the modern establishment of a "business" upon a freehold site. The manor is nevertheless often described as the basic feudal unit of tenure and is historically connected with the territorial divisions of the march , county , hundred , parish and township . CONTENTS * 1 Legal theory * 2 Effect of _Quia Emptores_ * 3 Constituent lands * 3.1 Differentiated by legal status * 3.2 Differentiated by physical character * 4 Officers * 5 Jurisdiction * 6 Free manor * 7 Membership * 7.1 Residents of a manor * 8 Current legal status * 9 Overlap with parish * 10 See also * 11 Notes * 12 References LEGAL THEORYThe legal theory of the origin of manors refers them to a grant from the crown of a fee from the monarch's allodial lands, as stated in the following extract from Perkins's _Treatise_ on the laws of England: "The beginning of a manor was when the king gave a thousand acres of land, or greater or lesser parcel of land, unto one of his subjects and his heirs, which tenure is knight service at the least
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Richard De Tonbridge
RICHARD FITZ GILBERT (bef. 1035–c. 1090), was a Norman lord who participated in the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and was styled "de Bienfaite", "de Clare ", and of "Tonbridge" from his holdings. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Rewards * 3 Rebel Baron * 4 Death and succession * 5 Marriage * 6 Notes and references * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 References BIOGRAPHYHe was the son of Gilbert, Count of Brionne in Normandy (fitz was a variant spelling of filz > French fils, that means "son"). Gilbert was a guardian of the young duke William and when he was killed by Ralph de Wacy in 1040, his two older sons Richard and Gilbert fled to Flanders. On his later return to Normandy Richard was rewarded with the lordship of Bienfaite and Orbec in Normandy. In 1066, Richard came into England with his kinsman William the Conqueror, and received from him great advancement in honour and possessions. The Dictionary of National Biography and other sources are vague and sometimes contradictory about when the name de Clare came into common usage, but what we do know is that Richard fitz Gilbert (of Tonbridge), the earliest identifiable progenitor of the family, is once referred to as Richard of Clare in the Suffolk return of the Domesday Book. REWARDSHe was rewarded with 176 lordships and large grants of land in England, including the right to build the castles of Clare and of Tonbridge
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Richard FitzAlan, 10th Earl Of Arundel
RICHARD FITZALAN, 10TH EARL OF ARUNDEL AND 8TH EARL OF SURREY (c.1306/1313 – 24 January 1376) was an English nobleman and medieval military leader and distinguished admiral. Arundel was one of the wealthiest nobles, and most loyal noble retainer of the chivalric code that governed the reign of Edward III. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 Civil career * 3 Naval and military service during the Hundred Years War * 3.1 Admiral of the West * 4 Great wealth * 5 Marriages and children * 6 Death and legacy * 7 Ancestry * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 9.1 References EARLY LIFERichard was born in Sussex
Sussex
, England
England
. His birth date was uncertain perhaps 1306 or 1313. FitzAlan was the eldest son of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel , and his wife Alice de Warenne . His parents married in 1305, after his father had initially been fined for refusing to marry Alice in 1304; their betrothal had been arranged by Alice's grandfather the Earl of Surrey, his father's guardian. Arundel changed his mind after the Earl died, leaving Alice the heiress presumptive, and with her only brother married to a ten-year-old girl. His maternal grandparents were William de Warenne and Joan de Vere. William was the only son of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (himself son of Maud Marshal by her second marriage), and his wife Alice de Lusignan (d
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