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Beryllium Hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references BERYLLIUM HYDROXIDE, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide , dissolving in both acids and alkalis . Industrially, it is produced as a by-product in the extraction of beryllium metal from the ores beryl and bertrandite . The natural pure beryllium hydroxide is rare (in form of the mineral behoite, orthorhombic) or very rare (clinobehoite, monoclinic). When alkali is added to beryllium salt solutions the α-form (a gel) is formed. If this left to stand or boiled, the rhombic β-form precipitates. This has the same structure as zinc hydroxide , Zn(OH)2, with tetrahedral beryllium centers. REACTIONSWith alkalis it dissolves to form the tetrahydroxidoberyllate(2-) anion. With sodium hydroxide solution: 2NaOH(aq) + Be(OH)2(s) → Na2Be(OH)4(aq) With acids, beryllium salts are formed. For example, with sulfuric acid , H2SO4, beryllium sulfate is formed: Be(OH)2 + H2SO4 → BeSO4 + 2H2O Beryllium
Beryllium
hydroxide dehydrates at 400 °C to form the soluble white powder, beryllium oxide : Be(OH)2 → BeO + H2O Further heating at higher temperature produces acid insoluble BeO. REFERENCES * ^ Pradyot Patnaik. Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. McGraw-Hill, 2002, ISBN 0-07-049439-8 * ^ Zumdahl, Steven S. (2009)
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES . Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed . (June 2017)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_Historically, chemicals have been identified by a wide variety of synonyms. Frequently these are arcane and constructed according to regional naming conventions relating to chemical formulae, structures or origins
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux , and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc. Jmol supports a wide range of chemical file formats , including Protein Data Bank (pdb), Crystallographic Information File (cif), MDL Molfile (mol), and Chemical Markup Language (CML). There is also a JavaScript -only ( HTML5 ) version, _JSmol_, that can be used on computers with no Java. The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, which is no longer under active development
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ChEBI
CHEBI may refer to: * ChEBI , Chemical Entities of Biological Interest * Chebi Khan (fl. 630-650), a claimant of the title of khan of Eastern Turkic Khaganate after the collapse of Xueyantuo * Chebi, Ethiopia , a town in Jeldu woreda, Ethiopia * Typhoon Chebi (2001) * Typhoon Chebi (2006) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CHEBI. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Chebi additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) * Human Metabolome Database * Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry * KEGG * KUMGM * LeadScope * LipidMAPS * Marinlit * MDPI * MICAD * MLSMR * MMDB * MOLI * MTDP * Nanogen * Nature Chemical Biology * NCGC * NIAID * National Institutes of Health (NIH) * NINDS Approved Drug Screening Program * NIST * NIST Chemistry WebBook * NMMLSC * NMRShiftDB * PANACHE * PCMD * PDSP * Peptides * Prous Science Drugs of the Future * QSAR * R in fact, the FAQ even states that only limited downloads are allowed: therefore the right to fork is not guaranteed and the project can't be considered free /open
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ECHA InfoCard
The EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY (ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ _EK-ə_ ) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern. It is located in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland . The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet , started working on 1 June 2007. CONTENTS * 1 Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) * 2 Classification, Labelling and Packaging of Substances and Mixtures (CLP) * 3 Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR) * 4 Prior Informed Consent (PIC) * 5 Controlling Hazardous Chemicals * 6 References * 7 See also * 8 External links REGISTRATION, EVALUATION, AUTHORISATION AND RESTRICTION OF CHEMICALS (REACH)THE REACH REGULATION requires companies to provide information on the hazards, risks and safe use of chemical substances that they manufacture or import. Companies register this information with ECHA and it is then freely available on their website
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European Community Number
The EUROPEAN COMMUNITY NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a unique seven-digit identifier that was assigned to substances for regulatory purposes within the European Union by the European Commission. The _EC Inventory_ comprises three individual inventories, EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP list. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 EC Inventory * 3 List numbers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREThe EC Number may be written in a general form as: NNN-NNN-R, where R is a check digit and N represents integers. The check digit is calculated using the ISBN method. According to this method, the check digit R is the following sum modulo 11: R = ( N 1 + 2 N 2 + 3 N 3 + 4 N 4 + 5 N 5 + 6 N 6 ) mod 11 {displaystyle R=(N_{1}+2N_{2}+3N_{3}+4N_{4}+5N_{5}+6N_{6})mod 11} If the remainder R is equal to 10, that combination of digits is not used for an EC number. To illustrate, the EC number of dexamethasone is 200-003-9. N1 is 2, N2 through N5 are 0, and N6 is 3. 2 + 2 0 + 3 0 + 4 0 + 5 0 + 6 3 11 = 20 11 = 1 + 9 11 {displaystyle {frac {2+2!times !0+3!times !0+4!times !0+5!times !0+6!times !3}{11}}={frac {20}{11}}=1+{frac {9}{11}}} The remainder is 9, which is the check digit. There is a set of 181 ELINCS numbers (EC numbers starting with 4) for which the checksum by the above algorithm is 10 and the number has not been skipped but issued with a checksum of 1
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Gmelin Database
The GMELIN DATABASE is a large database of organometallic and inorganic compounds updated quarterly. It is based on the German publication _GMELINS HANDBUCH DER ANORGANISCHEN CHEMIE_ ("Gmelin's handbook of inorganic chemistry") which was originally published by Leopold Gmelin in 1817; the last print edition, the 8th, appeared in the 1990s. The database currently contains every compound/reaction discovered between 1772 and 1995, amounting to 1.5 million compounds and 1.3 million different reactions, with over 85,000 titles, keywords and abstracts. It has over 800 different data fields on subjects such as the compounds electric, magnetic, thermal, crystal and physiological information. The Gmelin database is maintained by Elsevier MDL . It is the sister database to the Beilstein database , which deals with organic chemicals and reactions; both are now part of the Reaxys system. REFERENCES * ^ _Brockhaus ABC Chemie_, VEB F. A
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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed . Originally in English, MeSH has been translated into numerous other languages and allows retrieval of documents from different languages. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Descriptor hierarchy * 1.2 Descriptions * 1.3 Qualifiers * 1.4 Supplements * 2 Use in Medline/ PubMed * 3 Use in ClinicalTrials.gov * 4 Categories * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTUREThe 2009 version of MeSH contains a total of 25,186 _subject headings_, also known as _descriptors_
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases. As of 28 January 2016: * Compounds, 82.6 million entries (up from 54 million entries in Sept 2014), contains pure and characterized chemical compounds
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RTECS
REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (RTECS) is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference to the validity or usefulness of the studies reported. Until 2001 it was maintained by US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a freely available publication. It is now maintained by the private company Symyx Technologies and is available only for a fee or by subscription. CONTENTSSix types of toxicity data are included in the file: * Primary irritation * Mutagenic effects * Reproductive effects * Tumorigenic effects * Acute toxicity * Other multiple dose toxicitySpecific numeric toxicity values such as LD50 , LC50 , TDLo , and TCLo are noted as well as species studied and the route of administration used. For all data the bibliographic source is listed. The studies are not evaluated in any way. HISTORYRTECS was an activity mandated by the US Congress , established by Section 20(a)(6) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (PL 91-596). The original edition, known as the _Toxic Substances List_ was published on June 28, 1971, and included toxicological data for approximately 5,000 chemicals . The name changed later to its current name _Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances_. In January 2001 the database contained 152,970 chemicals
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ _IN-chee_ or /ˈɪŋkiː/ _ING-kee_ ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC is a member. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Format and layers * 3 Examples * 4 InChIKey * 4.1 InChI resolvers * 5 Name * 6 Continuing development * 7 Adoption * 8 See also * 9 Notes and references * 10 External links * 10.1 Documentation and presentations * 10.2 Software and services OVERVIEWThe identifiers describe chemical substances in terms of _layers_ of information — the atoms and their bond connectivity, tautomeric information, isotope information, stereochemistry , and electronic charge information
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Terminology * 3 Graph-based definition * 4 Description * 4.1 Atoms * 4.2 Bonds * 4.3 Rings * 4.4 Aromaticity
Aromaticity
* 4.5 Branching * 4.6 Stereochemistry * 4.7 Isotopes * 4.8 Examples * 4.9 Other examples of SMILES * 5 Extensions * 6 Conversion * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links * 10.1 SMILES related software utilities HISTORYThe original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound , using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and _plus_ (+) and _minus_ (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called _empirical formulas _, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical _proportions_ of atoms of each type. _Molecular formulas_ indicate the simple _numbers_ of each type of atom in a molecule, with no information on structure. For example, the empirical formula for glucose is CH2O (twice as many hydrogen atoms as carbon and oxygen), while its molecular formula is C6H12O6 (12 hydrogen atoms, six carbon and oxygen atoms)
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS _M_ is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: _M_(H2O) ≈ 6998180000000000000♠18 g/mol. CONTENTS * 1 Molar masses of elements * 2 Molar masses of compounds * 3 Average molar mass of mixtures * 4 Related quantities * 4.1 Molecular mass * 4.2 DNA
DNA
synthesis usage * 5 Precision and uncertainties * 6 Measurement * 6.1 Vapour density * 6.2 Freezing-point depression
Freezing-point depression
* 6.3 Boiling-point elevation
Boiling-point elevation
* 7 References * 8 External links MOLAR MASSES OF ELEMENTS Main articles: Relative atomic mass
Relative atomic mass
and Standard atomic weight
Standard atomic weight
The molar mass of atoms of an element is given by the Standard atomic weight of the element multiplied by the molar mass constant , _M_ u = 1 × 10−3 kg/mol = 1 g/mol: _M_(H) = 1.007 97(7) × 1 g/mol = 1.007 97(7) g/mol _M_(S) = 32.065(5) × 1 g/mol = 32.065(5) g/mol _M_(Cl) = 35.453(2) × 1 g/mol = 35.453(2) g/mol _M_(Fe) = 55.845(2) × 1 g/mol = 55.845(2) g/mol
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