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Beryllium Hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C , 100 kPa). N verify (what is YN ?) Infobox references BERYLLIUM HYDROXIDE, Be(OH)2, is an amphoteric hydroxide , dissolving in both acids and alkalis . Industrially, it is produced as a by-product in the extraction of beryllium metal from the ores beryl and bertrandite . The natural pure beryllium hydroxide is rare (in form of the mineral behoite, orthorhombic) or very rare (clinobehoite, monoclinic). When alkali is added to beryllium salt solutions the α-form (a gel) is formed. If this left to stand or boiled, the rhombic β-form precipitates. This has the same structure as zinc hydroxide , Zn(OH)2, with tetrahedral beryllium centers. REACTIONSWith alkalis it dissolves to form the tetrahydroxidoberyllate(2-) anion
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Chemical Nomenclature
A CHEMICAL NOMENCLATURE is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds . The nomenclature used most frequently worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the _Blue Book _ and the _Red Book _, respectively. A third publication, known as the _Green Book _, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities (in association with the IUPAP ), while a fourth, the _Gold Book _, contains the definitions of a large number of technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry (the _White Book_, in association with the IUBMB ), analytical chemistry (the _Orange Book _), macromolecular chemistry (the _Purple Book_) and clinical chemistry (the _Silver Book_)
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CAS Registry Number
A CAS REGISTRY NUMBER, also referred to as CASRN or CAS NUMBER, is a unique numerical identifier assigned by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) to every chemical substance described in the open scientific literature (currently including those described from at least 1957 through the present), including organic and inorganic compounds, minerals , isotopes , alloys and nonstructurable materials (UVCBs, of Unknown, Variable Composition, or Biological origin). The Registry maintained by CAS is an authoritative collection of disclosed chemical substance information. It currently identifies more than 129 million organic and inorganic substances and 67 million protein and DNA sequences, plus additional information about each substance. It is updated with around 15,000 additional new substances daily. CONTENTS * 1 Use * 2 Format * 3 Granularity * 4 Search engines * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 External links USE _ This section DOES NOT CITE ANY SOURCES
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JSmol
JMOL is computer software for molecular modelling chemical structures in 3-dimensions . Jmol returns a 3D representation of a molecule that may be used as a teaching tool, or for research e.g., in chemistry and biochemistry . It is written in the programming language Java , so it can run on the operating systems Windows , macOS , Linux , and Unix , if Java is installed. It is free and open-source software released under a GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) version 2.0. A standalone application and a software development kit (SDK) exist that can be integrated into other Java applications, such as Bioclipse and Taverna . A popular feature is an applet that can be integrated into web pages to display molecules in a variety of ways. For example, molecules can be displayed as ball-and-stick models , space-filling models , ribbon diagrams , etc
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ChEBI
CHEBI may refer to: * ChEBI , Chemical Entities of Biological Interest * Chebi Khan (fl. 630-650), a claimant of the title of khan of Eastern Turkic Khaganate after the collapse of Xueyantuo * Chebi, Ethiopia , a town in Jeldu woreda, Ethiopia * Typhoon Chebi (2001) * Typhoon Chebi (2006) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title CHEBI. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Chebi additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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ChemSpider
CHEMSPIDER is a database of chemicals . ChemSpider is owned by the Royal Society of Chemistry . CONTENTS * 1 Database * 2 Crowdsourcing * 3 Searching * 4 Chemistry document mark-up * 5 History * 6 Services * 6.1 SyntheticPages * 6.2 Open PHACTS * 7 See also * 8 References DATABASEThe database contains information on more than 50 million molecules from over 500 data sources including: * EPA DSSTox * U.S
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ECHA InfoCard
The EUROPEAN CHEMICALS AGENCY (ECHA; /ˈɛkə/ _EK-ə_ ) is an agency of the European Union which manages the technical, scientific and administrative aspects of the implementation of the European Union regulation called Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). ECHA is the driving force among regulatory authorities in implementing the EU's chemicals legislation. ECHA helps companies to comply with the legislation, advances the safe use of chemicals, provides information on chemicals and addresses chemicals of concern. It is located in Helsinki
Helsinki
, Finland . The Agency, headed by Executive Director Geert Dancet , started working on 1 June 2007
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European Community Number
The EUROPEAN COMMUNITY NUMBER (EC NUMBER) is a unique seven-digit identifier that was assigned to substances for regulatory purposes within the European Union by the European Commission. The _EC Inventory_ comprises three individual inventories, EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP list. CONTENTS * 1 Structure * 2 EC Inventory * 3 List numbers * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links STRUCTUREThe EC Number may be written in a general form as: NNN-NNN-R, where R is a check digit and N represents integers. The check digit is calculated using the ISBN method. According to this method, the check digit R is the following sum modulo 11: R = ( N 1 + 2 N 2 + 3 N 3 + 4 N 4 + 5 N 5 + 6 N 6 ) mod 11 {displaystyle R=(N_{1}+2N_{2}+3N_{3}+4N_{4}+5N_{5}+6N_{6})mod 11} If the remainder R is equal to 10, that combination of digits is not used for an EC number. To illustrate, the EC number of dexamethasone is 200-003-9
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Gmelin Database
The GMELIN DATABASE is a large database of organometallic and inorganic compounds updated quarterly. It is based on the German publication _GMELINS HANDBUCH DER ANORGANISCHEN CHEMIE_ ("Gmelin's handbook of inorganic chemistry") which was originally published by Leopold Gmelin in 1817; the last print edition, the 8th, appeared in the 1990s. The database currently contains every compound/reaction discovered between 1772 and 1995, amounting to 1.5 million compounds and 1.3 million different reactions, with over 85,000 titles, keywords and abstracts. It has over 800 different data fields on subjects such as the compounds electric, magnetic, thermal, crystal and physiological information. The Gmelin database is maintained by Elsevier MDL . It is the sister database to the Beilstein database , which deals with organic chemicals and reactions; both are now part of the Reaxys system
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Medical Subject Headings
MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MESH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE / PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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PubChem
PUBCHEM is a database of chemical molecules and their activities against biological assays. The system is maintained by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a component of the National Library of Medicine , which is part of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH). PubChem can be accessed for free through a web user interface . Millions of compound structures and descriptive datasets can be freely downloaded via FTP. PubChem contains substance descriptions and small molecules with fewer than 1000 atoms and 1000 bonds. More than 80 database vendors contribute to the growing PubChem database. CONTENTS * 1 Databases * 2 Searching * 3 History * 4 ACS\'s concerns * 5 Database fields * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DATABASES PubChem consists of three dynamically growing primary databases
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RTECS
REGISTRY OF TOXIC EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES (RTECS) is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature without reference to the validity or usefulness of the studies reported. Until 2001 it was maintained by US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as a freely available publication. It is now maintained by the private company Symyx Technologies and is available only for a fee or by subscription. CONTENTSSix types of toxicity data are included in the file: * Primary irritation * Mutagenic effects * Reproductive effects * Tumorigenic effects * Acute toxicity * Other multiple dose toxicitySpecific numeric toxicity values such as LD50 , LC50 , TDLo , and TCLo are noted as well as species studied and the route of administration used. For all data the bibliographic source is listed. The studies are not evaluated in any way
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International Chemical Identifier
The IUPAC INTERNATIONAL CHEMICAL IDENTIFIER (INCHI /ˈɪntʃiː/ _IN-chee_ or /ˈɪŋkiː/ _ING-kee_ ) is a textual identifier for chemical substances , designed to provide a standard way to encode molecular information and to facilitate the search for such information in databases and on the web. Initially developed by IUPAC and NIST from 2000 to 2005, the format and algorithms are non-proprietary. The continuing development of the standard has been supported since 2010 by the not-for-profit INCHI TRUST, of which IUPAC is a member. The current version is 1.04 and was released in September 2011. Prior to 1.04, the software was freely available under the open source LGPL license, but it now uses a custom license called IUPAC- InChI Trust License
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Simplified Molecular-input Line-entry System
The SIMPLIFIED MOLECULAR-INPUT LINE-ENTRY SYSTEM (SMILES) is a specification in form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings . SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules. The original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been modified and extended. In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed in the open-source chemistry community. Other 'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN), ROSDAL and SLN
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Chemical Formula
A CHEMICAL FORMULA is a way of expressing information about the proportions of atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound , using a single line of chemical element symbols, numbers, and sometimes also other symbols, such as parentheses, dashes, brackets, commas and _plus_ (+) and _minus_ (−) signs. These are limited to a single typographic line of symbols, which may include subscripts and superscripts. A chemical formula is not a chemical name , and it contains no words. Although a chemical formula may imply certain simple chemical structures, it is not the same as a full chemical structural formula . Chemical formulas can fully specify the structure of only the simplest of molecules and chemical substances , and are generally more limited in power than are chemical names and structural formulas. The simplest types of chemical formulas are called _empirical formulas _, which use letters and numbers indicating the numerical _proportions_ of atoms of each type
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Molar Mass
In chemistry , the MOLAR MASS _M_ is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound ) divided by the amount of substance . The base SI unit
SI unit
for molar mass is kg /mol . However, for historical reasons, molar masses are almost always expressed in g/mol. As an example, the molar mass of water: _M_(H2O) ≈ 6998180000000000000♠18 g/mol
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