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Bern
The city of Bern
Bern
(German: [bɛrn] ( listen)) or Berne (French: [bɛʁn]; Italian: Berna [ˈbɛrna]; Romansh: Berna  [ˈbɛrnɐ]; Bernese German: Bärn [b̥æːrn]) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their (e.g
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Parliament
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative, elected body of government. Generally, a modern parliament has three functions: representing the electorate, making laws, and overseeing the government via hearings and inquiries. The term is similar to the idea of a senate, synod or congress, and is commonly used in countries that are current or former monarchies, a form of government with a monarch as the head. Some contexts restrict the use of the word parliament to parliamentary systems, although it is also used to describe the legislature in some presidential systems (e.g. the French parliament), even where it is not in the official name. Historically, parliaments included various kinds of deliberative, consultative, and judicial assemblies, e.g
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UNESCO World Heritage Site
A World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties. The sites are judged important to the collective interests of humanity. To be selected, a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
must be an already classified landmark, unique in some respect as a geographically and historically identifiable place having special cultural or physical significance (such as an ancient ruin or historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, mountain, or wilderness area)
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[n 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position, and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position
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List Of Sovereign States
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] 2 observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (191 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (15 states, out of which there are 5 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below
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De Facto
In law and government, de facto (/deɪ ˈfæktoʊ/ or /di ˈfæktoʊ/[1]; Latin: de facto, "in fact"; Latin pronunciation: [deː ˈfaktoː]), describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.[2][3][4] It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with de jure ("in law"), which refers to things that happen according to law
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Metropolitan Area
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.[1] A metro area usually comprises multiple jurisdictions and municipalities: neighborhoods, townships, boroughs, cities, towns, exurbs, suburbs, counties, districts, states, and even nations like the eurodistricts
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Middle High German
Middle High German
High German
(abbreviated MHG, German: Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages. It is conventionally dated between 1050 and 1350, developing from Old High German
Old High German
and into Early New High German. High German
High German
is defined as those varieties of German which were affected by the Second Sound Shift; the Middle Low German
Middle Low German
and Middle Dutch languages spoken to the North and North West, which did not participate in this sound change, are not part of MHG. While there is no standard MHG, the prestige of the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
court gave rise in the late 12th century to a supra-regional literary language (mittelhochdeutsche Dichtersprache) based on Swabian, an Alemannic dialect
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Executive (government)
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state. The executive executes and enforces law. In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations. In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Old City Of Bern
A city is a large human settlement.[4][5] Cities generally have extensive systems for housing, transportation, sanitation, utilities, land use, and communication. Their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. Historically, city-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization, roughly half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability.[6] Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification
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Folk Etymology
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.[1][2][3] The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements
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Names Of European Cities In Different Languages
Many cities in Europe
Europe
have different names in different languages. Some cities have also undergone name changes for political or other reasons. This article attempts to give all known different names for all major cities that are geographically or historically and culturally in Europe. It also includes some smaller towns that are important because of their location or history. This article does not offer any opinion about what the "original", "official", "real" or "correct" name of any city is or was. Cities are listed alphabetically by their current best-known name in English. The English version is followed by variants in other languages, in alphabetical order by name, and then by any historical variants and former names. Several cities have diacritics in their listed name in English
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German Language
No official regulation ( German orthography
German orthography
regulated by the Council for German Orthography[4]). Language
Language
codesISO 639-1 deISO 639-2 ger (B) deu (T)ISO 639-3 Variously: deu – German gmh&#
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Mayor (Switzerland)
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin
Latin
maior [majˈjɔr], meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town. Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role
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Swiss Standard German
Swiss Standard German[1][2][3] (German: Schweizer Standarddeutsch),[4] or Swiss High German[5][6][7][note 1] (German: Schweizer Hochdeutsch[8] or Schweizerhochdeutsch),[9] referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.[10] It is a variety of Standard German, used in the German-speaking part of Switzerland. It is mainly written, and rather less often spoken. Swiss Standard German
Standard German
is not a German dialect, but a variety of standard German. It is not to be confused with Swiss German, an umbrella term for the various Alemannic German dialects
German dialects
(in the sense of "traditional regional varieties") that are the default everyday languages in German-speaking Switzerland. German is a pluricentric language
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