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Berber Languages
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Berbers
Berbers
Berbers
or Amazighs (Berber languages: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen; singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ / Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting the Maghreb. They are distributed in an area stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in Egypt, and from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the Niger
Niger
River in West Africa. Historically, they spoke Berber languages, which together form the Berber branch of the Afroasiatic family. Since the Muslim conquest
Muslim conquest
of North Africa
North Africa
in the seventh century, a large number of Berbers
Berbers
inhabiting the Maghreb
Maghreb
(Tamazgha) have in varying degrees used as lingua franca the other languages spoken in North Africa
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Tuareg
The Tuareg people
Tuareg people
(/ˈtwɑːrɛɡ/; also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust[4]) are a large Berber ethnic confederation
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Shilha Language
Shilha /ˈʃɪlhə/ is a Berber language
Berber language
native to Shilha people. It is spoken by more than 4 million people in western Morocco. The endonym is Tašlḥiyt /taʃlʜijt/, and in recent English publications the language is often rendered Tashelhiyt or Tashelhit. The alternative name Tasusiyt ("language of the Sous") has been gaining currency among native speakers. In Moroccan Arabic
Moroccan Arabic
the language is called Šəlḥa, from which the alternative English name Shilha is derived.[3] In French sources the language is called tachelhit, chelha or chleuh. Shilha is spoken in an area covering c. 100,000 square kilometres,[4] comprising the western part of the High Atlas
High Atlas
mountains and the regions to the south up to the Draa River, including the Anti-Atlas and the alluvial basin of the Sous
Sous
River
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Shenwa Language
Shenwa, also spelt Chenoua (native name: Haqbaylit̠), is a Zenati Berber language
Berber language
spoken on Mount Chenoua
Mount Chenoua
(Jebel Chenoua) in Algeria, just west of Algiers, and in the provinces of Tipaza (including the town of Cherchell) and Chlef
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Kabyle Language
Kabyle /kəˈbaɪl/, or Kabylian /kəˈbaɪliən/ (native names: Taqbaylit, [ˈθɐqβæjlɪθ] ( listen), Tamaziɣt Taqbaylit or Tazwawt), is a Berber language
Berber language
spoken by the Kabyle people in the north and northeast of Algeria. It is spoken primarily in Kabylie, east of the capital Algiers
Algiers
and in Algiers
Algiers
itself, but also by various groups near Blida, such as the Beni Salah and Beni Bou Yaqob.(extinct?) Estimates about the number of speakers range from 5 million to about 7 million speakers worldwide, according to INALCO, the majority in Algeria.Contents1 Classification 2 Distribution2.1 Official status 2.2 Varieties3 Phonology3.1 Vowels 3.2 Consonants3.2.1 Assimilation 3.2.2 Fricatives vs
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Shawiya Language
Shawiya, or Shawiya Berber, also spelt Chaouïa (native form: Tacawit [θaʃawiθ]), is a Zenati Berber language
Berber language
spoken in Algeria
Algeria
by the Shawiya people. The language's primary speech area is the Awras Mountains in eastern Algeria
Algeria
and the surrounding areas, including Batna, Khenchela, Sétif, Oum El Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, Tébessa
Tébessa
and the northern part of Biskra.Contents1 Language 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLanguage[edit] The Shawiya people
Shawiya people
call their language Tacawit (Thashawith) (IPA: [θʃawɪθ] or [hʃawɪθ]), which is also known as Numidian Berber. Estimates of number of speakers range from 1.4 to 3 million speakers.[1][3] The French spelling of Chaouïa is commonly seen, due to the influence of French conventions on Algeria
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Nafusi Language
Nafusi (also spelt Nefusi; Berber: Maziɣ or Tanfusit) is a Berber language spoken in the Nafusa Mountains
Nafusa Mountains
(Drar n infusen), a large area in northwestern Libya
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Mozabite Language
Mozabite, or Tunżabt, is a Berber dialect spoken by the Mozabites, an Ibadi
Ibadi
Berber group inhabiting the seven cities of the M'zab
M'zab
natural region in the northern Saharan Algeria. It is also spoken by small numbers of Mozabite emigrants in other local cities and elsewhere. Mozabite is one of the Mzab–Wargla languages, a dialect cluster of the Zenati languages. It is very closely related to the nearby Berber dialects of Ouargla
Ouargla
and Oued Righ as well as the more distant Gourara. Bibliography[edit]ابراهيم و بكير عبد السلام. الوجيز في قواعد الكتابة و النحو للغة الأمازيغية "المزابية". المطبعة العرببة: غرداية 1996. Delheure, Jean. Aǧraw n Yiwalen Tumẓabt d-Tefṛansist = Dictionnaire Mozabite–Francais
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Siwa Language
Siwi (also known as Siwan[3] or Siwa Berber,[4] autonym: Jlan n Isiwan) is the easternmost Berber language, spoken in Egypt
Egypt
by an estimated 15,000[5][6] to 20,000[1] people in the oases of Siwa and Gara, near the Libyan border. Siwi is the normal language of daily communication among the Egyptian Berbers of Siwa and Gara, but because it is not taught at local schools, used in the media nor recognised by the Egyptian government, its long-term survival may be threatened by contacts with outsiders and by the use of
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Afroasiatic Language Family
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias and Plato in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000. However, any precise estimate depends on a partly arbitrary distinction between languages and dialects
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Riffian Language
Riffian, Rif
Rif
Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language. It is spoken natively by some 1.4 million Riffians
Riffians
of Morocco
Morocco
and Algeria, primarily in the Rif
Rif
provinces of Al Hoceima, Nador, Driouch, Berkane and as a minority language in Tangier, Oujda and Tetouan
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Siwa Oasis
The Siwa Oasis
Oasis
(Arabic: واحة سيوة‎, Wāḥat Sīwah, IPA: [ˈwæːħet ˈsiːwæ]; Berber languages: Isiwan, ⵉⵙⵉⵡⴰⵏ) is an urban oasis in Egypt, between the Qattara Depression and the Egyptian Sand Sea
Egyptian Sand Sea
in the Western Desert, nearly 50 km (30 mi) east of the Libyan border, and 560 km (348 mi) from Cairo.[1][2][3] About 80 km (50 mi) in length and 20 km (12 mi) wide,[1] Siwa Oasis
Oasis
is one of Egypt's most isolated settlements, with about 33,000 people,[4] mostly Berbers[1] who developed a unique culture and a distinct language of the Berber family called Siwi.[5] Its fame lies primarily in its ancient role as the home to an oracle of Ammon, the ruins of which are a popular tourist attraction which gave the oasis its ancient name Ammonium
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Maghreb
المغرب‎‎ al-Maɣréb ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ / Tamazɣa‎Countries and territories Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia Western SaharaMajor regional organizations Arab League, Arab Maghreb Union, Community of Sahel-Saharan StatesLanguagesArabic (Maghrebi Arabic) BerberReligion Islam, Christianity, Judaism, Traditional Berber religion, IrreligionCapitals Tripoli (Libya) Algiers (Algeria) Nouakchott (Mauritania) Rabat (Morocco) Tunis (Tunisia)CurrencyAlgerian dinar Libyan dinar Mauritanian ouguiya Moroccan dirham Tunisian dinarThe Maghreb, also known as the Berber world,[1][2] Barbary,[3][4][5] or Berbery[6][7] (Arabic: المغرب‎ al-Maɣréb; Berber languages: Tamazɣa or Tamazgha, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵗⴰ) is a major region of northern Africa that consists primarily of the countries Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Libya and Mauritania
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Canary Islands
The Canary Islands
Canary Islands
(/kəˈnɛəri ˈaɪləndz/; Spanish: Islas Canarias) are an archipelago and autonomous community of Spain
Spain
located in the Atlantic Ocean, 100 kilometres (62 miles) west of Morocco
Morocco
at the closest point. The Canaries are among the outermost regions (OMR) of the European Union
European Union
proper. It is also one of the eight regions with special consideration of historical nationality recognized as such by the Spanish Government.[3][4] The seven main islands are (from largest to smallest in area) Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro. The archipelago includes much smaller islands and islets: La Graciosa, Alegranza, Isla de Lobos, Montaña Clara, Roque del Oeste and Roque del Este
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