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Benzoic Acid
Benzoic acid
Benzoic acid
/bɛnˈzoʊ.ɪk/, C7H6O2 (or C6H5COOH), is a colorless crystalline solid and a simple aromatic carboxylic acid. The name is derived from gum benzoin, which was for a long time its only known source. Benzoic acid
Benzoic acid
occurs naturally in many plants[8] and serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Salts of benzoic acid are used as food preservatives and benzoic acid is an important precursor for the industrial synthesis of many other organic substances
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Preferred IUPAC Name
In chemical nomenclature, a preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
name (PIN) is a unique name, assigned to a chemical substance and preferred among the possible names generated by IUPAC
IUPAC
nomenclature. The "preferred IUPAC nomenclature" provides a set of rules for choosing between multiple possibilities in situations where it is important to decide on a unique name. It is intended for use in legal and regulatory situations.[1] Currently, preferred IUPAC
IUPAC
names are written only for part of the organic compounds (see below)
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Methanol
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). Methanol
Methanol
acquired the name wood alcohol because it was once produced chiefly as a byproduct of the destructive distillation of wood. Today, industrial methanol is produced in a catalytic process directly from carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. Methanol
Methanol
is the simplest alcohol, being only a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group. It is a light, volatile, colorless, flammable liquid with a distinctive odor very similar to that of ethanol (drinking alcohol).[11] However, unlike ethanol, methanol is highly toxic and unfit for consumption. At room temperature, it is a polar liquid. It is used as an antifreeze, solvent, fuel, and as a denaturant for ethanol
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Acetone
Acetone
Acetone
(systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.[12] It is a colorless, volatile, flammable liquid, and is the simplest and smallest ketone. Acetone
Acetone
is miscible with water and serves as an important solvent in its own right, typically for cleaning purposes in laboratories. About 6.7 million tonnes were produced worldwide in 2010, mainly for use as a solvent and production of methyl methacrylate and bisphenol A.[13][14] It is a common building block in organic chemistry. Familiar household uses of acetone are as the active ingredient in nail polish remover, and as paint thinner. Acetone
Acetone
is produced and disposed of in the human body through normal metabolic processes. It is normally present in blood and urine. People with diabetes produce it in larger amounts
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Carbon Tetrachloride
1.831 g cm−3 at −186 °C (solid) 1.809 g cm−3 at −80 °C (solid)Melting point −22.92 °C (−9.26 °F; 250.23 K)Boiling point 76.72 °C (170.10 °F; 349.87 K) Solubility
Solubility
in water0.097 g/100 mL (0 °C) 0.081 g/100 mL (25 °C)Solubility soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, naphtha, CS2, formic acidlog P 2.64
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Chloroform
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3. It is a colorless, sweet-smelling, dense liquid that is produced on a large scale as a precursor to PTFE. It is also a precursor to various refrigerants.[4] It is one of the four chloromethanes and a trihalomethane.Contents1 Structure 2 Natural occurrence 3 History 4 Production4.1 Deuterochloroform 4.2 Inadvertent formation of chloroform5 Uses5.1 Solvent 5.2 Reagent 5.3 Anesthetic 5.4 Criminal use6 Safety6.1 Exposure 6.2 Pharmacology 6.3 Conversion to phosgene 6.4 Regulation7 References 8 External linksStructure[edit] The molecule adopts tetrahedral molecular geometry with C3v symmetry. Natural occurrence[edit] The total global flux of chloroform through the environment is approximately 7005660000000000000♠660000 tonnes per year,[5] and about 90% of emissions are natural in origin
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Alcohol
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which the hydroxyl functional group (–OH) is bound to a saturated carbon atom.[2] The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages. The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC
IUPAC
chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and, so, can be termed an alcohol. But many substances, particularly sugars (examples glucose and sucrose) contain hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix
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Ethyl Ether
Diethyl ether, or simply ether, is an organic compound in the ether class with the formula (C 2H 5) 2O, Sometimes abbreviated as Et 2O (see Pseudoelement symbols). It is a colorless, highly volatile flammable liquid. It is commonly used as a solvent in laboratories and as a starting fluid for some engines. It was formerly used as a general anesthetic, until non-flammable drugs were developed, such as halothane. It has been used as a recreational drug to cause intoxication.Contents1 Production 2 Uses2.1 Fuel 2.2 Laboratory uses 2.3 Anesthetic use 2.4 Medical use 2.5 Recreational use3 Metabolism 4 Safety and stability 5 History 6 References 7 External linksProduction[edit] Most diethyl ether is produced as a byproduct of the vapor-phase hydration of ethylene to make ethanol
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Hexane
Hexane
Hexane
/ˈhɛkseɪn/ is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. The term may refer to any of the five structural isomers with that formula, or to a mixture of them.[5] In IUPAC nomenclature, however, hexane is the unbranched isomer (n-hexane); the other four isomers are named as methylated derivatives of pentane and butane. IUPAC also uses the term as the root of many compounds with a linear six-carbon backbone, such as 2-methylhexane. Hexanes are significant constituents of gasoline. They are all colorless liquids, odorless when pure, with boiling points between 50 and 70 °C (122 and 158 °F)
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Phenyl
In organic chemistry, the phenyl group or phenyl ring is a cyclic group of atoms with the formula C6H5. Phenyl groups are closely related to benzene and can be viewed as a benzene ring, minus a hydrogen, which may be replaced by some other element or compound to serve as a functional group. Phenyl groups have six carbon atoms bonded together in a hexagonal planar ring, five of which are bonded to individual hydrogen atoms, with the remaining carbon bonded to a substituent. Phenyl groups are commonplace in organic chemistry.[1] Although often depicted with alternating double and single bonds, phenyl groups are chemically aromatic and show nearly equal bond lengths between carbon atoms in the ring.[1][2]Contents1 Nomenclature1.1 Etymology2 Structure, bonding, characterization 3 Preparation, occurrence, and applications 4 References 5 External linksNomenclature[edit] Usually, a "phenyl group" is synonymous to C6H5– and is represented by the symbol Ph or, archaically, Φ
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Ammonia
Trihydrogen nitride Nitrogen
Nitrogen
trihydrideIdentifiersCAS Number7664-41-7 Y3D model (JSmol)Interactive image3DMet B00004Beilstein Reference3587154ChEBICHEBI:16134 YChEMBLChEMBL1160819 YChemSpider217 YECHA InfoCard 100.028.760EC Number 231-635-3Gmelin Reference79KEGGD02916 YMeSH Ammonia
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Acetate
An acetate /ˈæsɪteɪt/ is a salt formed by the combination of acetic acid with an alkaline, earthy, or metallic base. "Acetate" also describes the conjugate base or ion (specifically, the negatively charged ion called an anion) typically found in aqueous solution and written with the chemical formula C2H3O2−. The neutral molecules formed by the combination of the acetate ion and a positive ion (called a cation) are also commonly called "acetates" (hence, acetate of lead, acetate of aluminum, etc.). The simplest of these is hydrogen acetate (called acetic acid) with corresponding salts, esters, and the polyatomic anion CH3CO2−, or CH3COO−. Most of the approximately 5 billion kilograms of acetic acid produced annually in industry are used in the production of acetates, which usually take the form of polymers. In nature, acetate is the most common building block for biosynthesis
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Ethanol
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C 2H 5OH. Its formula can be written also as CH 3−CH 2−OH or C 2H 5−OH (an ethyl group linked to a hydroxyl group), and is often abbreviated as EtOH. Ethanol
Ethanol
is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a slight characteristic odor. It is a psychoactive substance and is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic drinks. Ethanol
Ethanol
is naturally produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts or via petrochemical processes, and is most commonly consumed as a popular recreational drug. It also has medical applications as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The compound is widely used as a chemical solvent, either for scientific chemical testing or in synthesis of other organic compounds, and is a vital substance utilized across many different kinds of manufacturing industries
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Melting Point
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure. At the melting point the solid and liquid phase exist in equilibrium. The melting point of a substance depends on pressure and is usually specified at standard pressure. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from liquid to solid, it is referred to as the freezing point or crystallization point. Because of the ability of some substances to supercool, the freezing point is not considered as a characteristic property of a substance
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Olive Oil
Olive
Olive
oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. The oil is produced by pressing whole olives. It is commonly used in cooking, whether for frying or as a salad dressing. It is also used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps, and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps, and has additional uses in some religions. There is limited evidence of its possible health benefits. The olive is one of three core food plants in Mediterranean cuisine; the other two are wheat and grapes. Olive
Olive
trees have been grown around the Mediterranean since the 8th millennium BC. Spain
Spain
is the largest producer of olive oil, followed by Italy
Italy
and Greece. However, per capita consumption is highest in Greece, followed by Spain, Italy, and Morocco
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1,4-dioxane
12,022 ppm (cat, 7 hr) 2085 ppm (mouse, 8 hr)[2]US health exposure limits (NIOSH):PEL (Permissible)TWA 100 ppm (360 mg/m3) [skin][1]REL (Recommended)Ca C 1 ppm (3.6 mg/m,3) [30-minute][1] IDLH
IDLH
(Immediate danger)Ca [500 ppm][1]Related compoundsRelated compoundsOxane Trioxane Tetroxane PentoxaneExcept where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).Y verify (what is YN ?)Infobox references 1,4-Dioxane
1,4-Dioxane
(/daɪˈɒkseɪn/) is a heterocyclic organic compound, classified as an ether. It is a colorless liquid with a faint sweet odor similar to that of diethyl ether
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