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Benson Group Increment Theory
Benson Group Increment Theory (BGIT) or Group Increment Theory or Benson Group Additivity, uses the experimentally calculated heat of formation for individual groups of atoms to calculate the entire heat of formation for a molecule under investigation. This can be a quick and convenient way to determine theoretical heats of formation without conducting tedious experiments. The technique was developed by the late Professor Sidney William Benson[1] of the University of Southern California. It is further described in a separate Wiki page. Heats of formations are intimately related to bond dissociation energies and thus are important in understanding chemical structure and reactivity.[2] Furthermore, although the theory is old, it still is practically useful as one of the best group additivity methods aside from computational methods such as molecular mechanics
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Heat Of Formation
The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy during the formation of 1 mole of the substance from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states. The standard pressure value po = 105 Pa (= 100 kPa = 1 bar) is recommended by IUPAC, although prior to 1982 the value 1.00 atm (101.325 kPa) was used.[1] There is no standard temperature. Its symbol is ΔfH⊖. The superscript Plimsoll on this symbol indicates that the process has occurred under standard conditions at the specified temperature (usually 25 °C or 298.15 K)
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National Institute Of Standards And Technology
The National Institute of Standards and Technology
Technology
(NIST) is a measurement standards laboratory, and a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry
The International
International
Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
(IUPAC) /ˈaɪjuːpæk/ or /ˈjuːpæk/ is an international federation of National Adhering Organizations that represents chemists in individual countries. It is a member of the International
International
Council for Science (ICSU).[2] IUPAC is registered in Zürich, Switzerland, and the administrative office, known as the "IUPAC Secretariat", is in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, United States. This administrative office is headed by IUPAC's executive director,[3] currently Lynn Soby.[4] IUPAC was established in 1919 as the successor of the International Congress of Applied Chemistry
Chemistry
for the advancement of chemistry. Its members, the National Adhering Organizations, can be national chemistry societies, national academies of sciences, or other bodies representing chemists
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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J. Chem. Phys.
The Journal of Chemical Physics is a scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics
American Institute of Physics
that carries research papers on chemical physics.[1] Two volumes, each of 24 issues, are published annually. It was established in 1933 when Journal of Physical Chemistry editors refused to publish theoretical works.[2] The editors have been:[1]2008–present: Marsha I. Lester 2007–2008: Branka M. Ladanyi 1998–2007: Donald H. Levy 1983–1997: John C. Light 1960–1982: J. W. Stout 1958–1959: C. A. Hutchison 1956–1957 (Acting): J. E. Mayer 1953–1955: Clyde A. Hutchison, Jr. 1942–1952: Joseph Edward Mayer 1933–1941: Harold UreyContents1 Highlights 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHighlights[edit] According to the Web of Science
Web of Science
database, as to 15 March 2018, a total of 132,435 articles have been published in the Journal of Chemical Physics
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Hydrogen Bonding
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecular) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecular).[1] Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol.[2] This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds
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Intramolecular Forces
An intramolecular force is any force that holds together the atoms making up a molecule or compound.[1] This includes all types of chemical bonds. They are usually stronger than intermolecular forces, which are present between atoms or molecules that are not bonded. Hydrogen bonds are an important example of a force that can be either intramolecular or intermolecular.Contents1 Types1.1 Ionic bond 1.2 Covalent bond 1.3 Metallic bond2 Bond formation 3 See also 4 ReferencesTypes[edit] The classical model identifies three main types of chemical bonds - ionic, covalent, and metallic - distinguished by the degree of charge separation between participating atoms.[2] The characteristics of the bond formed can be predicted by from the properties of constituent atoms, namely electronegativity
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Intermolecular Force
Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions. Intermolecular forces are weak relative to intramolecular forces – the forces which hold a molecule together. For example, the covalent bond, involving sharing electron pairs between atoms, is much stronger than the forces present between neighboring molecules. Both sets of forces are essential parts of force fields frequently used in molecular mechanics. The investigation of intermolecular forces starts from macroscopic observations which indicate the existence and action of forces at a molecular level
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Gauche Conformation
Alkane
Alkane
stereochemistry concerns the stereochemistry of alkanes. Alkane conformers are one of the subjects of alkane stereochemistry.Contents1 Conformation of alkane 2 Nomenclature 3 Special
Special
cases 4 See also 5 ReferencesConformation of alkane[edit] Alkane
Alkane
conformers arise from rotation around sp3 hybridised carbon carbon sigma bonds. The smallest alkane with such a chemical bond, ethane, exists as an infinite number of conformations with respect to rotation around the C–C bond. Two of these are recognised as energy minimum (staggered conformation) and energy maximum (eclipsed conformation) forms
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Exothermic
In thermodynamics, the term exothermic process (exo- : "outside") describes a process or reaction that releases energy from the system to its surroundings, usually in the form of heat, but also in a form of light (e.g. a spark, flame, or flash), electricity (e.g. a battery), or sound (e.g. explosion heard when burning hydrogen). Its etymology stems from the Greek prefix έξω (exō, which means "outwards") and the Greek word θερμικός (thermikόs, which means "thermal").[1] The term exothermic was first coined by Marcellin Berthelot
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University Of Southern California
The University of Southern California
California
(USC[a] or SC) is a private research university located in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California.[9] USC has historically educated a large number of the region's business leaders and professionals. The university has also leveraged its location in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
to establish relationships with research and cultural institutions throughout Asia and the Pacific Rim
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Endothermic
The term endothermic process describes a process or reaction in which the system absorbs energy from its surroundings; usually, but not always, in the form of heat. The term was coined by Marcellin Berthelot from the Greek roots endo-, derived from the word "endon" (ἔνδον) meaning "within" and the root "therm" (θερμ-) meaning "hot." The intended sense is that of a reaction that depends on absorbing heat if it is to proceed. The opposite of an endothermic process is an exothermic process, one that releases, "gives out" energy in the form of heat. Thus in each term (endothermic & exothermic) the prefix refers to where heat goes as the reaction occurs, though in reality it only refers to where the energy goes, without necessarily being in the form of heat. All chemical reactions involve both the breaking of existing and the making of new chemical bonds. A reaction to break a bond always requires the input of energy and so such a process is always endothermic
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Disproportionation
Disproportionation, sometimes called dismutation, is a redox reaction in which a compound of intermediate oxidation state converts to two different compounds, one of higher and one of lower oxidation states.[1][2] Although not widely accepted, disproportionation is sometimes used to describe any desymmetrizing reaction of the following type: 2 A → A' + A", regardless of any redox process.[3]Contents1 Examples1.1 Reverse reaction2 History 3 Further examples 4 Biochemistry 5 See also 6 ReferencesExamples[edit] Mercury(I) chloride
Mercury(I) chloride

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