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Benny Begin
ZE\'EV BINYAMIN BEGIN, (Hebrew : זאב בנימין בגין‎‎, born 1 March 1943) is an Israeli geologist and politician . He is a member of the Knesset for Likud , and is the son of former Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
Menachem Begin . CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Political career * 3 Views and opinions * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYZe'ev Binyamin (Benny) Begin was born in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Aliza and Menachem Begin . He studied geology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. After completing his undergraduate and graduate studies, he worked for the Geological Survey of Israel
Israel
. He completed his doctorate in geology at Colorado State University in 1978. POLITICAL CAREERFirst elected to the Knesset in 1988 as a Likud MK, Begin ran in the Likud primary in 1993 to succeed Yitzhak Shamir as party leader but was defeated by Benjamin Netanyahu . Under Netanyahu's government (1996–1999), Begin served as Science Minister until 1997 when he resigned in protest against the Hebron Agreement
Hebron Agreement
. He subsequently led hardliners out of the Likud with the hope of reviving the Herut
Herut
political party founded by his father
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Jerusalem
JERUSALEM (/dʒəˈruːsələm/ ; Hebrew : יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ _ Yerushalayim _ ; Arabic : القُدس‎‎ _ al-Quds _ ) is a city in the Middle East , located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea . Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. One of the oldest cities in the world , Jerusalem was named as _"Urusalima"_ on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem " after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah . It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism , Christianity and Islam . During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times
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Mandatory Palestine
MANDATORY PALESTINE (Arabic : فلسطين‎‎ _Filasṭīn_; Hebrew : פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י)‎ _Pālēśtīnā (EY)_, where "EY" indicates " Eretz Yisrael ", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I . British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. During its existence the territory was known simply as _Palestine_, but, in later years, a variety of other names and descriptors have been used, including _Mandatory_ or MANDATE PALESTINE, the BRITISH MANDATE OF PALESTINE and BRITISH PALESTINE. During the First World War (1914–18), an Arab uprising and the British Empire 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign . The United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, and in the end the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement —an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1988
ELECTIONS FOR THE 12TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 1 November 1988. Voter turnout was 79.7%. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Economy * 1.2 Operation Moses * 1.3 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 1.4 Jibril Agreement * 1.5 Peres–Hussein London Agreement * 1.6 First Intifada * 2 Election campaign * 3 Results * 4 The 12th Knesset * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it . (January 2012)ECONOMY See also: 1985 Israel Economic Stabilization Plan and Kibbutz crisis By July 1985 Israel's inflation, buttressed by complex index linking of salaries, had reached 480% per annum and was the highest in the world. Peres introduced emergency control of prices and cut government expenditure successfully bringing inflation under control. The currency (known as the Israeli lira until 1980) was replaced and renamed the Israeli new shekel . OPERATION MOSES Main article: Operation Moses The great famine of 1983–85 lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Ethiopians from Northern Ethiopia to refugee camps in Northern Ethiopia and Sudan. Tens of thousands of Ethiopians were starving during that time. Among these victims, it is estimated that between 3,000 and 4,000 were members of the Beta Israel community
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1992
ELECTIONS FOR THE 13TH KNESSET were held in Israel on 23 June 1992. The election resulted in the formation of a Labor government, led by Yitzhak Rabin , helped by the failure of several small right wing parties to pass the electoral threshold . Voter turnout was 77.4%. CONTENTS * 1 Results * 2 Thirteenth Knesset * 3 References * 4 External links RESULTS The Labor Party chairman Yitzhak Rabin . After winning the 1992 elections, Rabin managed to form the first Labor-led government in 15 years, supported by a coalition with Meretz , a left-wing party, and Shas , a Mizrahi ultra-orthodox religious party
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Israeli Legislative Election, 1996
Shimon Peres Labor Party ELECTED PRIME MINISTER Benjamin Netanyahu Likud GENERAL ELECTIONS were held in Israel on 29 May 1996. For the first time the Prime Minister was elected on a separate ballot from the remaining members of the Knesset . The 1996 elections resulted in a surprise victory for Netanyahu by a margin of 29,457 votes, less than 1% of the total number of votes cast, and much smaller than the number of spoiled votes. This came after the initial exit polls had predicted a Peres win, spawning the phrase "went to sleep with Peres, woke up with Netanyahu." This election was Peres's fourth and last election defeat. CONTENTS* 1 Background * 1.1 Peace process * 1.2 Assassination of Yitzhak Rabin * 1.3 Palestinian terror campaign between February–March 1996 * 1.4 The ongoing South Lebanon conflict * 2 Campaign * 3 Results * 3.1 Prime Minister * 3.2 Knesset * 4 Reactions * 5 Political aftermath * 5.1 The 14th Knesset * 6 References * 7 External links BACKGROUND THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION
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Israeli Legislative Election, 2009
ELECTIONS FOR THE 18TH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 10 February 2009. These elections became necessary due to the resignation of Prime Minister Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
as leader of the Kadima party, and the failure of his successor, Tzipi Livni
Tzipi Livni
, to form a coalition government . Had Olmert remained in office or had Livni formed a coalition government, the elections would have been scheduled for 2010 instead. Although the incumbent prime minister's party, Kadima, won the most seats in the parliament, the Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu was able to form a majority coalition government and become the new prime minister. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Procedures * 3 Parties * 3.1 Alliances * 3.2 New parties * 4 Opinion polls * 5 Results * 6 Government formation * 6.1 Unity Government 2012 * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links BACKGROUNDOn 17 September 2008, Kadima held a leadership election , which was won by Tzipi Livni. Following Livni's victory, former party leader Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
(who did not run in the contest) resigned as Prime Minister. Livni was given six weeks to form a coalition, but set a deadline of 26 October for parties to agree to join the new government
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Israeli Legislative Election, 2015
Early ELECTIONS FOR THE TWENTIETH KNESSET were held in Israel
Israel
on 17 March 2015. Disagreements within the governing coalition , particularly over the budget and a "Jewish state" proposal , led to the dissolution of the government in December 2014. The Labor Party and Hatnuah formed a coalition, called Zionist Union , with the hope of defeating the Likud party, which had led the previous governing coalition along with Yisrael Beiteinu , Yesh Atid
Yesh Atid
, The Jewish Home and Hatnuah . The incumbent Prime Minister , Benjamin Netanyahu of Likud , declared victory in the election with Likud picking up the highest number of votes. President Reuven Rivlin granted Netanyahu an extension until 6 May 2015 to build a coalition when one had not been finalized in the first four weeks of negotiations. He formed a coalition government within two hours of the midnight May 6 deadline. His Likud party formed the coalition with the Jewish Home , United Torah Judaism
United Torah Judaism
, Kulanu
Kulanu
, and Shas
Shas
, with the bare minimum 61 seats. Yisrael Beiteinu later joined the coalition in May 2016
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Likud
LIKUD (Hebrew : הַלִּיכּוּד‎, translit. _HaLikud_, lit. _The Consolidation_), officially the LIKUD–NATIONAL LIBERAL MOVEMENT, is a center-right to right-wing political party in Israel . A secular party, it was founded in 1973 by Menachem Begin and Ariel Sharon in an alliance with several right-wing and liberal parties. Likud's landslide victory in the 1977 elections was a major turning point in the country's political history, marking the first time the left had lost power. In addition, it was the first time in Israel that a right-wing party won the plurality of the votes. However, after ruling the country for most of the 1980s, the party lost the Knesset election in 1992. Nevertheless, Likud's candidate Benjamin Netanyahu did win the vote for Prime Minister in 1996 and was given the task of forming a government after the 1996 elections . Netanyahu's government fell apart after a vote of no confidence, which led to elections being called in 1999 and Likud losing power to the One Israel coalition led by Ehud Barak . In 2001, Likud's Ariel Sharon , who replaced Netanyahu following the 1999 election, defeated Barak in an election called by the Prime Minister following his resignation. After the party recorded a convincing win in the 2003 elections , Likud saw a major split in 2005 when Sharon left to form the Kadima party
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Herut – The National Movement
HERUT – THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT (Hebrew : חרות – התנועה הלאומית‎, Herut
Herut
– HaTnu'a HaLeumit), commonly known as just HERUT (חרות‎), was a minor right-wing political party in Israel . Though it sees itself as the ideological successor to the historical Herut
Herut
party (which merged into Likud ) it is a new and separate party. It participated in the 1999 , 2003 and 2006 elections . BACKGROUNDThe party was formed on 23 February 1999 when Benny Begin
Benny Begin
, Michael Kleiner and David Re\'em broke away from Likud during the fourteenth Knesset . The breakaway was the result of disagreements with Likud leader Benjamin Netanyahu over the Wye River Memorandum
Wye River Memorandum
and the Hebron Agreement , which had ceded land to the Palestinians . Though not an MK at the time, the new party was also backed by former Prime Minister and Herut
Herut
leader, Yitzhak Shamir
Yitzhak Shamir
. Herut
Herut
participated in the 1999 elections as part of the National Union , a right-wing alliance of itself, Moledet and Tkuma with Begin at its head
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Ministry Of Science, Technology And Space
The MINISTRY OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE is a government ministry in Israel
Israel
, headed by the SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND SPACE MINISTER. The portfolio has been renamed several times since its creation, and has previously included Culture and Sport, which is now the responsibility of the Culture and Sport Ministry
Culture and Sport Ministry
. In April 2013, the Ministry added "Space" to its name to promote space research and technology . The ministry is responsible for defining national policy on issues related to Science and technology in Israel
Israel
, and promoting scientific and technological research, infrastructure and projects. In addition, under its jurisdiction, it acts to develop human capital, increase the social and economic vigor of Israeli society, and maintain equal opportunity in all areas of science and technology. Amongst its goals, the Ministry constitutes a connecting link between basic research, applied research and industrial development. Another central goal of the Ministry is to strengthen as well as initiate international scientific collaborations with other countries and international organization
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Minister Without Portfolio
A MINISTER WITHOUT PORTFOLIO is either a government minister with no specific responsibilities or a minister who does not head a particular ministry . The sinecure is particularly common in countries ruled by coalition governments and a cabinet with decision-making authority wherein a minister without portfolio, while he or she may not head any particular office or ministry, still receives a ministerial salary and has the right to cast a vote in cabinet decisions. In some countries where the executive branch is not composed of a coalition of parties and, more often, in countries with purely presidential systems of government, such as the United States, the position (or an equivalent position) of minister without portfolio is uncommon
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Menachem Begin
MENACHEM BEGIN (_ listen (help ·info ); Hebrew
Hebrew
: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין‎ Menaḥem Begin_, Polish : _Mieczysław Biegun_; Russian : Менахем Вольфович Бегин _Menakhem Volfovich Begin_; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun
Irgun
, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah
Haganah
. He proclaimed a revolt , on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government , which was opposed by the Jewish Agency . As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine. Later, the Irgun
Irgun
fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine . Begin was elected to the first Knesset, as head of Herut , the party he founded, and was at first on the political fringe, embodying the opposition to the Mapai -led government and Israeli establishment. He remained in opposition in the eight consecutive elections (except for a national unity government around the Six-Day War ), but became more acceptable to the political center. His 1977 electoral victory and premiership ended three decades of Labor Party political dominance
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Irgun
The IRGUN (Hebrew : ארגון‎; full title: הארגון הצבאי הלאומי בארץ ישראל‎ _Hā-ʾIrgun Ha-Tzvaʾī Ha-Leūmī b-Ērētz Yiśrāʾel_, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948. It was an offshoot of the older and larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah (Hebrew: הגנה‎, Defence). When the group broke from the Haganah it became known as the _ Haganah Bet_ (Hebrew: literally "Defense 'B' " or "Second Defense", הגנה ב‎), or alternatively as ha Haganah haLeumit (ההגנה הלאומית) or Hama'amad (המעמד‎). Irgun
Irgun
members were absorbed into the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces at the start of the 1948 Arab–Israeli war . The Irgun
Irgun
is also referred to as ETZEL (אצ"ל‎), an acronym of the Hebrew initials, or by the abbreviation IZL. The Irgun
Irgun
policy was based on what was then called Revisionist Zionism founded by Ze\'ev Jabotinsky
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Geologist
A GEOLOGIST is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth
Earth
as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology , although backgrounds in physics , chemistry , biology , and other sciences are also useful. Field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Some geologists work in the mining business searching for metals, oils, and other Earth
Earth
resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters prevention and mitigation, studying natural hazards such as earthquakes , volcanic activity, tsunamis , weather storms. Their studies are used to warn the general public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are also important contributors to climate change discussions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Training / Schooling * 2.1 Areas of specialization * 3 Employment * 4 Professional designation * 5 See also * 6 References HISTORY Scotsman James Hutton, father of modern geology James Hutton
James Hutton
is often viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled _Theory of the Earth_ to the Royal Society of Edinburgh
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