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Benjamin Franklin
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN FRS , FRSE (January 17, 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States . Franklin was a renowned polymath and a leading author, printer, political theorist , politician, freemason , postmaster, scientist, inventor, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod , bifocals , and the Franklin stove , among other inventions. He facilitated many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and the University of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
, an Ivy League
Ivy League
institution
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Royal Society Of Edinburgh
The ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH is Scotland's national academy of science and letters. It is a registered charity, operating on a wholly independent and non-party-political basis and providing public benefit throughout Scotland. It was established in 1783. As of 2017 , it has more than 1,660 Fellows. The Society covers a broader selection of fields than the Royal Society of London including literature and history
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Fellow Of The Royal Society
FELLOWSHIP OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY (FRS, FORMEMRS and HONFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society
Royal Society
judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge , including mathematics , engineering science and medical science "
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British America
ENGLISH AMERICA (later BRITISH AMERICA) refers to the English territories in North America
North America
(including Bermuda
Bermuda
), Central America
Central America
, the Caribbean
Caribbean
, and Guyana
Guyana
from 1607 to 1783. Formally, the British colonies in North America
North America
were known as British America
British America
and the British West Indies
British West Indies
until 1776, when the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
located along the Atlantic seaboard declared their independence and formed the United States
United States
of America . After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental North American possessions
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Province Of Massachusetts Bay
The PROVINCE OF MASSACHUSETTS BAY was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II , the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England , Scotland , and Ireland . The charter took effect on May 14, 1692, and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Massachusetts Bay Colony
, the Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
, the Province of Maine
Maine
, Martha\'s Vineyard , Nantucket
Nantucket
, Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
, and New Brunswick . The modern Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the direct successor. Maine
Maine
has been a separate U.S. state since 1820, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697
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David Redick
DAVID REDICK (died 1805) was a Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
surveyor , lawyer , and politician . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Family * 1.2 Career * 1.3 Public service * 1.4 Whiskey Rebellion
Whiskey Rebellion
* 1.5 Death * 2 References BIOGRAPHYRedick was born in Ireland
Ireland
, and after coming to America made his home for several years in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
. Redick was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
. He read law and was admitted to the bar in 1782. FAMILYHe married the niece of business associate David Hoge. Redick and his wife had at least three children. A son became a lawyer and died at a young age. His daughter, Nancy, and her husband inherited the Redick home in Washington and lived there until their own deaths
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Polymath
A POLYMATH (Greek : πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. The term was first used in the 17th century; the related term, POLYHISTOR, is an ancient term with similar meaning. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance , the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472), in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism , that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible
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Puritanism
The PURITANS were a group of English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England
Church of England
from its "Catholic " practices, maintaining that the Church of England
Church of England
was only partially reformed
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Henry Steele Commager
HENRY STEELE COMMAGER (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian . As one of the most active and prolific liberal intellectuals of his time, with 40 books and 700 essays and reviews, he helped define modern liberalism in the United States . In the 1940s and 1950s, Commager was noted for his campaigns against McCarthyism
McCarthyism
and other abuses of government power. With his Columbia University colleague Allan Nevins , Commager helped to organize academic support for Adlai E. Stevenson in 1952 and 1956, and John F. Kennedy in 1960. He opposed the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
and was an outspoken critic of Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
, Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
, and Ronald Reagan and what he viewed as their abuses of presidential power
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List Of Political Philosophers
This is a LIST OF NOTABLE POLITICAL PHILOSOPHERS, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy. Note, however, that the list is for people who are principally philosophers. The philosophers are listed in order by year of birth to show rough direction of influences and of development of political thought. See also, Political philosophy . ANCIENT, MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN * Hammurabi
Hammurabi
(died c
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Old Style And New Style Dates
OLD STYLE (O.S.) and NEW STYLE (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day (25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
. Closely related is the custom of dual dating , where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Boston
BOSTON (/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen ) BOSS-tən ) is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States. The city proper covers 48 square miles (124 km2) with an estimated population of 687,584 in 2017, making it also the most populous city in the New England
New England
region of the northeastern United States
United States
. Boston
Boston
is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999. The city is the economic and cultural anchor of a substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston , a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country
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History Of Physics
Physics
Physics
(from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
φύσις physis meaning "nature ") is the fundamental branch of science that developed out of the study of nature and philosophy known, until around the end of the 19th century, as "natural philosophy ". Today, physics is ultimately defined as the study of matter , energy and the relationships between them. Physics
Physics
is, in some senses, the oldest and most basic pure science; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences , since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world. The other sciences are generally more limited in their scope and may be considered branches that have split off from physics to become sciences in their own right. Physics
Physics
today may be divided loosely into classical physics and modern physics
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Speaker Of The Pennsylvania House Of Representatives
The SPEAKER OF THE PENNSYLVANIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES holds the oldest statewide elected office in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
. Since its first session under the Frame of Government in 1682, presided over by William Penn
William Penn
, over 130 House members have been elevated to the speaker's chair. The house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore . Speaker K. Leroy Irvis was the first African-American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since the Reconstruction era . Pennsylvania has never had a female speaker. LIST OF SPEAKERS OF THE PROVINCIAL ASSEMBLYSpeakers of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly (1682–1775) and the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Commonwealth of Pennsylvania
(following the 1776 Constitution)
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Independent Politician
An INDEPENDENT or NONPARTISAN POLITICIAN is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party . There are numerous reasons why someone may stand for office as an independent. * Independents may support policies which are different from those of the major political parties. * In some parts of the world electors may have a tradition of electing independents, so standing for a political party is a disadvantage. * In some countries (including Russia
Russia
) a political party can only be registered if it has a large number of members in more than one region, but in certain regions only a minority of electors support the major parties. * In some countries (including Kuwait
Kuwait
), political parties are unlawful and all candidates thus stand as independents
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Pennsylvania
PENNSYLVANIA (/ˌpɛnsɪlˈveɪniə/ ( listen ); Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
German : Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the COMMONWEALTH OF PENNSYLVANIA, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States
United States
. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware
Delaware
to the southeast, Maryland
Maryland
to the south, West Virginia
West Virginia
to the southwest, Ohio
Ohio
to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey
New Jersey
to the east
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