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Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
FRS FRSE (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705][1] – April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, freemason, postmaster, scientist, inventor, humorist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. As an inventor, he is known for the lightning rod, bifocals, and the Franklin stove, among other inventions.[2] He founded many civic organizations, including Philadelphia's fire department and the University of Pennsylvania.[3] Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity, initially as an author and spokesman in London for several colonies
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List Of Political Philosophers
This is a list of notable political philosophers, including some who may be better known for their work in other areas of philosophy. Note, however, that the list is for people who are principally philosophers. The philosophers are listed in order by year of birth to show rough direction of influences and of development of political thought. See also, Political philosophy. Ancient, medieval and early modernHammurabi (died c. 1750 BCE) Confucius (551–479 BCE) Socrates (470–399 BCE) Mozi (470–390 BCE) Xenophon (427–355 BCE) Plato (427–347 BCE) Diogenes of Sinope (412–323 BCE) Aeschines (389–314 BCE) Aristotle (384–322 BCE) Mencius (372–289 BCE) Chanakya (350–283 BCE) Xun Zi (310–237 BCE) Thiruvalluvar (c. 200 BCE–c
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Puritanism
The Puritans
Puritans
were English Reformed
Reformed
Protestants
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Pleurisy
Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes (pleurae) that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity.[1] This can result in a sharp chest pain with breathing.[1] Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache.[6] Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, fever or weight loss, depending on the underlying cause.[6] The most common cause is a viral infection.[2] Other causes include pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, autoimmune disorders, lung cancer, following heart surgery, pancreatitis, chest trauma, and asbestosis.[2] Occasionally the cause remains unknown.[2] The underlying mechanism involves the rubbing together of the pleurae instead of smooth gliding.[1] Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include pericarditis, heart attack, cholecystitis, and pneumothorax.[3] Diagnosis may include a chest X-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests.[3][7] Treatment depends on the underlying cause.[3] Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprof
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David Redick
David Redick (died 1805) was a Pennsylvania surveyor, lawyer, and politician.Contents1 Biography1.1 Family 1.2 Career 1.3 Public service 1.4 Whiskey Rebellion 1.5 Death2 ReferencesBiography[edit] Redick was born in Ireland, and after coming to America made his home for several years in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Redick was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. He read law and was admitted to the bar in 1782. Family[edit] He married the niece of business associate David Hoge. Redick and his wife had at least three children. A son became a lawyer and died at a young age. His daughter, Nancy, and her husband inherited the Redick home in Washington and lived there until their own deaths. Another daughter married and settled in Louisville, Kentucky.[1] Career[edit] Redick accompanied Hoge (c. 1780) to survey the latter's land holdings in the Chartiers Valley, in western Pennsylvania
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Henry Steele Commager
(1805 -10-25)October 25, 1805 Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaDied March 2, 1998(1998-03-02) (aged 95) Amherst, MassachusettsSpouse(s) Mary PowleslandAcademic backgroundAlma mater University of ChicagoAcademic workDiscipline HistoryInstitutions New York University, Columbia University, Amherst CollegeHenry Steele Commager (October 25, 1902 – March 2, 1998) was an American historian. As one of the most active and prolific liberal intellectuals of his time, with 40 books and 700 essays and reviews, he helped define modern liberalism in the United States.[1] In the 1940s and 1950s, Commager was noted for his campaigns against McCarthyism and other abuses of government power. With his Columbia University colleague Allan Nevins, Commager helped to organize academic support for Adlai E. Stevenson in 1952 and 1956, and John F. Kennedy in 1960. He opposed the Vietnam War and was an outspoken critic of Presidents Lyndon B
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British America
British America
British America
refers to the English territories in North America (including Bermuda), Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana
Guyana
from 1607 to 1783. Formally, the British colonies in North America
North America
were known as British America
British America
and the British West Indies
British West Indies
until 1776, when the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
declared their independence and formed the United States
United States
of America.[1] After that, the term British North America was used to describe the remainder of Britain's continental North American possessions
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Province Of Massachusetts Bay
The Province of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay[2] was a crown colony in British North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States from 1776. It was chartered on October 7, 1691 by William III and Mary II, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The charter took effect on May 14, 1692, and included the Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. The modern Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the direct successor. Maine has been a separate U.S. state since 1820, and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick are now Canadian provinces, having been part of the colony only until 1697. The name Massachusetts
Massachusetts
comes from the Massachusett
Massachusett
Indians, an Algonquian tribe
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Polymath
A polymath (Greek: πολυμαθής, polymathēs, "having learned much,"[1] Latin: homo universalis, "universal man"[citation needed]) is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title (De Polymathia tractatio: integri operis de studiis veterum) was published in 1603 by Johann von Wower, a Hamburg philosopher.[2][3][4][5] Wower defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies [...] ranging freely through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them".[3] Wower lists erudition, literature, philology, philomathy and polyhistory as synonyms
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Fellow Of The Royal Society
Fellowship of the Royal Society
Royal Society
(FRS, ForMemRS and HonFRS) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society
Royal Society
judges to have made a "substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowled
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Boston
Boston
Boston
(/ˈbɒstən/ ( listen) BOS-tən) is the capital city and most populous municipality[9] of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States
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Old Style And New Style Dates
Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are terms sometimes used with dates to indicate that the calendar convention used at the time described is different from that in use at the time the document was being written. There were two calendar changes in Great Britain and its colonies, which may sometimes complicate matters: the first change was to change the start of the year from Lady Day
Lady Day
(25 March) to 1 January; the second was to discard the Julian calendar
Julian calendar
in favour of the Gregorian calendar.[2][3][4] Closely related is the custom of dual dating, where writers gave two consecutive years to reflect differences in the starting date of the year, or to include both the Julian and Gregorian dates. Beginning in 1582, the Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
replaced the Julian in Roman Catholic countries
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Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
(/ˌpɛnsɪlˈveɪniə/ ( listen); Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
run through its middle. The Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware
Delaware
to the southeast, Maryland
Maryland
to the south, West Virginia
West Virginia
to the southwest, Ohio
Ohio
to the west, Lake Erie
Lake Erie
and the Canadian province of Ontario
Ontario
to the northwest, New York to the north, and New Jersey
New Jersey
to the east. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
is the 33rd-largest, the 5th-most populous, and the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 United States
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Franklin (other)
Franklin may refer to:Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790), a Founding Father of the United States John Franklin (1786–1847), a British Royal Navy officer and explorer Franklin (class), a historic social class Franklin (given name) Franklin (surname)Contents1 Entertainment 2 Places2.1 Australia 2.2 Canada 2.3 Cayman Islands 2.4 New Zealand 2.5 Poland 2.6 United States3 Ships 4 Other uses 5 See alsoEntertainment[edit]Franklin (Peanuts), character in the comic strip Peanuts Franklin (TV series), children's television series about a turtle named Franklin Franklin the Turtle (books), the book series on which the TV series was based Franklin Delano Bluth, a puppet from the TV show Arrested Development Roosevelt Franklin, a former character on Sesame Street Franklyn, a 2008 science fiction movie Franklin & Bash, a TV series that began in 2011 about lawyers Jared Franklin and Peter Bash Franklin, character in the comic book Monica and Friends<
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Fellow Of The Royal Society Of Edinburgh
Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
Royal Society of Edinburgh
(FRSE) is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Scotland judges to be "eminently distinguished in their subject".[1] Elections[edit] Around 50 new fellows are elected each year in March.[1] As of 2016[update] there are around 1650 Fellows, including 71 Honorary Fellows (HFRSE) and 76 Corresponding Fellows.[1][2] Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSE. Fellowship[edit] Examples of fellows include Peter Higgs
Peter Higgs
and Jocelyn Bell Burnell.[1] Previous fellows have included Melvin Calvin, Benjamin Franklin, and James Clerk Maxwell, and James Watt.[3] See the Category:Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
Royal Society of Edinburgh
for more examples
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Speaker Of The Pennsylvania House Of Representatives
The speaker of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives
Pennsylvania House of Representatives
holds the oldest statewide elected office in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[1] Since its first session under the Frame of Government in 1682, presided over by William Penn, over 130 House members have been elevated to the speaker's chair. The house cannot hold an official session in the absence of the speaker or his designated speaker pro tempore. Speaker K. Leroy Irvis
K. Leroy Irvis
was the first African-American elected speaker of any state legislature in the United States since the Reconstruction era
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