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Bendahara
Bendahara (Jawi: بنداهارا) is an administrative position within classical Malay kingdoms comparable to a vizier before the intervention of European powers during the 19th century. A bendahara was appointed by a sultan and was a hereditary post. The bendahara and the sultan shared the same lineage. The closest post which is comparable to the post of the vizier as the Malay kingdoms are Islamic kingdoms. As the bendahara is the head of the nobility, the status confers certain responsibility. The bendahara is the backbone of the Malay Sultanate. For the ancient kingdoms of Malacca and Johor, there were many tasks and responsibilities but the primary ones were:[citation needed] Legitimacy of the Sultan lies with the bendahara. The bendahara always consulted the other nobles before arriving at a decision. The bendahara and nobles do this for the well-being of the subjects and is essential if there are problems in the state
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Prime Minister

A prime minister is the head of the cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not the head of state of their respective state nor a monarch, rather they are the head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms or a president in a republican form of government. In parliamentary systems fashioned after the Westminster system, the prime minister is the presiding and actual head of government and head of the executive branch. In such systems, the head of state or their official representative (e.g., monarch, president, governor-general) usually holds a largely ceremonial position, although often with reserve powers. In many systems, the prime minister selects and may dismiss other members of the cabinet, and allocates posts to members within the government
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Temenggung
Temenggong (Jawi: تمڠݢوڠ; Tumenggung[1]) is an old Malay and Javanese title of nobility, usually given to the chief of public security, or to a local ruler of a frontier area, equivalent to the title Marquess in English-speaking world. The Temenggong is usually responsible for the safety of the monarch (raja or sultan), as well as overseeing the state police and army. In the Sultanate of Johor, the Temenggong of Muar held a fief centered in Segamat for approximately two centuries and the Temenggong of Johor was the head of the fief (Johor mainland) between 1760 and 1868. The full rendition of the Johor Temenggong was Temenggung Seri Maharaja
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Sultan Mahmud II
Mahmud II (Ottoman Turkish: محمود ثانى‎, romanized: Mahmud-u s̠ānī, Turkish: İkinci Mahmut; 20 July 1785 – 1 July 1839) was the 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839. His reign is recognized for the extensive administrative, military, and fiscal reforms he instituted, which culminated in the Decree of Tanzimat ("reorganization") that was carried out by his sons Abdulmejid I and Abdülaziz. Often described as "Peter the Great of Turkey",[1] Mahmud's reforms included the 1826 abolition of the conservative Janissary corps, which removed a major obstacle to his and his successors' reforms in the Empire. The reforms he instituted were characterized by political and social changes, which would eventually lead to the birth of the modern Turkish Republic.[2] Mahmud II is the last sultan who used his political (non-judgmental) execution authority.[
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Constitutional Monarchy
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.[1] Constitutional monarchy differs from absolute monarchy (in which a monarch holds absolute power) in that constitutional monarchs are bound to exercise their powers and authorities within the limits prescribed within an established legal framework. Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Malaysia and Japan, where the monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority. The oldest constitutional monarchy dating back to ancient times was that of the Hittites
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