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Belleville, New Jersey
BELLEVILLE (French : "Belle ville" meaning "Beautiful city / town" ) is a township in Essex County , New Jersey
New Jersey
, United States. As of the 2010 United States
United States
Census , the township's population was 35,926, reflecting a decline of 2 (0.0%) from the 35,928 counted in the 2000 Census , which had in turn increased by 1,715 (+5.0%) from the 34,213 counted in the 1990 Census . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 3.1 2010 Census * 3.2 2000 Census * 4 Government * 4.1 Local government * 4.2 Federal, state and county representation * 4.3 Politics * 5 Education * 6 Transportation * 6.1 Roads and highways * 6.2 Public transportation * 7 Places of interest * 7.1 Belleville locations in _The Sopranos_ * 7.2 1996 Torch Relay * 8 Notable people * 8.1 Belleville characters in _The Sopranos_ * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORY Hillside Pleasure Park in Belleville, c. 1905 Originally known as "Second River" or "Washington", the inhabitants renamed the settlement "Belleville" in 1797. Belleville was originally incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 8, 1839, from portions of Bloomfield . Portions of the township were taken to create Woodside Township (March 24, 1869, now defunct) and Franklin Township (February 18, 1874, now known as Nutley )
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Township (New Jersey)
A TOWNSHIP, in the context of New Jersey
New Jersey
local government , refers to one of five types and one of eleven forms of municipal government . As a political entity, a township in New Jersey
New Jersey
is a full-fledged municipality, on par with any town , city , borough , or village , collecting property taxes and providing services such as maintaining roads, garbage collection, water, sewer, schools, police and fire protection. The Township
Township
form of local government is used by 27% of New Jersey
New Jersey
municipalities; however, slightly over 50% of the state's population resides within them. Townships in New Jersey
New Jersey
differ from townships elsewhere in the United States. In many states, townships can be an intermediate form of government, between county government and municipalities that are subordinate parts of the township, with different government responsibilities allocated at each level. In New Jersey, there are no subordinate municipalities located within a township, as a New Jersey township is a form of municipal government within a county, equal in status to a village , town , borough , or city , all of which may coexist within a county. Municipalities in New Jersey
New Jersey
may be classified into one of five types, of which townships are one
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Essex County, New Jersey
ESSEX COUNTY is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of New Jersey
New Jersey
. As of the 2016 Census estimate , the county's population was 796,914, making it the state's third-most populous county, an increase of 1.7% from the 2010 United States
United States
Census , when its population was enumerated at 783,969, in turn a decrease of 1.2% (9,664 fewer residents) from the 793,633 enumerated in the 2000 Census . In 2010, the county dropped down to third-largest, behind Middlesex County , and was one of only two counties in the state to see a decline between 2000 and 2010 (Cape May County being the other). Its county seat is Newark . It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area . The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 94th-highest per capita income of all 3,113 counties in the United States (and the seventh-highest in New Jersey) as of 2009
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New Jersey
NEW JERSEY is a state in the Northeastern and mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. It is a peninsula , bordered on the north and east by the state of New York ; on the east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
; on the west by the Delaware Riverand Pennsylvania; and on the southwest by the Delaware Bayand Delaware. New Jerseyis the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous and the most densely populated of the 50 U.S. states . New Jerseylies entirely within the combined statistical areas of New York Cityand Philadelphiaand is the second-wealthiest U.S. stateby per capita income as of 2014. New Jerseywas inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenapealong the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes made the first European settlements. The English later seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jerseyafter the largest of the Channel Islands , Jersey, and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton. New Jerseywas the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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List Of Sovereign States
This LIST OF SOVEREIGN STATES provides an overview of sovereign states around the world , with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty . Membership within the United Nations
United Nations
system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states , two observer states , and 11 other states. The _sovereignty dispute_ column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states, out of which there are 6 member states, 1 observer state and 9 other states). Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood . For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the _criteria for inclusion _ section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have _de facto_ status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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U.S. State
A U.S. STATE is a constituent political entity of the United States of America . There are currently 50 states, which are bound together in a union with each other. Each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a defined geographic territory, and shares its sovereignty with the United States
United States
federal government . Due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans
Americans
are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside . State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states , except for persons covered by certain types of court orders (e.g., paroled convicts and children of divorced spouses who are sharing custody ). States range in population from just under 600,000 (Wyoming) to over 39 million (California), and in area from 1,214 square miles (3,140 km2) (Rhode Island) to 663,268 square miles (1,717,860 km2) (Alaska). Four states use the term _commonwealth _ rather than _state_ in their full official names. States are divided into counties or county-equivalents, which may be assigned some local governmental authority but are not sovereign. County or county-equivalent structure varies widely by state. State governments are allocated power by the people (of each respective state) through their individual constitutions
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List Of Counties In New Jersey
There are 21 counties in New Jersey
New Jersey
. These counties together contain 565 municipalities , or administrative entities composed of clearly defined territory; 250 boroughs , 52 cities , 15 towns , 244 townships , and 4 villages . In New Jersey, a county is a local level of government between the state and municipalities. County government
County government
in New Jersey
New Jersey
includes a Board of Chosen Freeholders , sheriff, clerk, and surrogate (responsible for uncontested and routine probate), all of which are elected officials. Counties organized under the Optional County Charter Law may also have an elected county executive . Counties traditionally perform state-mandated duties such as the maintenance of jails, parks, and certain roads. The site of a county's administration and courts is called the county seat . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Representation in the New Jersey
New Jersey
Legislature * 3 FIPS code * 4 Counties * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY See also: History of New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey
was governed by two groups of proprietors as two distinct provinces, East Jersey and West Jersey , between 1674 and 1702
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Municipal Corporation
A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION is the legal term for a local governing body , including (but not necessarily limited to) cities , counties , towns , townships , charter townships , villages , and boroughs . The term can also be used to describe municipally-owned enterprises. CONTENTS* 1 Municipal corporation as local self-government * 1.1 Canada * 1.2 India * 1.3 Ireland * 1.4 United States * 2 Municipal corporation as enterprises * 3 See also * 4 References MUNICIPAL CORPORATION AS LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENTMunicipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which they are located. Often, this event is marked by the award or declaration of a municipal charter . A CITY CHARTER or TOWN CHARTER (generically, MUNICIPAL CHARTER) is a legal document establishing a municipality such as a city or town . The concept developed in Europe during the Middle Ages and is considered to be a municipal version of a constitution . With the notable exceptions of the City of London Corporation and the Laugharne Corporation , the term has fallen out of favour in the United Kingdom, but the concept remains central to local government in the United Kingdom , as well as former British colonies such as Canada and India
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Namesake
A NAMESAKE is a person named after another. _Namesake_ may also refer to a thing, such as a company, place, ship, building, or concept, named after a person. In general, the second recipient of a name, named for the first, is said to be the _namesake_ of the first. The attribution can, however, go in the opposite direction, with _namesake_ referring to the original holder of the name (the eponym ). The word is first recorded in the mid-seventeenth century, and probably comes from the phrase "for name's sake". USAGENaming a child after a relative, friend, or well-known person is a common practice in the English-speaking world. When a son is named for his father, it is customary (primarily in the United States ) to add "Jr.", "III'", or another name suffix to the name of the son (and sometimes "Sr." or a prior number to the father's name), in order to distinguish between individuals; especially if both father and son become famous, as in the case of poet, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. , and his son, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. , an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court . Sometimes the "Jr." or "Sr." suffix is applied even when the child's legal name differs from that of the parent. One notable example is that of the singer Hiram King Williams, known professionally as Hank Williams , and his son Randall Hank Williams, known professionally as Hank Williams Jr
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic ) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages , most notably Haitian Creole . A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as "FRANCOPHONE" in both English and French
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Faulkner Act (Council-Manager)
The FAULKNER ACT , or OPTIONAL MUNICIPAL CHARTER LAW, provides for New Jersey
New Jersey
municipalities to adopt a council–manager government. The council consists of five, seven, or nine members elected by the public. One of the councilors – chosen either by at-large election or by a vote among the councilors – serves as the mayor, who is merely the chair of the council and has no special privileges such as veto power. The council hires a manager, who serves as the chief executive and administrative official. The manager prepares the budget, appoints and removes department heads, and attends council meetings, but does not have a vote. As in all Faulkner Act municipalities, citizens in the council–manager system enjoy the right of initiative and referendum , meaning that proposed ordinances can be introduced directly by the people without action by the local governing body. This right is exercised by preparing a conforming petition signed by 10% of the registered voters who turned out in the last general election in an odd-numbered year. Once the petition is submitted, the local governing body can vote to pass the requested ordinance, and if they refuse, it is then submitted directly to the voters. The following municipalities have adopted council–manager system under the Faulkner Act. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it
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Mayor
In many countries, a MAYOR (/ˈmɛər/ or /ˈmeɪər/ , from the Latin
Latin
_maior_ , meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town . Worldwide, there is a wide variance in local laws and customs regarding the powers and responsibilities of a mayor as well as the means by which a mayor is elected or otherwise mandated. Depending on the system chosen, a mayor may be the chief executive officer of the municipal government, may simply chair a multi-member governing body with little or no independent power, or may play a solely ceremonial role. Options for selection of a mayor include direct election by the public, or selection by an elected governing council or board
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City Manager
A CITY MANAGER is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer (CEO) or chief administrative officer (CAO) in some municipalities. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 History * 3 Responsibilities * 4 Profile * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Further reading * 8 External links DESCRIPTION Dayton, Ohio
Dayton, Ohio
suffered a great flood in 1913, and responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy; civil engineers were especially preferred. Other small or middle sized American cities, especially in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas; Charlotte, North Carolina; Dallas, Texas; Dayton, Ohio; Rochester, New York; and San Diego, California. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority that is set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law , as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. HISTORY Municipal government diagram
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Municipal Clerk
A CLERK is a senior official of many municipal governments in the English-speaking world. In some communities, the position is elected, but in many others, the clerk is appointed to their post. In almost all cases, the actual title of the clerk reflects the type of municipality he or she works for, thus, instead of simply being known as the clerk, the position is generally referred to as the TOWN CLERK, TOWNSHIP CLERK, CITY CLERK, VILLAGE CLERK, BOROUGH CLERK, BOARD SECRETARY, or COUNTY CLERK. Other titles also exist. The office has existed for centuries, though in some places it is now being merged with other positions. The duties of a municipal clerk vary even more than their titles. Particularly in the United States, it is difficult to fully describe a clerk's duties, because there are hundreds of different jobs a clerk may fulfill. In some U.S. states, there are provisions in the state constitutions delineating the clerk's duties, but in other states, each municipality decides for itself what role the clerk plays, or even, if there need be a clerk at all
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