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Belief
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology
Epistemology
* Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e BELIEF is the state of mind in which a person thinks something to be the case, with or without there being empirical evidence to prove that something is the case with factual certainty. Another way of defining belief sees it as a mental representation of an attitude positively oriented towards the likelihood of something being true . In the context of Ancient Greek thought , two related concepts were identified with regards to the concept of belief: pistis and doxa . Simplified, we may say that pistis refers to "trust" and "confidence", while doxa refers to "opinion" and "acceptance". The English word "orthodoxy " derives from doxa
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Orthodoxy
ORTHODOXY (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία, orthodoxia – "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds , especially in religion. In the Christian sense the term means "conforming to the Christian faith as represented in the creeds of the early Church". The first seven Ecumenical Councils were held between the years of 325 and 787 with the aim of formalizing accepted doctrines. In some English speaking countries, Jews who adhere to all the traditions and commandments of the Torah
Torah
are often called Orthodox Jews , though the term "orthodox" historically first described Christian beliefs
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Venn Diagram
A VENN DIAGRAM (also called PRIMARY DIAGRAM, SET DIAGRAM or LOGIC DIAGRAM) is a diagram that shows all possible logical relations between a finite collection of different sets . These diagrams depict elements as points in the plane, and sets as regions inside closed curves. A Venn diagram
Venn diagram
consists of multiple overlapping closed curves, usually circles, each representing a set. The points inside a curve labelled S represent elements of the set S, while points outside the boundary represent elements not in the set S. Thus, for example, the set of all elements that are members of both sets S and T, S ∩ T, is represented visually by the area of overlap of the regions S and T. In Venn diagrams the curves are overlapped in every possible way, showing all possible relations between the sets. They are thus a special case of Euler diagrams , which do not necessarily show all relations. Venn diagrams were conceived around 1880 by John Venn
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Likelihood
In statistics , a LIKELIHOOD FUNCTION (often simply the LIKELIHOOD) is a function of the parameters of a statistical model given data. Likelihood functions play a key role in statistical inference , especially methods of estimating a parameter from a set of statistics . In informal contexts, "likelihood" is often used as a synonym for "probability ." In statistics, a distinction is made depending on the roles of outcomes vs. parameters. Probability
Probability
is used before data are available to describe possible future outcomes given a fixed value for the parameter (or parameter vector). Likelihood is used after data are available to describe a function of a parameter (or parameter vector) for a given outcome
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Intentionality
INTENTIONALITY is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs". The once obsolete term dates from medieval scholastic philosophy , but in more recent times it has been resurrected by Franz Brentano and adopted by Edmund Husserl
Edmund Husserl
. The earliest theory of intentionality is associated with St. Anselm 's ontological argument for the existence of God , and with his tenets distinguishing between objects that exist in the understanding and objects that exist in reality
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Mental Representation
A MENTAL REPRESENTATION (or COGNITIVE REPRESENTATION), in philosophy of mind , cognitive psychology , neuroscience , and cognitive science , is a hypothetical internal cognitive symbol that represents external reality, or else a mental process that makes use of such a symbol: "a formal system for making explicit certain entities or types of information, together with a specification of how the system does this". Mental representation is the mental imagery of things that are not actually present to the senses. In contemporary philosophy , specifically in fields of metaphysics such as philosophy of mind and ontology , a mental representation is one of the prevailing ways of explaining and describing the nature of ideas and concepts . Mental representations (or mental imagery) enable representing things that have never been experienced as well as things that do not exist. Think of yourself traveling to a place you have never visited before, or having a third arm
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Euler Diagram
An EULER DIAGRAM (/ˈɔɪlər/ , OY-lər ) is a diagrammatic means of representing sets and their relationships. Typically they involve overlapping shapes, and may be scaled, such that the area of the shape is proportional to the number of elements it contains. They are particularly useful for explaining complex hierarchies and overlapping definitions. They are often confused with Venn diagrams . Unlike Venn diagrams, which show all possible relations between different sets, the Euler diagram
Euler diagram
shows only relevant relationships. The first use of "Eulerian circles" is commonly attributed to Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler
(1707–1783). In the United States, both Venn and Euler diagrams were incorporated as part of instruction in set theory as part of the new math movement of the 1960s
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Intersection (set Theory)
In mathematics , the INTERSECTION A ∩ B of two sets A and B is the set that contains all elements of A that also belong to B (or equivalently, all elements of B that also belong to A), but no other elements. For explanation of the symbols used in this article, refer to the table of mathematical symbols . CONTENTS* 1 Basic definition * 1.1 Intersecting and disjoint sets * 2 Arbitrary intersections * 3 Nullary intersection * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BASIC DEFINITION Intersection of three sets: A B C {displaystyle ~Acap Bcap C} Intersections of the Greek , English and Russian alphabet, considering only the shapes of the letters and ignoring their pronunciation Example of an intersection with sets The intersection of A and B is written "A ∩ B". Formally: A B = { x : x A and x B }
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Neuropsychology
NEUROPSYCHOLOGY studies the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours . It is an experimental field of psychology that aims to understand how behavior and cognition are influenced by brain functioning and is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral and cognitive effects of neurological disorders . Whereas classical neurology focuses on the physiology of the nervous system and classical psychology is largely divorced from it, neuropsychology seeks to discover how the brain correlates with the mind . It thus shares concepts and concerns with neuropsychiatry and with behavioral neurology in general. The term neuropsychology has been applied to lesion studies in humans and animals. It has also been applied to efforts to record electrical activity from individual cells (or groups of cells) in higher primates (including some studies of human patients)
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Neuroscience
NEUROSCIENCE (or NEUROBIOLOGY) is the scientific study of the nervous system . It is a multidisciplinary branch of biology , that deals with the anatomy , biochemistry , molecular biology , and physiology of neurons and neural circuits . It also draws upon other fields, with the most obvious being pharmacology , psychology , and medicine . The scope of neuroscience has broadened over time to include different approaches used to study the molecular , cellular , developmental , structural , functional , evolutionary , computational , psychosocial and medical aspects of the nervous system. Neuroscience has also given rise to such other disciplines as neuroeducation , neuroethics , and neurolaw . The techniques used by neuroscientists have also expanded enormously, from molecular and cellular studies of individual neurons to imaging of sensory and motor tasks in the brain . Recent theoretical advances in neuroscience have also been aided by the study of neural networks
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Philosophy Of Mind
PHILOSOPHY OF MIND is a branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind . The mind–body problem is a paradigm issue in philosophy of mind, although other issues are addressed, such as the hard problem of consciousness , and the nature of particular mental states. Aspects of the mind that are studied include mental events , mental functions , mental properties , consciousness , the ontology of the mind, the nature of thought, and the relationship of the mind to the body. Dualism
Dualism
and monism are the two central schools of thought on the mind–body problem, although nuanced views have arisen that do not fit one or the other category neatly
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Dispositive
In law , a DISPOSITIVE MOTION is a motion seeking a trial court order entirely disposing of all or part of the claims in favor of the moving party without need for further trial court proceedings. "To dispose" of a claim means to decide the claim in favor of one or another party. As a lawsuit may comprise numerous claims made by and against numerous parties, not every dispositive motion seeks to dispose of the entire lawsuit. In the U.S., the most common type of dispositive motions seeking to dispose of the entire lawsuit are those for summary judgment. Many U.S. state jurisdictions also provide for a "partial summary judgment" or motion for "summary adjudication of issues" which only seeks to dispose of part of a lawsuit. See, e.g., California Code of Civil Procedure section 437c(f)(1)
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Sophist
A SOPHIST (Greek : σοφιστής, sophistes) was a specific kind of teacher in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC. Many sophists specialized in using the tools of philosophy and rhetoric , though other sophists taught subjects such as music, athletics, and mathematics. In general, they claimed to teach arete ("excellence" or "virtue", applied to various subject areas), predominantly to young statesmen and nobility. The term originated from Greek σόφισμα, sophisma, from σοφίζω, sophizo "I am wise"; confer σοφιστής, sophistēs, meaning "wise-ist, one who does wisdom ," and σοφός, sophós means "wise man". There are not many writings from and about the first sophists
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Mind
The MIND is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness , perception , thinking , judgement , and memory . It is usually defined as the faculty of an entity's thoughts and consciousness . It holds the power of imagination, recognition, and appreciation, and is responsible for processing feelings and emotions, resulting in attitudes and actions. There is a lengthy tradition in philosophy , religion , psychology , and cognitive science about what constitutes a mind and what is its distinguishing properties. One open question regarding the nature of the mind is the mind–body problem , which investigates the relation of the mind to the physical brain and nervous system. Pre-scientific viewpoints included dualism and idealism , which considered the mind somehow non-physical. Modern views center around physicalism and functionalism , which hold that the mind is roughly identical with the brain or reducible to physical phenomena such as neuronal activity
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Ancient Greek Philosophy
ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHY arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
. Philosophy
Philosophy
was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy , ethics , metaphysics , ontology , logic , biology , rhetoric , and aesthetics . Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture since its inception
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Lynne Rudder Baker
LYNNE RUDDER BAKER (born February 14, 1944) is an American philosopher and author, currently a Distinguished Professor at the University of Massachusetts Amherst
University of Massachusetts Amherst
. She is a native of Atlanta</