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Beisi Pagoda
The Beisi Pagoda
Pagoda
(Chinese: 北寺塔; pinyin: Běisì Tǎ; Wade–Giles: Peiszu T'a; Suzhou
Suzhou
Wu: Poh zy thaeh, Wu Chinese pronunciation: [poʔ zz̩ tʰɑʔ]) or North Temple Pagoda
Pagoda
is a Chinese pagoda
Chinese pagoda
located at Bao'en Temple in Suzhou, Jiangsu
Jiangsu
Province, China. The base of the pagoda has an octagonal frame, and the tower rises nine stories in a total height of 76 m (249 ft). The pagoda was once eleven stories tall, but was damaged and reduced to nine stories. Its double eaves and flying corners are similar to that of the Liuhe Pagoda
Liuhe Pagoda
found in Hangzhou
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Renovation
Renovation
Renovation
(also called remodeling) is the process of improving a broken, damaged, or outdated structure. Renovations are typically either commercial or residential.[citation needed] Additionally, renovation can refer to making something new, or bringing something back to life and can apply in social contexts. For example, a community can be renovated if it is strengthened and revived.[1]Contents1 Process 2 Reasons 3 Wood and renovations 4 Process 5 Effects 6 See also 7 ReferencesProcess[edit]The interior of a Victorian building
Victorian building
in Lincoln Park, Chicago
Lincoln Park, Chicago
in the process of being renovated in June 1971. Note the elements of the edifice scattered and sorted about.This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed
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Copper
Copper
Copper
is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from Latin: cuprum) and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable, and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. Copper
Copper
is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys, such as sterling silver used in jewelry, cupronickel used to make marine hardware and coins, and constantan used in strain gauges and thermocouples for temperature measurement. Copper
Copper
is one of the few metals that occur in nature in directly usable metallic form (native metals) as opposed to needing extraction from an ore. This led to very early human use, from c. 8000 BC. It was the first metal to be smelted from its ore, c. 5000 BC, the first metal to be cast into a shape in a mold, c
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Steeple (architecture)
A steeple, in architecture, is a tall tower on a building, topped by a spire and often incorporating a belfry and other components. Steeples are very common on Christian
Christian
churches and cathedrals and the use of the term generally connotes a religious structure. They may be stand-alone structures, or incorporated into the entrance or center of the building.Contents1 Architectural 2 Threats to steeples 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksArchitectural[edit] Clock towers were not a part of Christian
Christian
churches until about AD 600, when they were adapted from military watchtowers. At first they were fairly modest and entirely separate structures from churches. Over time, they were incorporated into the church building and capped with ever-more-elaborate roofs until the steeple resulted. St. Martin's church steeple, in Arbon, Switzerland, is a good example of such an early church tower
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Monk
A monk (/mʌŋk/, from Greek: μοναχός, monachos, "single, solitary" and Latin
Latin
monachus[1]) is a person who practices religious asceticism by monastic living, either alone or with any number of other monks. A monk may be a person who decides to dedicate his life to serving all other living beings, or to be an ascetic who voluntarily chooses to leave mainstream society and live his or her life in prayer and contemplation. The concept is ancient and can be seen in many religions and in philosophy. In the Greek language
Greek language
the term can apply to women, but in modern English it is mainly in use for men. The word nun is typically used for female monastics. Although the term monachos is of Christian
Christian
origin, in the English language monk tends to be used loosely also for both male and female ascetics from other religious or philosophical backgrounds
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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Liang Dynasty
The Liang dynasty
Liang dynasty
(Chinese: 梁朝; pinyin: Liáng cháo) (502–557), also known as the Southern Liang dynasty
Liang dynasty
(南梁), was the third of the Southern Dynasties during China's Southern and Northern Dynasties period. It was located in East China
China
and South China, and replaced by the Chen dynasty
Chen dynasty
in 557
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Wet Nurse
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.[1] Wet nurses are employed when the mother is unable or elects not to nurse the child herself. Wet-nursed children may be known as "milk-siblings", and in some cultures the families are linked by a special relationship of milk kinship. Mothers who nurse each other's babies are engaging in a reciprocal act known as cross-nursing or co-nursing.Contents1 Reasons 2 Eliciting milk 3 Historical and cultural practices3.1 Mythology 3.2 Ancient Rome 3.3 England 3.4 France 3.5 United States4 Relationships 5 Current attitudes in Western countries 6 Current situation elsewhere 7 Notable wetnurses 8 See also 9 ReferencesReasons[edit] A wet nurse can help when a mother is unable or unwilling to feed her baby
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Sun Quan
Sun Quan
Sun Quan
(182 – 21 May 252),[a][2] courtesy name Zhongmou, formally known as Emperor Da of Wu (literally "Great Emperor of Wu"), was the founder of the state of Eastern Wu
Eastern Wu
during the Three Kingdoms
Three Kingdoms
period. He inherited control of the warlord regime established by his elder brother, Sun Ce, in 200. He declared formal independence and ruled from 222 to 229 as the King of Wu and from 229 to 252 as the Emperor of Wu
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Buddhist
Buddhism
Buddhism
(/ˈbʊdɪzəm, ˈbuː-/)[1][2] is a religion[3][4] and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on original teachings attributed to the Buddha and resulting interpreted philosophies. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada
Theravada
(Pali: "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana
Mahayana
(Sanskrit: "The Great Vehicle")
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Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Ming Dynasty
The Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
(/mɪŋ/)[2] was the ruling dynasty of China
China
– then known as the Great Ming Empire
Empire
– for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming, described by Edwin O. Reischauer, John K. Fairbank and Albert M. Craig as "one of the greatest eras of orderly government and social stability in human history",[3] was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese
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Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha[note 3] (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama,[note 4] Shakyamuni Buddha,[4][note 5] or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage,[4] on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded.[5] He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE.[6][note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement[7] common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha
Magadha
and Kosala.[6][8] Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism
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Balustrade
A baluster—also called spindle or stair stick[citation needed]—is a moulded shaft, square or of lathe-turned form, cut from a rectangular or square plank, one of various forms of spindle in woodwork, made of stone or wood and sometimes of metal,[1] standing on a unifying footing, and supporting the coping of a parapet or the handrail of a staircase.[2] Multiplied in this way, they form a balustrade.[3] Individually, a baluster shaft may describe the turned form taken by a brass or silver candlestick, an upright furniture support, or the stem of a brass chandelier, etc.A balustradeSwelling form of the half-open flower of Punica granatum, in Italian balaustraContents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Profiles and style changes 4 Modern materials used 5 Banisters 6 See also 7 Notes 8 References 9 External linksEtymology[edit] According to OED, "baluster" is derived through the French: balustre, from Italian: balaustro, from balaustra, "pomegranate flower" [from
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Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Mandarin: [xǎŋ.ʈʂóu] ( listen); local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
Province in east China.[2] It sits at the head of Hangzhou
Hangzhou
Bay, which separates Shanghai
Shanghai
and Ningbo. Hangzhou
Hangzhou
grew to prominence as the southern terminus of the Grand Canal and has been one of the most renowned and prosperous cities in China
China
for much of the last millennium
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