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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American beaver †C. californicus Distribution of C. fiber. Distribution of C. canadensis. Fossils of C. californicusThe BEAVER (genus CASTOR) is a large, primarily nocturnal , semiaquatic rodent . Castor includes two extant species, the North American beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) ( Eurasia
Eurasia
). Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara ). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Birch
A BIRCH is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus BETULA (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/ ), in the family Betulaceae
Betulaceae
, which also includes alders , hazels , and hornbeams . It is closely related to the beech -oak family Fagaceae
Fagaceae
. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern temperate and boreal climates
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Carl Linnaeus
CARL LINNAEUS (/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/ ; 23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as CARL VON LINNé (Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )), was a Swedish botanist , physician , and zoologist , who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature . He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
, and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as CAROLUS LINNæUS (after 1761 CAROLUS A LINNé). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland
Småland
, in southern Sweden . He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University , and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and also published a first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands
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Alder
ALDER is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (ALNUS) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae
Betulaceae
. The genus comprises about 35 species of monoecious trees and shrubs , a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America
Central America
, as well as the northern and southern Andes
Andes
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Description * 3 Ecology * 3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fixation * 3.2 Parasites * 4 Uses * 5 Classification * 6 Hybrids * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe common name alder evolved from Old English alor, which in turn is derived from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root aliso. The generic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin
Latin
name
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of species DistributionACER /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as MAPLE. The genus is placed in the Sapindaceae family. There are approximately 128 species , most of which are native to Asia, with a number also appearing in Europe, northern Africa, and North America. Only one species, Acer laurinum , extends to the Southern Hemisphere. The type species of the genus is the sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus , the most common maple species in Europe
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Cherry
A CHERRY is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus
Prunus
, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from a limited number of species such as cultivars of the sweet cherry, Prunus
Prunus
avium . The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom ". WILD CHERRY may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is often referred to specifically by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles
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Chordate
And see text A CHORDATE is an animal belonging to the phylum CHORDATA; they possess a notochord , a hollow dorsal nerve cord , pharyngeal slits , an endostyle , and a post-anal tail , for at least some period of their life cycle. Chordates are deuterostomes , as during the embryo development stage the anus forms before the mouth. They are also bilaterally symmetric coelomates . In the case of vertebrate chordates, the notochord is usually replaced by a vertebral column during development, and they may have body plans organized by segmentation . Taxonomically, the phylum includes the subphyla Vertebrata
Vertebrata
, which includes fish , amphibians , reptiles , birds , and mammals ; Tunicata , which includes salps and sea squirts ; and Cephalochordata
Cephalochordata
, comprising the lancelets . There are also additional extinct taxa
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Sedges
About 109 (not all listed here) The CYPERACEAE are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as SEDGES, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes . The family is large, with some 5,500 known species described in about 90 genera , the largest being the Carex genus of "true sedges" with over 2,000 species. These species are widely distributed, with the centers of diversity for the group occurring in tropical Asia
Asia
and tropical South America
South America
. While sedges may be found growing in almost all environments, many are associated with wetlands , or with poor soils. Ecological communities dominated by sedges are known as sedgelands. Features distinguishing members of the sedge family from grasses or rushes are stems with triangular cross-sections (with occasional exceptions) and leaves that are spirally arranged in three ranks (grasses have alternate leaves forming two ranks)
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Species
In biology , a SPECIES (abbreviated SP., with the plural form SPECIES abbreviated SPP.) is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank . A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring , typically by sexual reproduction . While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic . For example, with hybridisation , in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies , or in a ring species , the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA
DNA
, morphology , or ecological niche . All species are given a two-part name , a "binomial". The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs. The second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet (in botanical nomenclature , also sometimes in zoological nomenclature )
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Willow
About 400. See List of Salix species WILLOWS, also called SALLOWS, and OSIERS, form the genus SALIX, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs , found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere . Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called OSIER, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as SALLOW (from Old English sealh, related to the Latin word salix, willow). Some willows (particularly arctic and alpine species) are low-growing or creeping shrubs; for example, the dwarf willow (Salix herbacea ) rarely exceeds 6 cm (2.4 in) in height, though it spreads widely across the ground
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Eurasia
EURASIA /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia
Asia
. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia
Eurasia
is recognized as the largest of five or six continents. In geology, Eurasia
Eurasia
is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia
Eurasia
is debated based on the paleomagnet data. Eurasia
Eurasia
covers around 55,000,000 square kilometres (21,000,000 sq mi), or around 36.2% of the Earth
Earth
's total land area. The landmass contains around 5.0 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population . Humans first settled in Eurasia
Eurasia
between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago
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Capybara
The CAPYBARA ( Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is the largest rodent in the world. Also called CHIGüIRE, it is a member of the genus Hydrochoerus , of which the only other extant member is the lesser capybara ( Hydrochoerus isthmius). Close relatives are guinea pigs and rock cavies , and it is more distantly related to the agouti , the chinchilla , and the coypu . Native to South America
South America
, the capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually lives in groups of 10–20 individuals. The capybara is not a threatened species and is hunted for its meat and hide and also for a grease from its thick fatty skin which is used in the pharmaceutical trade
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Quaking Aspen
POPULUS TREMULOIDES is a deciduous tree native to cooler areas of North America
North America
, one of several species referred to by the common name aspen . It is commonly called QUAKING ASPEN, TREMBLING ASPEN, AMERICAN ASPEN, QUAKIES, MOUNTAIN or GOLDEN ASPEN, TREMBLING POPLAR, WHITE POPLAR, POPPLE, and even more names. The trees have tall trunks, up to 25 meters (82 feet) tall, with smooth pale bark, scarred with black. The glossy green leaves, dull beneath, become golden to yellow, rarely red, in autumn. The species often propagates through its roots to form large clonal groves originating from a shared root system. These roots are not rhizomes , as new growth develops from adventitious buds on the parent root system (the ortet). Populus
Populus
tremuloides is the most widely distributed tree in North America, being found from Canada
Canada
to central Mexico
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Extant Taxon
NEONTOLOGY is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology , deals with living or recently extinct organisms . It is the study of living species , genera , families and other taxa with members still alive, as opposed to being all dead or extinct . For example, the moose is an extant species, while the Tyrannosaurus
Tyrannosaurus
is a long extinct one. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods , as of 1987 , there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species. A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as existing if there are new discoveries of living species ("Lazarus species" ), or if previously-known existing species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Populus Sect. Aigeiros
POPULUS SECTION AIGEIROS is a section of three species in the genus Populus , the poplars. Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods . The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides. They are large, deciduous trees that are 50-80 feet tall, distinguished by thick, deeply fissured bark and triangular-based to diamond-shaped leaves that are green on both sides (without the whitish wax on the undersides) and without any obvious balsam scent in spring. An important feature of the leaves is the petiole , which is flattened sideways so that the leaves have a particular type of movement in the wind. Male and female flowers are in separate catkins, appearing before the leaves in spring
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Genus
A GENUS (/ˈdʒiːnəs/ , pl. GENERA) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology . In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family . In binomial nomenclature , the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus. E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris are two species within the genus Felis
Felis
. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae . The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist . The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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