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Beaver
C. fiber – Eurasian beaver C. canadensis – North American
North American
beaver †C. californicusDistribution of C. fiber.Distribution of C. canadensis.Fossils of C. californicusThe beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, the North American
North American
beaver (Castor canadensis) (native to North America) and Eurasian beaver (Castor fiber) (Eurasia).[1] Beavers
Beavers
are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American beaver
North American beaver
population was once more than 60 million, but as of 1988 was 6–12 million
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Dentin
Dentin
Dentin
(/ˈdɛntɪn/) (American English) or dentine (/ˈdɛnˌtiːn/ or /ˌdɛnˈtiːn/) (British English) (Latin: substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth. It is usually covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp. By volume, 45% of dentin consists of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 33% is organic material, and 22% is water.[1] Yellow in appearance, it greatly affects the color of a tooth due to the translucency of enamel. Dentin, which is less mineralized and less brittle than enamel, is necessary for the support of enamel.[2] Dentin rates approximately 3 on the Mohs scale
Mohs scale
of mineral hardness.[3] There are two main characteristics which distinguish dentine from enamel; firstly dentine forms throughout life, and secondly, dentine is sensitive
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Willow
About 400.[2] See List of Salix speciesWillows, also called sallows, and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 species[2] of deciduous trees and shrubs, found primarily on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, and some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow (from Old English
Old English
sealh, related to the Latin
Latin
word salix, willow)
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Cherry
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit). The cherry fruits of commerce usually are obtained from cultivars of a limited number of species such as the sweet cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
avium) and the sour cherry ( Prunus
Prunus
cerasus). The name 'cherry' also refers to the cherry tree, and is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom"
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Maple
See either species grouped by sections alphabetical list of speciesDistributionAcer /ˈeɪsər/ is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple
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Birch
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula (/ˈbɛtjʊlə/),[2] in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus Betula contains 30 to 60 known taxa of which 11 are on the IUCN 2011 Green List of Threatened Species. They are a typically rather short-lived pioneer species widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in northern areas of temperate climates and in boreal climates.[3]Contents1 Description1.1 Flower and fruit2 Taxonomy2.1 Subdivision 2.2 Etymology3 Ecology 4 Uses4.1 Cultivation 4.2 Medical 4.3 Paper 4.4 Tonewood5 Culture 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksDescription[edit]The front and rear sides of a piece of birch bark Birch
Birch
species are generally small to medium-sized trees or shrubs, mostly of northern temperate and boreal climates
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Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(/lɪˈniːəs, lɪˈneɪəs/;[1][2] 23 May[note 1] 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné[3] (Swedish pronunciation: [kɑːɭ fɔn lɪˈneː] ( listen)), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist, who formalised the modern system of naming organisms called binomial nomenclature. He is known by the epithet "father of modern taxonomy".[4] Many of his writings were in Latin
Latin
and his name is rendered in Latin
Latin
as Carolus Linnæus (after 1761 Carolus a Linné). Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was born in the countryside of Småland, in southern Sweden. He received most of his higher education at Uppsala University
Uppsala University
and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730
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Alder
Alder
Alder
is the common name of a genus of flowering plants (Alnus) belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. The genus comprises about 35[2] species of monoecious trees and shrubs, a few reaching a large size, distributed throughout the north temperate zone with a few species extending into Central America, as well as the northern and southern Andes.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Description 3 Ecology3.1 Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fixation 3.2 Parasites4 Uses 5 Classification 6 Hybrids 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The common name alder evolved from Old English alor, which in turn is derived from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root[3] aliso. The generic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin
Latin
name
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Species
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition. Scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If as Linnaeus
Linnaeus
thought, species were fixed, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, and to grade into one another. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, when looked at more closely it is problematic. For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear
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Genus
A genus (/ˈdʒiːnəs/, pl. genera /ˈdʒɛnərə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms in biology. In the hierarchy of biological classification, genus comes above species and below family. In binomial nomenclature, the genus name forms the first part of the binomial species name for each species within the genus.E.g. Felis catus
Felis catus
and Felis silvestris
Felis silvestris
are two species within the genus Felis. Felis
Felis
is a genus within the family Felidae.The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, so different authorities often produce different classifications for genera
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Animal
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, reproduce sexually, and grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million in total. Animals range in size from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres (110 ft) long and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The study of animals is called zoology. Aristotle divided animals into those with blood and those without. Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809
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Nocturnal Animal
Nocturnality
Nocturnality
is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal", versus diurnal meaning the opposite. Nocturnal creatures generally have highly developed senses of hearing, smell, and specially adapted eyesight. Such traits can help animals such as the Helicoverpa zea
Helicoverpa zea
moths avoid predators.[1] Some animals, such as cats and ferrets, have eyes that can adapt to both low-level and bright day levels of illumination (see metaturnal). Others, such as bushbabies and (some) bats, can function only at night. Many nocturnal creatures including tarsiers and some owls have large eyes in comparison with their body size to compensate for the lower light levels at night
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Populus Sect. Aigeiros
Populus
Populus
section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars. Like some other species in the genus Populus, they are commonly known as cottonwoods. The species are native to North America, Europe, and western Asia. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides. They are large, deciduous trees that are 50–80 feet tall, distinguished by thick, deeply fissured bark and triangular-based to diamond-shaped leaves that are green on both sides (without the whitish wax on the undersides) and without any obvious balsam scent in spring. An important feature of the leaves is the petiole, which is flattened sideways so that the leaves have a particular type of movement in the wind. Male and female flowers are in separate catkins, appearing before the leaves in spring
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Extant Taxon
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms. It is the study of extant taxa (singular: extant taxon): taxa (such as species, genera and families) with members still alive, as opposed to (all) being extinct. For example:The moose (Alces alces) is an extant species, and the dodo is an extinct species. In the group of molluscs known as the cephalopods, as of 1987[update] there were approximately 600 extant species and 7,500 extinct species.[1]A taxon can be classified as extinct if it is broadly agreed or certified that no members of the group are still alive. Conversely, an extinct taxon can be reclassified as extant if there are new discoveries of extant species ("Lazarus species"), or if previously-known extant species are reclassified as members of the taxon. The term neontologist is used largely by paleontologists referring to nonpaleontologists
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Eurasia
Eurasia
Eurasia
/jʊəˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.[3][4][5] The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
and Asia)
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Capybara
The capybara ( Hydrochoerus
Hydrochoerus
hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America. It is the largest living rodent in the world. Also called chigüire and carpincho, it is a member of the genus Hydrochoerus, of which the only other extant member is the lesser capybara ( Hydrochoerus
Hydrochoerus
isthmius). Its close relatives include guinea pigs and rock cavies, and it is more distantly related to the agouti, the chinchilla, and the coypu. The capybara inhabits savannas and dense forests and lives near bodies of water. It is a highly social species and can be found in groups as large as 100 individuals, but usually lives in groups of 10–20 individuals
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