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Bearing (navigation)
In navigation bearing may refer, depending on the context, to any of: (A) the direction or course of motion itself[citation needed]; (B) the direction of a distant object relative to the current course (or the "change" in course that would be needed to get to that distant object); or (C), the angle away from North of a distant point as observed at the current point.[citation needed] Absolute bearing
Absolute bearing
refers to the angle between the magnetic North (magnetic bearing) or true North (true bearing) and an object. For example, an object to the East would have an absolute bearing of 90 degrees. Relative bearing refers to the angle between the craft's forward direction, and the location of another object
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Port (nautical)
Port and starboard
Port and starboard
are nautical and aeronautical terms for left and right, respectively. Port is the left-hand side of a vessel or aircraft, facing forward. Starboard is the right-hand side, facing forward. Since port and starboard never change, they are unambiguous references that are not relative to the observer.[2][3] The term starboard derives from the Old English steorbord, meaning the side on which the ship is steered. Before ships had rudders on their centrelines, they were steered with a steering oar at the stern of the ship and, because more people are right-handed, on the right-hand side of it.[2] Since the steering oar was on the right side of the boat, it would tie up at the wharf on the other side. Hence the left side was called port.[4] Formerly, larboard was used instead of port
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Elevation (ballistics)
In ballistics, the elevation is the angle between the horizontal plane and the direction of the barrel of a gun, mortar or heavy artillery. Originally, elevation was a linear measure of how high the gunners had to physically lift the muzzle of a gun up from the gun carriage to hit targets at a certain distance.Contents1 Pre-WWI and WWI 2 WWII and beyond 3 See also 4 ReferencesPre-WWI and WWI[edit] Though early 20th-century firearms were relatively easy to fire, artillery was not. Before and during World War I, the only way to effectively fire artillery was plotting points on a plane. Most artillery units seldom employed their cannons in small numbers. Instead of using pin-point artillery firing they used old means of "fire for effect" using artillery en masse. This tactic was employed successfully by past armies. But changes have been made since past wars and in World War I, artillery was more accurate than before, although not as accurate as artillery one century newer
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Royal Navy
The Royal Navy
Navy
(RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War
Hundred Years War
against the Kingdom of France. The modern Royal Navy
Navy
traces its origins to the early 16th century; the oldest of the UK's armed services, it is known as the Senior Service. From the middle decades of the 17th century, and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy
Navy
vied with the Dutch Navy
Navy
and later with the French Navy
Navy
for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy
Navy
during the Second World War
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Surveying
A surveyor at work with a retroreflector used for distance measurement and orientation. Surveying
Surveying
or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages, and the law
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Gyrocompass
A gyrocompass is a type of non-magnetic compass which is based on a fast-spinning disc and the rotation of the Earth
Earth
(or another planetary body if used elsewhere in the universe) to find geographical direction automatically
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Stellar Navigation
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position. Celestial navigation uses "sights", or angular measurements taken between a celestial body (e.g. the Sun, the Moon, a planet, or a star) and the visible horizon. The Sun is most commonly used, but navigators can also use the Moon, a planet, Polaris, or one of 57 other navigational stars whose coordinates are tabulated in the nautical almanac and air almanacs. Celestial navigation is the use of angular measurements (sights) between celestial bodies and the visible horizon to locate one's position in the world, on land as well as at sea. At a given time, any celestial body is located directly over one point on the Earth's surface
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North Star
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (α Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, α UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor. It is very close to the north celestial pole, making it the current northern pole star. The revised Hipparcos
Hipparcos
parallax gives a distance to Polaris
Polaris
of about 433 light-years (133 parsecs), while calculations by other methods derive distances around 30% closer. Polaris
Polaris
is a multiple star, comprising the main star ( Polaris
Polaris
Aa, a yellow supergiant) in orbit with a smaller companion ( Polaris
Polaris
Ab); the pair in orbit with Polaris
Polaris
B (discovered in August 1779 by William Herschel)
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Polaris
Polaris, designated Alpha Ursae Minoris (α Ursae Minoris, abbreviated Alpha UMi, α UMi), commonly the North Star or Pole Star, is the brightest star in the constellation of Ursa Minor. It is very close to the north celestial pole, making it the current northern pole star. The revised Hipparcos
Hipparcos
parallax gives a distance to Polaris
Polaris
of about 433 light-years (133 parsecs), while calculations by other methods derive distances around 30% closer. Polaris
Polaris
is a multiple star, comprising the main star ( Polaris
Polaris
Aa, a yellow supergiant) in orbit with a smaller companion ( Polaris
Polaris
Ab); the pair in orbit with Polaris
Polaris
B (discovered in August 1779 by William Herschel)
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Geostationary Satellite
A geostationary orbit, geostationary Earth
Earth
orbit (often referred to as geosynchronous equatorial orbit)[1] (GEO) is a circular geosynchronous orbit 35,786 kilometres (22,236 mi) above the Earth's equator and following the direction of the Earth's rotation. An object in such an orbit appears motionless, at a fixed position in the sky, to ground observers. Communications satellites and weather satellites are often placed in geostationary orbits, so that the satellite antennas (located on Earth) that communicate with them do not have to rotate to track them, but can be pointed permanently at the position in the sky where the satellites are located
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Miller Cylindrical Projection
The Miller cylindrical projection
Miller cylindrical projection
is a modified Mercator projection, proposed by Osborn Maitland Miller in 1942
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Great Circle
A great circle, also known as an orthodrome, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane that passes through the center point of the sphere. A great circle is the largest circle that can be drawn on any given sphere. Any diameter of any great circle coincides with a diameter of the sphere, and therefore all great circles have the same center and circumference as each other. This special case of a circle of a sphere is in opposition to a small circle, that is, the intersection of the sphere and a plane that does not pass through the center. Every circle in Euclidean 3-space is a great circle of exactly one sphere. For most pairs of points on the surface of a sphere, there is a unique great circle through the two points. The exception is a pair of antipodal points, for which there are infinitely many great circles. The minor arc of a great circle between two points is the shortest surface-path between them
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Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy
Navy
(RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia
Federation of Australia
in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy
Navy
continued to support the RAN and provided additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships
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Cardinal Direction
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials N, E, S, and W. East
East
and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the clockwise direction of rotation from north and west being directly opposite east. Points between the cardinal directions form the points of the compass. The intermediate (intercardinal or ordinal) directions are northeast (NE), southeast (SE), southwest (SW), and northwest (NW)
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Flight Dynamics (fixed-wing Aircraft)
Flight dynamics
Flight dynamics
is the science of air vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. The three critical flight dynamics parameters are the angles of rotation in three dimensions about the vehicle's center of mass, known as pitch, roll and yaw. Aerospace engineers develop control systems for a vehicle's orientation (attitude) about its center of mass. The control systems include actuators, which exert forces in various directions, and generate rotational forces or moments about the aerodynamic center of the aircraft, and thus rotate the aircraft in pitch, roll, or yaw. For example, a pitching moment is a vertical force applied at a distance forward or aft from the aerodynamic center of the aircraft, causing the aircraft to pitch up or down. Roll, pitch and yaw refer to rotations about the respective axes starting from a defined steady flight equilibrium state
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Ground Track
A ground track or ground trace is the path on the surface of the Earth directly below an aircraft or satellite. In the case of a satellite, it is the projection of the satellite's orbit onto the surface of the Earth (or whatever body the satellite is orbiting). A satellite ground track may be thought of as a path along the Earth's surface which traces the movement of an imaginary line between the satellite and the center of the Earth
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