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Battle Of Cer
The Battle of Cer[b] was a military campaign fought between Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
and Serbia in August 1914 during the early stages of the Serbian Campaign of the First World War. It took place around Cer Mountain and several surrounding villages, as well as the town of Šabac. The battle, part of the first Austro-Hungarian invasion of Serbia, began on the night of 15 August when elements of the Serbian 1st Combined Division encountered Austro-Hungarian outposts that had been established on the slopes of Cer Mountain earlier in the invasion. The clashes that followed escalated into a battle for control over several towns and villages near the mountain, especially Šabac. On 19 August, the morale of the Austro-Hungarians collapsed and thousands of soldiers retreated back into Austria-Hungary, many of them drowning in the Drina
Drina
River as they fled in panic. On 24 August the Serbs re-entered Šabac, marking the end of the battle
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Danube
The Danube
Danube
or Donau (/ˈdænjuːb/ DAN-yoob, known by various names in other languages) is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe. The Danube
Danube
was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, and today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube
Danube
flows southeast for 2,860 km (1,780 mi), passing through or touching the border of Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova
Moldova
and Ukraine
Ukraine
before emptying into the Black Sea. Its drainage basin extends into nine more countries
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Macedonia (region)
Macedonia (/ˌmæsɪˈdoʊniə/ ( listen)) is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan
Balkan
peninsula in southeastern Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Nowadays the region is considered to include parts of six Balkan
Balkan
countries: Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia
Serbia
and Kosovo.[a] It covers approximately 67,000 square kilometres (25,869 sq mi) and has a population of 4.76 million. Its oldest known settlements date back approximately to 7,000 BC
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Bosnian Crisis
The Bosnian crisis
Bosnian crisis
of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation
Annexation
crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted when on 8 October 1908, Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formally within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire. This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence (5 October) from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers
Great Powers
and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro. In April 1909 the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on one hand and Serbia, Italy and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
on the other
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Pig War (Serbia)
The Pig War (Serbian: Свињски рат/Svinjski rat), or Customs War, (Царински рат/Carinski rat) was a trade war between the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Austro-Hungarian Empire
and the Kingdom of Serbia
Kingdom of Serbia
in 1906 to 1908 in which the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
unsuccessfully imposed a customs blockade on Serbian pork.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 See also 4 ReferencesBackground[edit] At the beginning of the 20th century, Serbia was economically a satellite of the Habsburgs, its major export being pork, most of which was bought by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. When Serbia started trying to evade economic and political control by the Habsburgs
Habsburgs
and build links with other countries, particularly Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and France, the Hungarian government decided to punish the Serbs with economic sanctions
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House Of Habsburg
The House of Habsburg
Habsburg
(/ˈhæpsbɜːrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhaːpsbʊʁk], traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria[1] was one of the most influential and outstanding royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs between 1438 and 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
( Jure uxoris King), Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities.[dubious – discuss] From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches
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Russian Empire
The Russian Empire[a] was an empire that extended across Eurasia
Eurasia
and North America
North America
from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution
February Revolution
of 1917.[4] The third largest empire in world history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe, Asia, and North America, the Russian Empire
Empire
was surpassed in size only by the British and Mongol empires. The rise of the Russian Empire
Empire
coincided with the decline of neighboring rival powers: the Swedish Empire, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Persia and the Ottoman Empire
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May Overthrow
The May Coup (Serbian: Мајски преврат, Majski prevrat) was a coup d'état in which Serbian King Alexander Obrenović and his wife, Queen Draga, were assassinated inside the Royal Palace in Belgrade
Belgrade
on the night of 10-11 June [O.S. 28-29 May] 1903. This act resulted in the extinction of the House of Obrenović
House of Obrenović
which had been ruling the Kingdom of Serbia
Serbia
since the middle of the 19th century. The assassination of the royal couple was organized by a group of army officers led by then-Captain Dragutin Dimitrijević Apis. After the May Coup, the Serbian throne passed to the rival House of Karađorđević. The coup had a significant influence on Serbia's relations with other European powers; the house of Obrenović was mostly allied to Austria-Hungary, while the Karađorđević dynasty had close ties both with Russia[1] and France
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Governor Of Bosnia And Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878 when the Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire
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Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Devlet-i ʿAlīye-i ʿOsmānīye[dn 5]), also historically known in Western Europe
Europe
as the Turkish Empire[8] or simply Turkey,[9] was a state that controlled much of southeastern Europe, western Asia and northern Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia
Anatolia
in the town of Söğüt (modern-day Bilecik Province) by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman.[10] After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman Beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire
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Balkan Wars
First Balkan War  Ottoman Empire Support  Austria-HungaryFirst Balkan War  Montenegro  Greece  Serbia  Bulgaria Support  Russian EmpireSecond Balkan War  Bulgaria Second Balkan War  Montenegro  Greece  Serbia  Romania  Ottoman EmpireCommanders and leaders Mehmed V Enver Pasha Nazım Pasha Zeki Pasha Essad Pasha  Kölemen Abdullah Pasha Ali Rıza Pasha Hasan Tahsin Pasha  İsmail Hakkı Pasha Rauf Pasha Nicholas I Prince Danilo Petrović Mitar Martinović Janko Vukotić Ferdinand I Mihail Savov Ivan Fichev Vasil Kutinchev Nikola Ivanov Radko Dimitriev Crown Prince Constantine Panagiotis Danglis Pavlos Kountouriotis Radomir Putnik Petar Bojović Stepa Stepanović Živojin Mišić Carol I Ferdinand I Alexandru Averescuv t eFirst Balkan WarBulgarian frontKardzhali Kirk Kilisse Lule Burgas Merhamli Kaliakra First Çatalca Bulair Şar
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Prisoners Of War
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict
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Kosovo
Coordinates: 42°35′N 21°00′E / 42.583°N 21.000°E / 42.583; 21.000Republic of KosovoRepublika e Kosovës (Albanian) Република Косово Republika Kosovo (Serbian)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Europe"[1]Location and extent of Kosovo
Kosovo
in Europe.StatusDisputedRecognized by 112 member states of the United Nations, and by the Republic of China
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Morale
Morale, also known as esprit de corps (French pronunciation: ​[ɛspʀi də kɔʀ]), is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship. Morale is often referenced by authority figures as a generic value judgment of the willpower, obedience, and self-discipline of a group tasked with performing duties assigned by a superior. According to Alexander H. Leighton, "morale is the capacity of a group of people to pull together persistently and consistently in pursuit of a common purpose".[1] Morale is important in the military, because it improves unit cohesion. Without good morale, a force will be more likely to give up or surrender. Morale is usually assessed at a collective, rather than an individual level. In wartime, civilian morale is also important
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Count Franz Conrad Von Hötzendorf
K.u.k.
K.u.k.
Feldmarschall
Feldmarschall
Franz Xaver Joseph Conrad Graf
Graf
von Hötzendorf German: Franz Xaver Josef Graf
Graf
Conrad von Hötzendorf (11 November 1852 – 25 August 1925), sometimes anglicised as Hoetzendorf, was an Austrian Field Marshal and Chief of the General Staff of the military of the Austro-Hungarian Army
Austro-Hungarian Army
and Navy 1906–1917. He was Chief of Staff during the July Crisis
July Crisis
of 1914 that caused World War I. He effectively claimed that preemptive war against Serbia was crucial in strengthening the multiethnic Habsburg Empire, which was nearing disintegration. Later on, he came to believe that the Dual Monarchy had taken action at the eleventh hour. The Army was also unprepared and he had resorted to politics to further his goals
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Congress Of Berlin
The Congress of Berlin
Congress of Berlin
(13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany),[1] the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania
Romania
and Montenegro)
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