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Battle Of The Somme
British Empire * Australia * Bermuda * Canada * India * Newfoundland * New Zealand * South Africa * Southern Rhodesia * United Kingdom France German Empire COMMANDERS AND LEADERS Douglas Haig Ferdinand Foch Henry Rawlinson Émile Fayolle Hubert Gough Joseph Alfred Micheler Crown Prince Rupprecht of Bavaria Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below STRENGTH 1ST JULY 390,000 in 13 divisions 330,000 in 11 divisions JULY–NOVEMBER 1,530,000 in 50 divisions 1,440,000 in 48 divisions 1ST JULY 315,000 in 10 1/2 divisions JULY-NOVEMBER 1,500,000 in 50 divisions CASUALTIES AND LOSSES c. 420,000 c. 200,000 c
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Somme (department)
SOMME (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a department of France
France
, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river . It is part of the Hauts-de- France
France
region . The north central area of the Somme was the site of a series of battles during World War I
World War I
. Particularly significant was the 1916 Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
. As a result of this and other battles fought in the area the department is home to many military cemeteries and several major monuments commemorating the many soldiers from various countries who died on its battlefields . The 1346 Battle
Battle
of Crécy , a major English victory early in the Hundred Years\' War , also took place in this department
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Battle Of The Somme (other)
The BATTLE OF THE SOMME most commonly refers to the Anglo-French offensive in 1916 during World War I. The campaign was later divided into a series of battles. According to official nomenclature, two offensives in 1918 also use this name: * the German offensive codenamed Operation Michael
Operation Michael
, known by the British as the First Battle of the Somme * the Second Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
(1918) , the second phase of the final British offensive of the warBATTLE OF THE SOMME may otherwise refer to: * The Battle of the Somme
Battle of the Somme
(film) , a 1916 documentary and propaganda film This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BATTLE OF THE SOMME. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article
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Western Front (World War I)
Decisive Entente victory * Armistice of Compiègne
Compiègne
BELLIGERENTSENTENTE POWERS : France
France
*
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World War I
Allied victory (exception: Russian defeat) * Fall of the German , Russian , Ottoman , and Austro-Hungarian empires * Russian Civil War and foundation of Soviet Union * Formation of new countries in Europe and the Middle East * Transfer of German colonies and regions of the former Ottoman Empire to other powers * Establishment of the League of Nations . (more..
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Somme River
The SOMME is a river in Picardy
Picardy
, northern France
France
. The name Somme comes from a Celtic word meaning "tranquility". The department Somme was named after this river. The river is 245 km (152 mi) long, from its source in the high ground of the former Forest of Arrouaise at Fonsommes
Fonsommes
near Saint-Quentin , to the Bay of the Somme
Bay of the Somme
, in the English Channel
English Channel
. It lies in the geological syncline which also forms the Solent
Solent
. This gives it a fairly constant and gentle gradient where several fluvial terraces have been identified
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Pas-de-Calais
PAS-DE-CALAIS (French pronunciation: ​ ) is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover , which it borders ('pas' meaning passage). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Economy * 4 Demographics * 5 Politics * 6 Education * 7 Tourism * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links HISTORYInhabited since prehistoric times, the Pas-de- Calais region was populated in turn by the Celtic Belgae , the Romans , the Germanic Franks and the Alemanni . During the fourth and fifth centuries, the Roman practice of co-opting Germanic tribes to provide military and defence services along the route from Boulogne to Cologne created a Germanic -Romance linguistic border in the region that persisted until the eighth century
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Geographic Coordinate System
A GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE SYSTEM is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position , and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position . A common choice of coordinates is latitude , longitude and elevation . To specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection
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British Empire
The BRITISH EMPIRE comprised the dominions , colonies , protectorates , mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power . By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 7001230000000000000♠23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 7001240000000000000♠24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal , linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread
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Australia
Coordinates : 25°S 133°E / 25°S 133°E / -25; 133 Commonwealth of Australia Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: " Advance Australia Fair " CAPITAL Canberra 35°18′29″S 149°07′28″E / 35.30806°S 149.12444°E / -35.30806; 149.12444 LARGEST CITY Sydney NATIONAL LANGUAGE English RELIGION * 52.1% Christianity * 30.1% No religion * 9.6% Not stated or unclear * 2.6%
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Bermuda
Coordinates : 32°20′N 64°45′W / 32.333°N 64.750°W / 32.333; -64.750 Bermuda Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: * "Quo Fata Ferunt" (Latin ) * "Whither the Fates
Fates
carry (us)" ANTHEM: " God Save the Queen
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Canada
Coordinates : 60°N 95°W / 60°N 95°W / 60; -95 CANADA _ Flag MOTTO: A Mari Usque Ad Mare _ (Latin ) (English: "From Sea to Sea") ANTHEM: " O Canada "------------------------- ROYAL ANTHEM : " God Save the Queen " CAPITAL Ottawa 45°24′N 75°40′W / 45.400°N 75.667°W / 45.400; -75.667 LARGEST CITY
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British Raj
Other local languages GOVERNMENT Colony MONARCH OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND EMPEROR/EMPRESS A • 1858–1901 Victoria • 1901–1910 Edward VII • 1910–1936 George V • 1936 Edward VIII • 1936–1947 George VI VICEROY AND GOVERNOR-G
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Dominion Of Newfoundland
NEWFOUNDLAND was a British dominion from 1907 to 1949. The dominion was situated in northeastern North America along the Atlantic coast and comprised the island of Newfoundland and Labrador on the continental mainland. Before attaining dominion status, Newfoundland was a British colony, self-governing from 1855. Newfoundland was one of the original "dominions" within the meaning of the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and accordingly enjoyed a constitutional status equivalent to the other dominions at the time. In 1934, Newfoundland became the only dominion to give up its self-governing status, ending 79 years of self-government. This episode was precipitated by a crisis in Newfoundland's public finances in 1932. Newfoundland had accumulated a significant amount of debt by building a railroad across the island and raising its own regiment for the First World War
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New Zealand
NEW ZEALAND /njuːˈziːlənd/ (_ listen ) (Māori : AOTEAROA _ ) is an island nation in the southwestern Pacific Ocean . The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island (or _Te Ika-a-Māui_), and the South Island (or _Te Waipounamu_)—and around 600 smaller islands . New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia , Fiji , and Tonga . Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal, fungal and plant life. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps , owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions
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Union Of South Africa
The UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic
Republic
of South Africa
South Africa
. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of four previously separate British colonies : Cape Colony
Cape Colony
, Natal Colony , Transvaal Colony and Orange River Colony . It included the territories formerly part of the Boer republics annexed in 1902, South African Republic
South African Republic
and Orange Free State . Following the First World War
First World War
, the Union of South Africa
South Africa
was granted the administration of the German South West Africa colony as a League of Nations mandate, which became treated in most respects as if it were another province of the Union, but never was formally annexed
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