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Battle Of Talas
The Battle of Talas, Battle of Talas
Battle of Talas
River, or Battle of Artlakh (Chinese: 怛羅斯戰役; Arabic: معركة نهر طلاس‎) was a military engagement between the Arab Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate along with their ally the Tibetan Empire
Tibetan Empire
against the Chinese Tang dynasty, governed at the time by Emperor Xuanzong. In July 751 CE, Tang and Abbasid
Abbasid
forces met in the valley of the Talas River
Talas River
to vie for control over the Syr Darya
Syr Darya
region of central Asia. After several days of stalemate, the Karluks
Karluks
originally allied to the Tang defected to the Abbasids and tipped over the balance of power, resulting in a Tang rout
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Han Dynasty
Coordinates: 34°09′21″N 108°56′47″E / 34.15583°N 108.94639°E / 34.15583; 108.94639Han dynasty漢朝206 BC–220 ADA map of the Western Han
Western Han
Dynasty in 2 AD: 1) the territory shaded in dark blue represents the principalities and centrally-administered commanderies of the Han Empire; 2) the light blue area shows the extent of the Tarim Basin
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Syr Darya
The Syr Darya[2] /ˌsɪərˈdɑːrjə/ (Kazakh: Syrdari'i'a, سىردارٸيا; Russian: Сырдарья́, tr. Syrdar'ya, IPA: [sɨrdɐˈrʲja]; Persian: سيردريا‎,Sirdaryā; Tajik: Сирдарё, Sirdaryo; Turkish: Seyhun, Siri Derya; Arabic: سيحون‎: Seyḥūn; Uzbek: Sirdaryo/Сирдарё; Ancient Greek: Ἰαξάρτης, Jaxártēs) is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya
Syr Darya
originates in the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
Mountains in Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and eastern Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and flows for 2,212 kilometres (1,374 mi) west and north-west through Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and southern Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya
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Talas, Kyrgyzstan
Talas is a town in northwestern Kyrgyzstan, located in the Talas River valley between two mountain ranges. Its area is 13 square kilometres (5.0 sq mi), and its resident population was 32,886 in 2009.[1] It is the administrative headquarters of Talas Region
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Xuanzang
Xuanzang
Xuanzang
(Chinese: 玄奘; pinyin: xuánzàng; Wade–Giles: Hsüan-tsang; Mandarin: [ɕɥɛ̌ntsâŋ]; fl. c. 602–664) was a Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who travelled to India
India
in the seventh century and described the interaction between Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
and Indian Buddhism
Buddhism
during the early Tang dynasty.[1][2] Born in what is now Henan
Henan
province around 602, from boyhood he took to reading religious books, including the Chinese classics and the writings of ancient sages. While residing in the city of Luoyang
Luoyang
(in Henan
Henan
in Central China), Xuanzang
Xuanzang
was ordained as a śrāmaṇera (novice monk) at the age of thirteen
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Chui River
The Chu (Shu or Chui, Chuy) (Kazakh: Шу/Şuw, شۋ; Kyrgyz: Чүй, Çüy, چۉي; Dungan: Чў, Çw (from 楚 chǔ); Russian: Чу) is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and southern Kazakhstan. Of the length of approximately 1 067 kilometres[1] (663 miles), the first 115 kilometres are in Kyrgyzystan, then for 221 kilometres the river is the border between Kyrgyzystan and Kazakhstan, and the last 731 kilometres are in Kazakhstan
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Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
(Chinese: 河西走廊; pinyin: Héxī Zǒuláng; Wade–Giles: Ho2-hsi1 Tsou3-lang2, Xiao'erjing: حْسِ ظِوْلاْ, IPA: /xɤ˧˥ɕi˥ tsoʊ˨˩˦lɑŋ˧˥/) or Gansu Corridor refers to the historical route in Gansu
Gansu
province of China. As part of the Northern Silk Road
Northern Silk Road
running northwest from the bank of the Yellow River, it was the most important route from North China
China
to the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
and Central Asia
Central Asia
for traders and the military. The corridor is a string of oases along the northern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. To the south is the high and desolate Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
and to the north, the Gobi Desert
Gobi Desert
and the grasslands of Outer Mongolia
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Tarim Basin
Coordinates: 39°N 83°E / 39°N 83°E / 39; 83Tarim Basin  Dzungaria   Tarim BasinChinese nameChinese 塔里木盆地TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin Tǎlǐmù PéndìWade–Giles T'a3-li3-mu4 P'en2-ti4IPA [tʰàlìmû pʰə̌ntî]NanjiangChinese 南疆Literal meaning Southern XinjiangTranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu Pinyin NánjiāngWade–Giles Nan2-chiang1IPA [nǎntɕjáŋ]Uyghur nameUyghurتارىم ئويمانلىقىTranscriptionsLatin Yëziqi Tarim OymanliqiYengi Yeziⱪ Tarim OymanliⱪiSiril Yëziqi Тарим ойманлиқиThe Tarim Basin
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Taklamakan Desert
The Taklamakan Desert
Desert
/ˌtæk.lə.məˈkæn/ (Chinese: 塔克拉玛干沙漠; pinyin: Tǎkèlāmǎgān Shāmò, Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; Uyghur: تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى‎; Dungan: Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang
Xinjiang
Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China
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Mercenary
A mercenary[1] is a person who takes part in an armed conflict who is completely funded by the government and is "motivated to take part in the hostilities by desire for private gain".[2][3] Mercenaries fight for money or other recompense rather than for political interests. In the last century, and as reflected in the Geneva Convention, mercenaries have increasingly come to be seen as less entitled to protections by rules of war than non-mercenaries
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Emperor Wu Of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
(30 July 157 BC – 29 March 87 BC), born Liu
Liu
Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.[3] His reign lasted 54 years — a record not broken until the reign of the Kangxi Emperor more than 1,800 years later. His reign resulted in a vast territorial expansion and the development of a strong and centralized state resulting from his governmental re-organization, including his promotion of Confucian doctrines. In the field of historical social and cultural studies, Emperor Wu is known for his religious innovations and patronage of the poetic and musical arts, including development of the Imperial Music Bureau into a prestigious entity
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Ferghana
Fergana
Fergana
(Uzbek: Fargʻona/Фарғона, فەرغانە; Tajik: Фарғона, Farğona/Farƣona; Persian: فرغانه‎ Farġāna/Farqâna; Russian: Фергана́), or Ferghana, is the capital of Fergana Region
Fergana Region
in eastern Uzbekistan
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Arabs
Historically: Arabian mythology (Hubal · al-Lāt · Al-‘Uzzá · Manāt · Other Goddesses) Predominantly: Islam (Sunni · Shia · Sufi · Ibadi · Alawite · Ismaili) Sizable minority: Christianity (Eastern Orthodox · Maronite · Coptic Orthodox · Greek Orthodox · Greek Catholic · Chaldean Christian) Smaller minority: Other monotheistic religions (Druze · Bahá'í Faith · Sabianism · Bábism · Mandaeism)Related ethnic groupsOther Afroasiatic-speaking peoplesa Arab
Arab
ethnicity should not be confused with non- Arab
Arab
ethnicities that are also native to the Arab
Arab
world.[30] b Not all Arabs
Arabs
are Muslims
Muslims
and not all Muslims
Muslims
are Arabs
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Umayyad Caliphate
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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