HOME  TheInfoList.com 
Battle Of Island Number 10 A NUMBER is a mathematical object used to count , measure , and label . The original examples are the natural numbers 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and so forth. A notational symbol that represents a number is called a numeral . In addition to their use in counting and measuring, numerals are often used for labels (as with telephone numbers ), for ordering (as with serial numbers ), and for codes (as with ISBNs ). In common usage, number may refer to a symbol, a word , or a mathematical abstraction . In mathematics , the notion of number has been extended over the centuries to include 0 , negative numbers , rational numbers such as 1/2 and −2/3, real numbers such as √2 and π , and complex numbers , which extend the real numbers by adding a square root of −1 . Calculations with numbers are done with arithmetical operations , the most familiar being addition , subtraction , multiplication , division , and exponentiation . Their study or usage is called arithmetic [...More...]  "Battle Of Island Number 10" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Exponentiation EXPONENTIATION is a mathematical operation , written as BN, involving two numbers, the BASE b and the EXPONENT n. When n is a positive integer , exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication of the base: that is, bn is the product of multiplying n bases: b n = b b n {displaystyle b^{n}=underbrace {btimes cdots times b} _{n}} The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base. In that case, bn is called b raised to the nth power, b raised to the power of n, or the nth power of b. When n is a positive integer and b is not zero, b−n is naturally defined as 1/bn, preserving the property bn × bm = bn + m. With exponent −1, b−1 is equal to 1/b, and is the reciprocal of b. The definition of exponentiation can be extended to allow any real or complex exponent. Exponentiation Exponentiation by integer exponents can also be defined for a wide variety of algebraic structures, including matrices [...More...]  "Exponentiation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Division (mathematics) DIVISION is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic , the others being addition , subtraction , and multiplication . The division of two natural numbers is the process of calculating the number of times one number is contained within one another. :7 For example, in the picture on the right, the 20 apples are divided into groups of five apples, and there exist four groups, meaning that five can be contained within 20 four times, or 20 ÷ 5 = 4. Division can also be thought of as the process of evaluating a fraction , and fractional notation (a/b and a⁄b) is commonly used to represent division. Division can be viewed either as quotition or as partition . In quotition, 20 ÷ 5 means the number of 5s that must be added to get 20. In partition, 20 ÷ 5 means the size of each of 5 parts into which a set of size 20 is divided. Division is the inverse of multiplication; if a × b = c, then a = c ÷ b, as long as b is not zero [...More...]  "Division (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Arithmetic ARITHMETIC (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number ") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers , especially the properties of the traditional operations between them—addition , subtraction , multiplication and division . Arithmetic Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory , and number theory is considered to be one of the toplevel divisions of modern mathematics , along with algebra , geometry , and analysis . The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are sometimes still used to refer to a wider part of number theory [...More...]  "Arithmetic" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Number Theory NUMBER THEORY or, in older usage, ARITHMETIC is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers . It is sometimes called "The Queen of Mathematics" because of its foundational place in the discipline. Number Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of objects made out of integers (e.g., rational numbers ) or defined as generalizations of the integers (e.g., algebraic integers ). Integers can be considered either in themselves or as solutions to equations ( Diophantine geometry ). Questions in number theory are often best understood through the study of analytical objects (e.g., the Riemann zeta function Riemann zeta function ) that encode properties of the integers, primes or other numbertheoretic objects in some fashion (analytic number theory ) [...More...]  "Number Theory" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

13 (number) 13 (THIRTEEN /θɜːrˈtiːn/ ) is the natural number following 12 and preceding 14 . In spoken English, the numbers 13 and 30 are often confused. When carefully pronounced, they differ in which syllable is stressed : 13 /θɜːrˈtiːn/ ( listen ) vs. 30 /ˈθɜːrti/ . However, in dates such as 1300 ("thirteen hundred") or when contrasting numbers in the teens, such as 13, 14, 15, the stress shifts to the first syllable: 13 /ˈθɜːrtiːn/ . Strikingly similar folkloric aspects of the number 13 have been noted in various cultures around the world: one theory is that this is due to the cultures employing lunarsolar calendars (there are approximately 12.41 lunations per solar year, and hence 12 "true months" plus a smaller, and often portentous, thirteenth month). This can be witnessed, for example, in the " Twelve Days of Christmas Twelve Days of Christmas " of Western European tradition [...More...]  "13 (number)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Multiplication MULTIPLICATION (often denoted by the cross symbol " × ", by a point "⋅ ", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic ; with the others being addition , subtraction and division . The multiplication of whole numbers may be thought as a repeated addition ; that is, the multiplication of two numbers is equivalent to adding as many copies of one of them, the multiplicand, as the value of the other one, the multiplier. Normally, the multiplier is written first and multiplicand second, though this can vary, especially in languages with different grammatical structures, such as Japanese , Japanese elementary schools teach writing the multiplicand first, and answers that reverse that order are marked as incorrect [...More...]  "Multiplication" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Subtraction SUBTRACTION is a mathematical operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection. It is signified by the minus sign (−). For example, in the picture on the right, there are 5 − 2 apples—meaning 5 apples with 2 taken away, which is a total of 3 apples. Therefore, 5 − 2 = 3. Subtraction Subtraction represents removing or decreasing physical and abstract quantities using different kinds of objects including negative numbers , fractions , irrational numbers , vectors , decimals, functions, and matrices. Subtraction Subtraction follows several important patterns. It is anticommutative , meaning that changing the order changes the sign of the answer. It is not associative , meaning that when one subtracts more than two numbers, the order in which subtraction is performed matters. Subtraction Subtraction of 0 does not change a number [...More...]  "Subtraction" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Imaginary Unit The IMAGINARY UNIT or UNIT IMAGINARY NUMBER (I) is a solution to the quadratic equation x2 + 1 = 0. Since there is no real number with this property, it extends the real numbers, and under the assumption that the familiar properties of addition and multiplication (namely closure , associativity , commutativity and distributivity ) continue to hold for this extension, the complex numbers are generated by including it. Imaginary numbers are an important mathematical concept, which extends the real number system ℝ to the complex number system ℂ, which in turn provides at least one root for every nonconstant polynomial P(x). (See Algebraic closure and Fundamental theorem of algebra .) The term "imaginary " is used because there is no real number having a negative square . There are two complex square roots of −1, namely i and −i, just as there are two complex square roots of every real number other than zero , which has one double square root [...More...]  "Imaginary Unit" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Calculation A CALCULATION is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm , to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people. For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes Black–Scholes model is a complex algorithmic calculation. Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers. To calculate means to ascertain by computing [...More...]  "Calculation" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Arithmetical Operations ARITHMETIC (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number ") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers , especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition , subtraction , multiplication and division . Arithmetic Arithmetic is an elementary part of number theory , and number theory is considered to be one of the toplevel divisions of modern mathematics , along with algebra , geometry , and analysis . The terms arithmetic and higher arithmetic were used until the beginning of the 20th century as synonyms for number theory and are sometimes still used to refer to a wider part of number theory [...More...]  "Arithmetical Operations" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Addition ADDITION (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic , with the others being subtraction , multiplication and division . The addition of two whole numbers is the total amount of those quantities combined. For example, in the picture on the right, there is a combination of three apples and two apples together, making a total of five apples. This observation is equivalent to the mathematical expression "3 + 2 = 5" i.e., "3 add 2 is equal to 5". Besides counting fruits, addition can also represent combining other physical objects. Using systematic generalizations, addition can also be defined on more abstract quantities, such as integers , rational numbers , real numbers and complex numbers and other abstract objects such as vectors and matrices . In arithmetic, rules for addition involving fractions and negative numbers have been devised amongst others. In algebra, addition is studied more abstractly [...More...]  "Addition" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

1,000,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 (ONE MILLION), or one thousand thousand, is the natural number following 999,999 and preceding 1,000,001. The word is derived from the early Italian millione (milione in modern Italian), from mille, "thousand ", plus the augmentative suffix one. It is commonly abbreviated as M (not to be confused with the metric prefix for 6997100000000000000♠1×10−3) or M; further MM ("thousand thousands", from Latin "Mille"; not to be confused with the Roman numeral MM = 2,000), MM, or MN in financial contexts. In scientific notation , it is written as 7006100000000000000♠1×106 or 106. Physical quantities can also be expressed using the SI prefix SI prefix mega (M), when dealing with SI units; for example, 1 megawatt (1 MW) equals 1,000,000 1,000,000 watts [...More...]  "1,000,000" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Pseudoscience PSEUDOSCIENCE consists of statements, beliefs , or practices that are claimed to be scientific and factual in the absence of evidence gathered and constrained by appropriate scientific methods. Pseudoscience Pseudoscience is often characterized by the following: contradictory, exaggerated or unfalsifiable claims ; reliance on confirmation bias rather than rigorous attempts at refutation; lack of openness to evaluation by other experts; and absence of systematic practices when developing theories. The term pseudoscience is often considered pejorative because it suggests something is being presented as science inaccurately or even deceptively. Accordingly, those termed as practicing or advocating pseudoscience often dispute the characterization. The demarcation between science and pseudoscience has philosophical and scientific implications [...More...]  "Pseudoscience" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Set (mathematics) In mathematics , a SET is a welldefined collection of distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. For example, the numbers 2, 4, and 6 are distinct objects when considered separately, but when they are considered collectively they form a single set of size three, written {2,4,6}. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived. In mathematics education , elementary topics such as Venn diagrams are taught at a young age, while more advanced concepts are taught as part of a university degree. The German word Menge, rendered as "set" in English, was coined by Bernard Bolzano Bernard Bolzano in his work The Paradoxes of the Infinite [...More...]  "Set (mathematics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

List Of Types Of Numbers Numbers can be classified according to how they are represented or according to the properties that they have. CONTENTS * 1 Main types * 2 Number Number representations * 3 Signed numbers * 4 Types of integer * 5 Algebraic numbers * 6 Nonstandard numbers * 7 Computability and definability * 8 References MAIN TYPESNatural numbers ( N {displaystyle mathbb {N} } ): The counting numbers {1, 2, 3, …} are commonly called natural numbers; however, other definitions include 0, so that the nonnegative integers {0, 1, 2, 3, …} are also called natural numbers. Whole numbers ( W {displaystyle mathbb {W} } ): The numbers {0, 1, 2, 3, …}. Integers ( Z {displaystyle mathbb {Z} } ): Positive and negative counting numbers, as well as zero: {…, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3…}. Rational numbers ( Q {displaystyle mathbb {Q} } ): Numbers that can be expressed as a ratio of an integer to a nonzero integer [...More...]  "List Of Types Of Numbers" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 