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Bathampton Down
Bathampton
Bathampton
Down, is a flat limestone plateau in Bathampton
Bathampton
overlooking Bath, in Somerset
Somerset
near the River Avon, England. There is evidence of man's activity at the site since the Mesolithic period including Bathampton
Bathampton
Camp, an Iron Age
Iron Age
hillfort or stock enclosure
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Sham Castle
Sham Castle
Sham Castle
is a folly in Bathampton
Bathampton
overlooking the city of Bath, Somerset, England
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Celtic Field
Celtic field
Celtic field
is an old name for traces of early (prehistoric) agricultural field systems found in North-West Europe, i.e. Britain, Ireland, Belgium, Netherlands, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Poland and the Baltic states. The fields themselves are not related to the Celtic culture.[1] The name was given by O.G.S. Crawford. They are sometimes preserved in areas where industrial farming has not been adopted and can date from any time from the Early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(c. 1800 BC) until the early medieval period. They can be preserved as earthworks or soil marks. They are characterised by their proximity to other ancient features such as enclosures, sunken lanes and farmsteads and are divided into a patchwork quilt of square plots rarely more than 2,000 m² in area although larger examples are known (e.g. Dorset and Wiltshire)
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University Of Bath
The University of Bath
University of Bath
is a public university located in Bath, Somerset, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol
University of Bristol
and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers Navigation School, established in Bristol
Bristol
in 1595. The university's main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, and was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath's submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality, significance and rigour
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Round Barrow
A round barrow is a type of tumulus and is one of the most common types of archaeological monuments. Although concentrated in Europe, they are found in many parts of the world, probably because of their simple construction and universal purpose.[citation needed]Contents1 Description 2 Examples2.1 Scandinavia2.1.1 Denmark2.2 Britain2.2.1 England2.2.1.1 Lincolnshire3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] At its simplest, a round barrow is a hemispherical mound of earth and/or stone raised over a burial placed in the middle. Beyond this there are numerous variations which may employ surrounding ditches, stone kerbs or flat berms between ditch and mound
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Tumulus
A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. Tumuli are also known as barrows, burial mounds or kurgans, and may be found throughout much of the world. A cairn, which is a mound of stones built for various purposes, may also originally have been a tumulus. Tumuli are often categorised according to their external apparent shape. In this respect, a long barrow is a long tumulus, usually constructed on top of several burials, such as passage graves. A round barrow is a round tumulus, also commonly constructed on top of burials. The internal structure and architecture of both long and round barrows has a broad range, the categorization only refers to the external apparent shape. The method of inhumation may involve a dolmen, a cist, a mortuary enclosure, a mortuary house, or a chamber tomb
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1st Millennium BC
The 1st millennium
1st millennium
BC encompasses the Iron Age
Iron Age
and sees the rise of many successive empires, and spanned from 1000 BC to 1 BC. The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
develops, followed by the Achaemenids. In Greece, Classical Antiquity
Classical Antiquity
begins with the colonization of Magna Graecia and peaks with the rise of Hellenism. The close of the millennium sees the rise of the Roman Empire. In South Asia, the Vedic civilization blends into the Maurya Empire. The early Celts
Celts
dominate Central Europe while Northern Europe is in the Pre-Roman Iron Age. The Scythians
Scythians
dominate Central Asia. In China, the Spring and Autumn period sees the rise of Confucianism
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Barry Cunliffe
Sir Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE FBA FSA (born 10 December 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, is a British archaeologist and academic. He was Professor of European Archaeology
Archaeology
at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
from 1972 to 2007. Since 2007, he has been an Emeritus Professor.Contents1 Biography 2 Positions and honours 3 Works 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit]The dolphin mosaic found by Cunliffe's team at FishbourneCunliffe's decision to become an archaeologist was sparked at the age of nine by the discovery of Roman remains on his uncle's farm in Somerset.[1] After studying at Portsmouth Northern Grammar School (now the Mayfield School) and reading archaeology and anthropology at the University of Cambridge, he became a lecturer at the University of Bristol in 1963
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
(or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early, High, and Late Middle Ages. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity, continued in the Early Middle Ages. The large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire
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River Avon, Bristol
The River Avon /ˈeɪvən/ is an English river in the south west of the country. To distinguish it from a number of other rivers of the same name, this river is often also known as the Bristol Avon. The name "Avon" is a cognate of the Welsh word afon, "river". The Avon rises just north of the village of Acton Turville in South Gloucestershire, before flowing through Wiltshire. In its lower reaches from Bath to the Severn Estuary at Avonmouth near Bristol, the river is navigable and known as the Avon Navigation. The Avon is the 19th longest river in the UK at 75 miles (121 km) although there are just 19 miles (31 km) as the crow flies between the source and its mouth in the Severn Estuary
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Pottery
Pottery
Pottery
is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares,[1] of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made by a potter is also called a pottery (plural "potteries"). The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical, structural, and refractory products."[2] Pottery
Pottery
is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic
Neolithic
period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian
Gravettian
culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice
Venus of Dolní Věstonice
figurine discovered in the Czech Republic date back to 29,000–25,000 BC,[3] and pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, China, which date back to 18,000 BC
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Roman Empire
Mediolanum
Mediolanum
(286–402, Western) Augusta Treverorum Sirmium Ravenna
Ravenna
(402–476, Western) Nicomedia
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Great Western Main Line
The Great Western main line
Great Western main line
is a main line railway in England, that runs westwards from London Paddington
London Paddington
to Bristol
Bristol
Temple Meads. Opened in 1841, it was the original route of the pre-1948 Great Western Railway
Railway
which was merged into the Western Region of British Railways and is now a part of the national rail system managed by Network Rail. The line is currently being electrified. It was electrified from Paddington to Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
in the late 1990s. Work to electrify the remainder of the route started in 2011 with an initial aim to complete the work all the way to Bristol
Bristol
by 2016.[2] The programme however has been deferred with no end completion forecast because costs have tripled
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National Trust For Places Of Historic Interest Or Natural Beauty
The National Trust, formally the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland, and the largest membership organisation in the United Kingdom.[citation needed] The trust describes itself as "a charity that works to preserve and protect historic places and spaces—for ever, for everyone".[2] The trust was founded in 1895 and given statutory powers, starting with the National Trust Act 1907. Historically, the trust tended to focus on English country houses, which still make up the largest part of its holdings, but it also protects historic landscapes such as in the Lake District, historic urban properties, and nature reserves. In Scotland, there is an independent National Trust for Scotland
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Romano-British Culture
Romano-British culture
Romano-British culture
is the culture that arose in Britain under the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
following the Roman conquest in AD 43 and the creation of the province of Britannia. It arose as a fusion of the imported Roman culture with that of the indigenous Britons, a people of Celtic language and custom
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Lynchet
A lynchet is an earth terrace found on the side of a hill. Lynchets are a feature of ancient field systems of the British Isles. They are commonly found in vertical rows and more commonly referred to as 'strip lynchets'. Lynchets appear predominantly in Southern Britain and many are in areas close to Iron Age forts and other earthworks, including later Roman earthworks and earlier barrows from the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods. The size, location, spacing and number of rows of many strip lynchets indicates that many were man-made
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