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Batavian Republic
The BATAVIAN REPUBLIC (Dutch : Bataafse Republiek; French : République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Netherlands
. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795, and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland . From October 1801 onward, it was known as the BATAVIAN COMMONWEALTH (Dutch : Bataafs Gemenebest). In early 1795, intervention by French revolutionary forces led to the downfall of the old Dutch Republic. The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic
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French Client Republic
A SISTER REPUBLIC (French : république sœur) was a republic established by invading French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic
First French Republic
during the French Revolutionary Wars . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 French sister republics of Italy
Italy
* 3 Other French sister republics * 4 See also * 5 References BACKGROUNDIdeals favored by the National Convention and Robespierre
Robespierre
during the period were popular sovereignty , rule of law and representative democracy . The republicans also borrowed ideas and values from Whiggism and Enlightenment philosophers. The French Republic supported the spread of republican principles in Europe, but most of these sister republics became a means of controlling occupied lands through a mix of French and local power as client states
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First French Republic
In the history of France
France
, the FIRST REPUBLIC, officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: _République française_), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution . The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon
Napoleon
, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy , the establishment of the National Convention
National Convention
and the Reign of Terror , the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory , and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power
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The Hague
THE HAGUE (/ðə ˈheɪɡ/ ; Dutch : _Den Haag_, pronounced (_ listen ) or 's-Gravenhage_ ( listen )) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland . With a population of 520,704 inhabitants (as of 1 April 2016) and more than 1 million inhabitants including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam . The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area , with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation
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Dutch Language
DUTCH (_ Nederlands_ (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of Belgium —and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao and Sint Maarten , which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands . Historical minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany , and in Indonesia , while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States , Canada and Australia combined
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Revolutionary Republic
A REVOLUTIONARY REPUBLIC is a form of government whose main tenets are popular sovereignty , rule of law , and representative democracy . It is based in part on the ideas of Whig and Enlightenment thinkers, and was favored by revolutionaries during the Age of Revolution . A revolutionary republic tends to arise from the formation of a provisional government after the overthrow of an existing state and political regime. It often takes the form of a revolutionary state, which represents the will of its constituents. The term also refers to the form of government that the National Convention favored during the French Revolutionary Wars , as France established republics through its occupation of neighboring territories in Europe
Europe
. Most of these client states , or sister republics , were means of controlling occupied lands through a mix of French and local authority
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Executive (government)
The EXECUTIVE is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state . The executive executes and enforces law . In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers , authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative , judicial ) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order . Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations . In the Westminster political system , the principle of separation of powers is not as entrenched
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Revolutionary Committee Of The Batavian Republic
The REVOLUTIONARY COMMITTEE OF THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC was formed on 17 January 1795, when revolution broke out in the Netherlands
Netherlands
against the regime of prince William V of Orange . The French army defeated William's army and he fled to Great Britain
Great Britain
. Many refugees, who had fled the Netherlands
Netherlands
after the Prussian invasion on behalf of prince William V in 1787, could now return. The presidents of the Revolutionary Committee acted as heads of state of the Netherlands (only recognized by France). DUTCH HEADS OF STATE IN 179517 January 1795 - 6 February 1795 * Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck * Wijbo Fijnje * Pieter Paulus Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Revolutionary_Committee_of_the_Batavian_Republic additional terms may apply
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States-General Of The Batavian Republic
The States General of the Batavian Republic was the name for the Dutch government between January, 1795 and March 1796. It was nominally the same as the States-General of the Dutch Republic , the predecessor of the Batavian Republic, as the old constitution, the Union of Utrecht
Union of Utrecht
remained in place till a new National Assembly of the Batavian Republic was seated after general election, under universal manhood suffrage . In practice, however, the places of the members of the previous Orangist regime as representatives of the Seven Provinces were now taken by members of the Patriot party . The presidents of the States-General, both under the old and the new Republic, were acting as head of state for their term in office as president (usually a month). NOTEIt is a common misunderstanding that the Stadtholder was the head of state in the Dutch Republic
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National Assembly Of The Batavian Republic
The National Assembly of the Batavian Republic was the name for the Dutch parliament between 1796 and 1801. The National assembly was founded in 1796 after general elections. It replaced the States-General of the Batavian Republic . The President of the National Assembly was the head of state of the Batavian Republic between 1796 and 1798, during his term in office (usually half a month). A number of members of the second National Assembly (elected in 1797) were expelled after the coup d'état of 25 January 1798 by Pieter Vreede , with the help of general Daendels . This rump-Assembly was itself dissolved after a second coup on 12 June 1798, again by Daendels. A new Representative Assembly came into being after the elections of 1798, that were then held under a new constitution. Under that new constitution the head of state of the Batavian Republic was a member of the Uitvoerend Bewind
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Uitvoerend Bewind
The UITVOEREND BEWIND (Dutch for Executive Authority) was the name of the government of the Batavian Republic between 1798 and 1801. The president of the Uitvoerend Bewind
Uitvoerend Bewind
was head of state of the Batavian Republic. UNITARIAN DEMOCRATSThe political group of unitarian democrats was dissatisfied with the slowness of the progress of the Dutch parliament, the National Assembly of the Batavian Republic . They were in favour of a central authority, opposed federalism , and wanted general elections. Conservatives and moderates stood against such demands, and the country had become un-governable, without prospects of drafting a constitution
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Staatsbewind
The STAATSBEWIND (translated into English as "state council" or "state authority") was a governing council of the Batavian Republic between 1801 and 1805. The presidents of the Staatsbewind were acting heads of state of the Batavian Republic. REIGN OF THE STAATSBEWINDThe Staatsbewind came into power after a coup d'état against the Uitvoerend Bewind
Uitvoerend Bewind
on 17 October 1801. The reign of the Staatsbewind ended on 29 April 1805, when emperor Napoleon
Napoleon
of France
France
appointed Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck as grand pensionary of the Batavian Republic
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Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck
Sir RUTGER JAN SCHIMMELPENNINCK (31 October 1761 – 15 February 1825), Lord of Nyenhuis, Peckedam and Gellicum , was a Dutch jurist , ambassador and politician who served as Grand Pensionary of the Batavian Republic
Batavian Republic
from 1805 to 1806. CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Early career * 3 Grand Pensionary * 4 Titles and honours * 5 References * 6 External links EDUCATIONSchimmelpenninck was born into a bastard branch of the noble family Schimmelpenninck van der Oye in Deventer
Deventer
, Overijssel on 31 October 1761. His father, Gerrit Schimmelpenninck, was a wine trader who had no rights in the Dutch Republic
Dutch Republic
because of his commitment to the Mennonite Church . Schimmelpenninck attended Athenaeum Illustre of Deventer
Deventer
, and started studying Roman and Contemporary Law at Leiden University in 1781
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French Revolutionary Wars
Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
* Austria