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Batavian Republic
The BATAVIAN REPUBLIC (Dutch : Bataafse Republiek; French : République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands
Netherlands
. It was proclaimed on 19 January 1795, and ended on 5 June 1806, with the accession of Louis I to the throne of Holland . From October 1801 onward, it was known as the BATAVIAN COMMONWEALTH (Dutch : Bataafs Gemenebest). Both names refer to the Germanic tribe of the Batavians , representing both the Dutch ancestry and their ancient quest for liberty in their nationalistic lore. In early 1795, intervention by French revolutionary forces led to the downfall of the old Dutch Republic. The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic
French Republic

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Germanic Peoples
The GERMANIC PEOPLES (also called Teutonic , Suebian , or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin. They are identified by their use of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
during the Pre-Roman Iron Age
Pre-Roman Iron Age
. The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower , Upper , and Greater Germania were referred to using this label by Roman scribes
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Tribe
A TRIBE is viewed, developmentally or historically, as a social group existing before the development of, or outside of, Nations . A tribe is a group of distinct people, dependent on their land for their livelihood, who are largely self-sufficient, and not integrated into the national society. It is perhaps the term most readily understood and used by the general public to describe such communities. Stephen Corry defines tribal people as those who "...have followed ways of life for many generations that are largely self-sufficient, and are clearly different from the mainstream and dominant society". This definition, however, would not apply to countries in the Middle East such as Iraq and Yemen
Yemen
and many African countries such as South Sudan , where the entire population is a member of one tribe or another, and tribalism itself is dominant and mainstream
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Frederick William II Of Prussia
FREDERICK WILLIAM II (German : Friedrich Wilhelm II.; 25 September 1744 – 16 November 1797) was King of Prussia , from 1786 until his death. He was in personal union the Prince-elector
Prince-elector
of Brandenburg and (via the Orange-Nassau inheritance of his grandfather) sovereign prince of the Canton of Neuchâtel . Pleasure-loving and indolent, he is seen as the antithesis to his predecessor, Frederick II . Under his reign, Prussia
Prussia
was weakened internally and externally, and he failed to deal adequately with the challenges to the existing order posed by the French Revolution
French Revolution
. His religious policies were directed against the Enlightenment and aimed at restoring a traditional Protestantism
Protestantism
. However, he was a patron of the arts and responsible for the construction of some notable buildings, among them the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin
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Ancien Régime
The ANCIEN RéGIME (French pronunciation: ​ ; French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
(c. 15th century) until 1792, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the French Revolution
French Revolution
. The Ancien Régime
Ancien Régime
was ruled by the late Valois and Bourbon dynasties. The term is occasionally used to refer to the similar feudal systems of the time elsewhere in Europe
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Succession Of States
SUCCESSION OF STATES is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states. A SUCCESSOR STATE is a sovereign state over a territory and populace that was previously under the sovereignty of another state. The theory has its root in 19th century diplomacy . A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality , which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations (such as a rump state )
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List Of Countries By Population
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population . It includes sovereign states , inhabited dependent territories and, in some cases, constituent countries of sovereign states, with inclusion within the list being primarily based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1 . For instance, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is considered as a single entity while the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands are considered separately. In addition, this list includes certain states with limited recognition not found in ISO 3166-1. The population figures do not reflect the practice of countries that report significantly different populations of citizens domestically and overall. Some countries, notably Thailand
Thailand
, do not report total population, exclusively counting citizens; for total populations an international agency must issue an estimate
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Napoleon Bonaparte
NAPOLéON BONAPARTE (/nəˈpoʊliən ˈboʊnəpɑːrt/ ; French: ; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution
French Revolution
and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars
French Revolutionary Wars
. As NAPOLEON I, he was Emperor of the French
Emperor of the French
from 1804 until 1814, and again briefly in 1815 (during the Hundred Days ). Napoleon
Napoleon
dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France
France
against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815
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Johan Rudolph Thorbecke
JOHAN RUDOLPH THORBECKE (14 January 1798 – 4 June 1872) was a Dutch statesman of liberal signature, one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century
19th century
. In 1848, he virtually single-handedly drafted the revision of the Constitution of the Netherlands
Netherlands
, giving less power to the king and more to the States General , and guaranteeing more religious, personal and political freedom to the people. CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Political career * 3 References * 4 Further reading * 5 External links EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION Thorbecke's birthplace in Zwolle, nowadays known as the Thorbeckehuis Thorbecke was born in Zwolle
Zwolle
. His father Frederik Willem was a Lutheran tobacco manufacturer of German descent, while his mother Christine Regina was born in the Lower Saxon Osnabrück
Osnabrück

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Germany
Coordinates : 51°N 9°E / 51°N 9°E / 51; 9 Federal Republic
Republic
of Germany Bundesrepublik Deutschland (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" (de facto) ANTHEM: Deutschlandlied
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Belgium
Coordinates : 50°50′N 4°00′E / 50.833°N 4.000°E / 50.833; 4.000 Kingdom of Belgium * Koninkrijk België (Dutch ) * Royaume de Belgique (French ) * Königreich Belgien (German ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "Eendracht maakt macht" (Dutch ) "L'union fait la force" (French ) "Einigkeit macht stark" (German ) "Unity makes Strength" ANTHEM: " La Brabançonne " Location of Belgium
Belgium
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Liberty
LIBERTY, in philosophy, involves free will as contrasted with determinism . In politics, liberty consists of the social and political freedoms to which all community members are entitled. In theology , liberty is freedom from the effects of, "sin, spiritual servitude, worldly ties." Generally, liberty is distinctly differentiated from freedom in that freedom is primarily, if not exclusively, the ability to do as one wills and what one has the power to do; whereas liberty concerns the absence of arbitrary restraints and takes into account the rights of all involved. As such, the exercise of liberty is subject to capability and limited by the rights of others
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
* Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul
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Dutch Language
DUTCH ( Nederlands (help ·info )) is a West Germanic language that is spoken by around 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and about sixty percent of Belgium
Belgium
—and by another 5 million as a second language. It is the third most widely spoken Germanic language , after English and German. Outside of the Low Countries , it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname , and also holds official status in Aruba , Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Netherlands

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The Hague
THE HAGUE (/ðə ˈheɪɡ/ ; Dutch : Den Haag, pronounced ( listen ) or 's-Gravenhage ( listen )) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands
Netherlands
and the capital of the province of South Holland . With a population of 520,704 inhabitants (as of 1 April 2016) and more than 1 million inhabitants including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city in the Netherlands, after Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Rotterdam
Rotterdam
. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area , with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague
The Hague
is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation
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First French Republic
In the history of France
France
, the FIRST REPUBLIC, officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (French: République française), was founded on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution . The First Republic
Republic
lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon
Napoleon
, although the form of the government changed several times. This period was characterized by the fall of the monarchy , the establishment of the National Convention and the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
, the Thermidorian Reaction and the founding of the Directory , and, finally, the creation of the Consulate and Napoleon's rise to power