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Batavia, Dutch East Indies
BATAVIA was the name of the capital city of the Dutch East Indies and corresponds to the present-day city of Jakarta
Jakarta
. Just as modern Jakarta
Jakarta
may refer to either the city itself or to the larger area of the city, with its geographic surroundings, which taken together is one of the provinces of Indonesia
Indonesia
, Batavia can refer to the city proper as it existed then, with its various increases over time in urbanized acreage, or can refer to the surrounding hinterland. The establishment of Batavia at the site of the razed city of Jayakarta by the Dutch in 1619 led to the Dutch colony that became modern Indonesia
Indonesia
following World War II
World War II
. Batavia became the center of the Dutch East India Company 's trading network in Asia. :10 Monopolies on nutmeg , black pepper , cloves and cinnamon were augmented by non-indigenous cash crops like coffee , tea , cacao , tobacco , rubber , sugar and opium . To safeguard their commercial interests, the company and the colonial administration, which replaced it in 1799, progressively absorbed surrounding territory. :10 Batavia lies on the north coast of Java
Java
, in a sheltered bay, over a flat land consisting of marshland and hills, and crisscrossed with canals
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Timeline Of Jakarta
A TIMELINE is a display of a list of events in chronological order. It is typically a graphic design showing a long bar labelled with dates alongside itself and usually events. Timelines can use any time scale, depending on the subject and data. Most timelines use a linear scale, in which a unit of distance is equal to a set amount of time. This time scale is dependent on the events in the timeline. A timeline of evolution can be over millions of years, whereas a timeline for the day of the September 11 attacks can take place over minutes, and an explosion over milliseconds. While most timelines use a linear timescale, for very large or small timespans, logarithmic timelines use a logarithmic scale to depict time. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Uses of timelines * 2.1 In historical studies * 2.2 In natural sciences * 2.3 In project management * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links TYPESThere are different types of timelines * Text timelines, labeled as text * Number timelines, the labels are numbers, commonly line graphs * Interactive, clickable, zoomableThere are many methods of visualizations for timelines. Historically, timelines were static images, and generally drawn or printed on paper. Timelines relied heavily on graphic design , and the ability of the artist to visualize the data
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History Of Jakarta
JAKARTA is Indonesia
Indonesia
's capital and largest city. Located on an estuary of the Ciliwung River , on the northwestern part of Java
Java
, the area has long sustained human settlement. Historical evidence from Jakarta
Jakarta
dates back to the 4th century CE, when it was a Hindu settlement and port. The city has been sequentially claimed by the Indianized kingdom
Indianized kingdom
of Tarumanegara , the Hindu
Hindu
Kingdom of Sunda , the Muslim Sultanate of Banten
Sultanate of Banten
, and by Dutch, Japanese and Indonesian administrations. The Dutch East Indies built up the area before it was taken during World War II
World War II
by the Empire of Japan and finally became independent as part of Indonesia
Indonesia
. Jakarta
Jakarta
has been known by several names. It was called SUNDA KELAPA during the Kingdom of Sunda period and JAYAKARTA, DJAJAKARTA or JACATRA during the short period of the Banten Sultanate . Thereafter, Jakarta
Jakarta
evolved in three stages
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Kota Tua Jakarta
KOTA TUA JAKARTA (" Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town"), officially known as Kota Tua, is a neighborhood comprising the original downtown area of Jakarta
Jakarta
, Indonesia
Indonesia
. It is also known as Oud Batavia (Dutch "Old Batavia"), Benedenstad (Dutch "Lower City", contrasting it with Weltevreden , de Bovenstad ("Upper City")), or Kota Lama (Indonesian "Old Town"). It spans 1.3 square kilometres within North Jakarta
Jakarta
and West Jakarta ( Kelurahan Pinangsia, Taman Sari and Kelurahan Roa Malaka, Tambora ). The largely Chinese downtown area of Glodok is a part of Kota Tua. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Headquarters of the Dutch East India company * 1.2 Abandonment * 1.3 As the capital of Dutch East Indies * 1.4 Post Independent Indonesia
Indonesia
* 1.5 Restoration and revitalization * 2 Notable sites * 3 List of street names * 4 References * 5 Works cited HISTORY A map of Batavia in 1740. The area of Batavia within the city walls and moat as well as the Sunda Kelapa
Sunda Kelapa
harbor to the left (north) of the map make up Jakarta
Jakarta
Old Town. Main article: Batavia, Dutch East Indies Kota Tua is a remainder of Oud Batavia, the first walled settlement of the Dutch in Jakarta
Jakarta
area
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Dutch East Indies
The DUTCH EAST INDIES (or NETHERLANDS EAST-INDIES; Dutch : _Nederlands(ch)-Indië_; Indonesian : _Hindia Belanda_) was a Dutch colony . It was formed from the nationalised colonies of the Dutch East India Company , which came under the administration of the Dutch government in 1800. During the 19th century, Dutch possessions and hegemony were expanded, reaching their greatest territorial extent in the early 20th century. This colony was one of the most valuable European colonies under the Dutch Empire 's rule, and contributed to Dutch global prominence in spice and cash crop trade in the 19th to early 20th century. The colonial social order was based on rigid racial and social structures with a Dutch elite living separate from but linked to their native subjects. The term _Indonesia_ came into use for the geographical location after 1880. In the early 20th century, local intellectuals began developing the concept of Indonesia
Indonesia
as a nation state, and set the stage for an independence movement. Japan\'s World War II occupation dismantled much of the Dutch colonial state and economy. Following the Japanese surrender in August 1945, Indonesian nationalists declared independence which they fought to secure during the subsequent Indonesian National Revolution
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Jakarta
JAKARTA (/dʒəˈkɑːrtə/ ), officially the SPECIAL CAPITAL REGION OF JAKARTA, is the capital and most populous city of Indonesia . Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island of Java , the city is the center of economics, culture and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014 . Greater Jakarta metropolitan area, which is known as Jabodetabek (a name formed by combining the initial syllables of Jakarta, Bogor , Depok , Tangerang and Bekasi ), is the second largest urban agglomeration in the world, with population of 30,214,303 inhabitants as of 2010 census. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over Indonesian archipelago, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures. Established in the fourth century as Sunda Kelapa , the city became an important trading port for the Kingdom of Sunda . It was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies , which was known as Batavia at that time. The city is currently the seat of the ASEAN Secretariat as well as important financial institutions such as the Bank of Indonesia , the Indonesia Stock Exchange , and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations
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Provinces Of Indonesia
Indonesian territory is composed of 34 PROVINCES. A province (Indonesian : provinsi) is the highest tier of the local government divisions of Indonesia
Indonesia
(Daerah Tingkat I – level I region). Provinces are further divided into regencies and cities (Daerah Tingkat II – level II regions), which are in turn subdivided into districts (kecamatan). CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Current provinces * 2.1 Table of provinces * 3 Proposed future provinces * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links BACKGROUNDEach province has its own local government, headed by a governor, and has its own legislative body. The governor and members of local representative bodies are elected by popular vote for five-year terms. CURRENT PROVINCES Indonesia
Indonesia
has 34 provinces, eight of which have been created since 1999, namely: North Maluku
North Maluku
, West Papua , Banten
Banten
, Bangka–Belitung Islands , Gorontalo , Riau
Riau
Islands Province
Province
, West Sulawesi
West Sulawesi
and (in late 2012) North Kalimantan
North Kalimantan

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Dutch Colony
Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company Dark green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch West India Company . Tiny orange squares indicate smaller trading posts, the so-called handelsposten
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Indonesia
Coordinates : 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120 Republic of Indonesia _Republik Indonesia_ (Indonesian ) _ Flag National emblem MOTTO: Bhinneka Tunggal Ika _ ( Old Javanese ) "Unity in Diversity" NATIONAL IDEOLOGY : _Pancasila _ ANTHEM: _ Indonesia Raya _ "Great Indonesia" Area controlled by Indonesia shown in green Capital and largest city Jakarta 6°10.5′S 106°49.7′E / 6.1750°S 106.8283°E / -6.1750; 106.8283 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES Indonesian SPOKEN LANGUAGES * Indonesian * Malay * English * Dutch * Javanese * 700 others RELIGI
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Dutch East India Company
The UNITED EAST INDIA COMPANY or the UNITED EAST INDIAN COMPANY, also known as the UNITED EAST INDIES COMPANY (Dutch : _VEREENIGDE OOST-INDISCHE COMPAGNIE_; or VERENIGDE OOSTINDISCHE COMPAGNIE in modern spelling; VOC), referred to by the British as the DUTCH EAST INDIA COMPANY, or sometimes known as the DUTCH EAST INDIES COMPANY, was originally established as a chartered company in 1602, when the Dutch government granted it a 21-year monopoly on the Dutch spice trade . A multinational company , it is also often considered to be the world's first truly transnational corporation . In the early 1600s, the VOC became the first company in history to issue bonds and shares of stock to the general public. In other words, the VOC was the world's first formally listed public company , because it was the first corporation to be ever actually listed on an official (formal) stock exchange . As the first historical model of the quasi-fictional concept of the megacorporation , the VOC possessed quasi-governmental powers, including the ability to wage war, imprison and execute convicts, negotiate treaties, strike its own coins , and establish colonies. With its pioneering institutional innovations, the company played a crucial role in business , socio-politico-economic, and financial history of the world
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Nutmeg
NUTMEG refers to the seed or ground spice of several species of the _Myristica_ genus. _ Myristica fragrans
Myristica fragrans
_ (FRAGRANT NUTMEG or TRUE NUTMEG) is a dark-leaved, evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit , nutmeg and mace. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter . Other members of the genus, such as _M. argentea _ (Papuan nutmeg) and _M. malabarica _ (Bombay nutmeg), are of limited commercial value. The California nutmeg (_ Torreya californica _) has a similar fruit but is not closely related to _Myristica fragans_. CONTENTS * 1 Common nutmeg * 2 Mace
Mace
* 3 Botany and cultivation * 4 Culinary uses * 4.1 Spice
Spice
* 4.2 Fruit
Fruit
* 5 Essential oil * 6 Nutmeg butter * 7 History * 8 World production * 9 Medicinal properties and research * 10 Psychoactivity and toxicity * 10.1 Effects * 10.2 Toxicity during pregnancy * 10.3 Toxicity to dogs * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links COMMON NUTMEG Nutmeg
Nutmeg
seeds NUTMEG is the spice made from the seed of the fragrant nutmeg (_ Myristica fragrans
Myristica fragrans
_) tree
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Black Pepper
BLACK PEPPER (_Piper nigrum_) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae , cultivated for its fruit , which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning . When dried, the fruit is known as a peppercorn. When fresh and fully mature, it is approximately 5 millimetres (0.20 in) in diameter, dark red, and, like all drupes , contains a single seed . Peppercorns, and the ground pepper derived from them, may be described simply as pepper, or more precisely as black pepper (cooked and dried unripe fruit), GREEN PEPPER (dried unripe fruit) and WHITE PEPPER (ripe fruit seeds). Black pepper
Black pepper
is native to south India
India
and is extensively cultivated there and elsewhere in tropical regions. Currently, Vietnam
Vietnam
is the world's largest producer and exporter of pepper, producing 34% of the world's _Piper nigrum_ crop as of 2013. Dried ground pepper has been used since antiquity for both its flavour and as a traditional medicine . Black pepper
Black pepper
is the world's most traded spice . It is one of the most common spices added to cuisines around the world. The spiciness of black pepper is due to the chemical piperine , not to be confused with the capsaicin characteristic of chili peppers . Black pepper
Black pepper
is ubiquitous in the modern world as a seasoning and is often paired with salt
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Cloves
CLOVES are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae , SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM. They are native to the Maluku Islands
Maluku Islands
in Indonesia
Indonesia
, and are commonly used as a spice . Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
, Indonesia, India
India
, Madagascar
Madagascar
, Zanzibar
Zanzibar
, Pakistan
Pakistan
, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
, and Tanzania
Tanzania
. Cloves are available throughout the year. CONTENTS * 1 Botanical features * 2 Uses * 2.1 Non-culinary uses * 2.2 Traditional medicinal uses * 2.3 Potential medicinal uses * 3 Adulteration * 4 History * 5 Chemical compounds * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading BOTANICAL FEATURESThe clove tree is an evergreen that grows up to 8–12 m tall, with large leaves and crimson flowers grouped in terminal clusters. The flower buds initially have a pale hue, gradually turn green, then transition to a bright red when ready for harvest. Cloves are harvested at 1.5–2.0 cm long, and consist of a long calyx that terminates in four spreading sepals , and four unopened petals that form a small central ball
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Cinnamon
CINNAMON (/ˈsɪnəmən/ _SIN-ə-mən_ ) is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus _ Cinnamomum _. Cinnamon is used in both sweet and savoury foods. The term "cinnamon" also refers to its mid-brown colour. _ Cinnamomum verum _ is sometimes considered to be "TRUE CINNAMON", but most cinnamon in international commerce is derived from related species, also referred to as "cassia ". Cinnamon is the name for several species of trees and the commercial spice products that some of them produce. All are members of the genus _Cinnamomum_ in the family Lauraceae . Only a few _Cinnamomum_ species are grown commercially for spice. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Cultivation * 3.1 Grading * 4 Production * 5 Species * 6 Flavour, aroma, and taste * 6.1 Alcohol flavourant * 7 Food uses * 8 Nutritional information * 9 Traditional medicine * 10 Toxicity * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English word "cinnamon", attested in English since the 15th century, derives from the Greek κιννάμωμον _kinnámōmon_ (later _kínnamon_), via Latin and medieval French intermediate forms. The Greek was borrowed from a Phoenician word, which was similar to the related Hebrew _qinnamon_
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Cash Crop
A CASH CROP is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm . The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from subsistence crops , which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family. In earlier times cash crops were usually only a small (but vital) part of a farm's total yield, while today, especially in developed countries , almost all crops are mainly grown for revenue. In the least developed countries , cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and hence have some export value. Prices for major cash crops are set in commodity markets with global scope , with some local variation (termed as "basis") based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets. This system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations
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