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Basque People
The Basques
Basques
(/bɑːsks/ or /bæsks/; Basque: euskaldunak [eus̺kaldunak]; Spanish: vascos [ˈbaskos]; French: basques [bask]) are an indigenous ethnic group[6][7][8] characterised by the Basque language, a common culture and shared ancestry to the ancient Vascones and Aquitanians.[9] Basques
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Bilabial
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.Contents1 Transcription 2 See also 3 References3.1 Notes 3.2 General referencesTranscription[edit] The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are:IPA Description ExampleLanguage Orthography IPA Meaningbilabial nasal English man [mæn]voiceless bilabial stop English spin [spɪn]voiced bilabial stop English bed [bɛd]voiceless bilabial fricative Japanese 富士山 (fujisan) [ɸuʑisaɴ] Mount Fujivoiced bilabial fricative Ewe ɛʋɛ [ɛ̀βɛ̀] Ewebilabial approximant Spanish lobo [loβ̞o] wolfbilabial trill Nias simbi [siʙi] lower jawbilabial ejective Adyghe пӀэ [pʼa] meatʘ̬ ʘ̃ ʘ̥̃ʰ ʘ̃ˀ bilabial click release (many distinct consonants) Nǁng ʘoe [ʘoe] meatOwere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops: [p pʰ ɓ̥ b b̤ ɓ]
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Classical Antiquity
Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
(also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world. It is the period in which Greek and Roman society flourished and wielded great influence throughout Europe, North Africa
North Africa
and Western Asia. Conventionally, it is taken to begin with the earliest-recorded Epic Greek poetry of Homer
Homer
(8th–7th century BC), and continues through the emergence of Christianity
Christianity
and the decline of the Roman Empire (5th century AD)
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Gascon Language
Gascon (Occitan: [ɡasˈku], French: [ɡaskɔ̃]) is a dialect of Occitan. It is mostly spoken in Gascony
Gascony
and Béarn
Béarn
in southwestern France (in parts of the following French départements: Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Hautes-Pyrénées, Landes, Gers, Gironde, Lot-et-Garonne, Haute-Garonne, and Ariège) and in the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
of Catalonia. Aranese, a southern Gascon variety, is spoken in Catalonia and has been greatly influenced recently by Catalan and Spanish. Both these influences tend to differentiate it more and more from the dialects of Gascon spoken in France
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Latin
Latin
Latin
(Latin: lingua latīna, IPA: [ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet
Latin alphabet
is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin
Latin
was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula.[3] Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Labial-velar Approximant
The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. It is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨w⟩ in the English alphabet;[1] likewise, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨w⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is w. In most languages it is a labialized velar approximant [ɰʷ], and the semivocalic counterpart of the close back rounded vowel [u] - i.e. the non-syllabic close back rounded vowel. In inventory charts of languages with other labialized velar consonants, /w/ will be placed in the same column as those consonants. When consonant charts have only labial and velar columns, /w/ may be placed in the velar column, (bi)labial column, or both
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Betacism
In historical linguistics, betacism (UK: /ˈbiːtəsɪzəm/, US: /ˈbeɪ-/) is a sound change in which [b] (the voiced bilabial plosive, as in bane) and [v] (the voiced labiodental fricative [v], as in vane) are confused. The final result of the process can be both /b/ > [v] or /v/ > [b]. Betacism is a fairly common phenomenon; it has taken place in Greek, Hebrew and some Iberian Romances, such as Spanish. In Classical Greek, the letter beta <β> denoted [b]
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Ebro
The Ebro
Ebro
in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: [ˈeβɾo]'Ebre'Catalan: [ˈeβɾə, ˈeβɾe]) is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula
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Novempopulania
Novempopulania
Novempopulania
( Latin
Latin
for "country of the nine peoples") was one of the provinces created by Diocletian
Diocletian
(Roman emperor from 284 to 305) out of Gallia Aquitania, being also called Aquitania Tertia. The area of Novempopulania
Novempopulania
was historically the first one to receive the name of Aquitania, as it was here where the original Aquitani
Aquitani
dwelt primarily. The territory extended within the triangular area outlined by the River Garonna, the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
and the ocean, as described by Caesar in De bello gallico for Gallia Aquitania
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Italian Language
Italian ( italiano (help·info) [itaˈljaːno] or lingua italiana [ˈliŋɡwa itaˈljaːna]) is a Romance language. Italian is by most measures, together with the Sardinian language, the closest tongue to vulgar Latin
Latin
of the Romance languages.[7] Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City
Vatican City
and western Istria
Istria
(in Slovenia
Slovenia
and Croatia). It used to have official status in Albania, Malta
Malta
and Monaco, where it is still widely spoken, as well as in former Italian East Africa
Italian East Africa
and Italian North Africa regions where it plays a significant role in various sectors
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Garonne
The Garonne
Garonne
(French: Garonne, IPA: [ɡaʁɔn]; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Latin: Garumna[1] or Garunna) is a river in southwest France
France
and northern Spain, with a length of 602 kilometres (374 mi). It flows into the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
at Bordeaux.Contents1 Etymology 2 Geography2.1 Sources 2.2 Course 2.3 Towns along the river3 Main tributaries 4 Navigation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksEtymology[edit] The name derives from Garumna, a Latinized version of the Aquitanian name meaning "stony river". Geography[edit] Sources[edit]150º Panorama of the Aran Valley
Aran Valley
from the Beret Plateau, showing the Ruda-Garona and Beret-Garona confluence
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Neologism
A neologism (/niːˈɒlədʒɪzəm/; from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.[1] Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Sources 3 History and meaning 4 Literature 5 Popular culture 6 Translations 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBackground[edit] Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Portmanteaux
Portmanteaux
are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. "Brunch" is an example of a portmanteau word (breakfast + lunch)
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Sabino Arana
Sabino
Sabino
is a municipality in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo
in Brazil
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Solar Deity
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength. Solar deities and sun worship can be found throughout most of recorded history in various forms. The Sun
Sun
is sometimes referred to by its Latin
Latin
name Sol or by its Greek name Helios
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Autonomous Community
In Spain, an autonomous community (Spanish: comunidad autónoma, Basque: autonomia erkidegoa, Catalan: comunitat autònoma, Galician: comunidade autónoma)[a] is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.[1][2][3] Spain
Spain
is not a federation, but a highly decentralized[4][5] unitary state.[1] While sovereignty is vested in the nation as a whole, represented in the central institutions of government, the nation has asymmetrically devolved power to the communities, which, in turn,
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