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Base (chemistry)
In chemistry, bases are substances that, in aqueous solution, release hydroxide (OH−) ions, are slippery to the touch, can taste bitter if an alkali[1], change the color of indicators (e.g., turn red litmus paper blue), react with acids to form salts, promote certain chemical reactions (base catalysis), accept protons from any proton donor, and/or contain completely or partially displaceable OH− ions. Examples of bases are the hydroxides of the alkali metals and the alkaline earth metals (NaOH, Ca(OH)2, etc.). These particular substances produce hydroxide ions (OH−) in aqueous solutions, and are thus classified as Arrhenius bases. For a substance to be classified as an Arrhenius base, it must produce hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution. In order to do so, Arrhenius believed the base must contain hydroxide in the formula
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Activity (chemistry)
In chemical thermodynamics, activity (symbol a) is a measure of the "effective concentration" of a species in a mixture, in the sense that the species' chemical potential depends on the activity of a real solution in the same way that it would depend on concentration for an ideal solution. By convention, activity is treated as a dimensionless quantity, although its value depends on customary choices of standard state for the species. The activity of pure substances in condensed phases (solid or liquids) is normally taken as unity (the number 1). Activity depends on temperature, pressure and composition of the mixture, among other things. For gases, the activity is the effective partial pressure, and is usually referred to as fugacity. The difference between activity and other measures of composition arises because molecules in non-ideal gases or solutions interact with each other, either to attract or to repel each other
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Soap
Soap
Soap
is both a salt of a fatty acid[1] and the term for a variety of cleansing and lubricating products produced from it. Household uses for soaps include washing, bathing, and other types of housekeeping, where soaps act as surfactants, emulsifying[2] oils to enable them to be carried away by water. In industry, they are used as thickeners, components of some lubricants, and precursors to catalysts.Contents1 Kinds of soaps1.1 Non-toilet soaps1.1.1 Production of metallic soaps1.2 Toilet soaps1.2.1 Production of toilet soaps 1.2.2 History1.2.2.1 Ancient Middle East 1.2.2.2 Roman Empire 1.2.2.3 Ancient China 1.2.2.4 Islamic Middle East 1.2.2.5 Medieval Europe 1.2.2.6 15th–19th centuries 1.2.2.7 Liquid soap1.2.3 Soap-making for hobbyists2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksKinds of soaps Since they are salt of fatty acids, soaps have the general formula (RCO2−)nMn+ (R = alkyl)
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Fatty Acids
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated. Most naturally occurring fatty acids have an unbranched chain of an even number of carbon atoms, from 4 to 28.[1] Fatty acids are usually derived from triglycerides or phospholipids. Fatty acids are important dietary sources of fuel for animals because, when metabolized, they yield large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose
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Chemical Equilibrium
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.[1] Usually, this state results when the forward reaction proceeds at the same rate as the reverse reaction. The reaction rates of the forward and backward reactions are generally not zero, but equal. Thus, there are no net changes in the concentrations of the reactant(s) and product(s)
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Electron Pair
In chemistry, an electron pair or a Lewis pair consists of two electrons that occupy the same molecular orbital but have opposite spins. The electron pair concept was introduced in a 1916 paper of Gilbert N. Lewis.[1]MO diagrams depicting covalent (left) and polar covalent (right) bonding in a diatomic molecule. In both cases a bond is created by the formation of an electron pair.Because electrons are fermions, the Pauli exclusion principle
Pauli exclusion principle
forbids these particles from having exactly the same quantum numbers. Therefore, the only way to occupy the same orbital, i.e. have the same orbital quantum numbers, is to differ in the spin quantum number. This limits the number of electrons in the same orbital to exactly two. The pairing of spins is often energetically favorable and electron pairs therefore play a very large role in chemistry. They can form a chemical bond between two atoms, or they can occur as a lone pair of valence electrons
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Hydron (chemistry)
In chemistry, a hydron is the general name for a cationic form of atomic hydrogen, represented with the symbol H+. However, this term is avoided and instead "proton" is used, which strictly speaking refers to the cation of protium, the most common isotope of hydrogen. The term "hydron" includes cations of hydrogen regardless of their isotopic composition: thus it refers collectively to protons (1H+) for the protium isotope, deuterons (2H+ or D+) for the deuterium isotope, and tritons (3H+ or T+) for the tritium isotope. Unlike other ions, the hydron consists only of a bare atomic nucleus. The negatively charged counterpart of the hydron is the hydride anion, H−.Contents1 Properties1.1 Solute properties 1.2 Acidity2 Isotopes of hydron 3 History of the term 4 See also 5 ReferencesProperties[edit] Solute properties[edit] Hydron compounds are hydrophilic (ionic) solutes
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Ions
An ion (/ˈaɪən, -ɒn/)[1] is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons). A cation is a positively-charged ion, while an anion is negatively charged. Because of their opposite electric charges, cations and anions attract each other and readily form ionic compounds, such as salts. Ions can be created by chemical means, such as the dissolution of a salt into water, or by physical means, such as passing a direct current through a conducting solution, which will dissolve the anode via ionization. Ions consisting of only a single atom are atomic or monatomic ions
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Dibasic Acid
In chemistry, diprotic acid is a class of Arrhenius acids which are capable of donating two protons or hydrogen cations per molecule when dissociating in aqueous solutions.[1][2] The most important chemical feature for a diprotic acid molecule is its ability to deprotonate two protons in two sequential steps during dissociation
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Calcium Hydroxide
Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is obtained when calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation. Limewater
Limewater
is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.Contents1 Properties 2 Structure, preparation, occurrence 3 Retrograde solubility 4 Uses4.1 Food industry4.1.1 Native American uses 4.1.2 Asian uses5 Health risks 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksProperties[edit] Calcium
Calcium
hydroxide is relatively insoluble in water, with a solubility product Ksp of 5.5 × 10−6
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Proton
6973167262189800000♠1.672621898(21)×10−27 kg[1] 7002938272081300000♠938.2720813(58) MeV/c2[2] 7000100727646687900♠1.007276466879(91) u[2]Mean lifetime > 7036662709600000000♠2.1×1029 years (stable)Electric charge 6981160217648700000♠+1 e 6981160217662079999♠1.6021766208(98)×10−19 C[2]Charge radius 6999875100000000000♠0.8751(61) fm[2]Electric dipole moment < 6976540000000000000♠5.4×10−24 e⋅cmElectric polarizability 6997119999999999999♠1.20(6)×10−3 fm3Magnetic moment6974141060678730000♠1.4106067873(97)×10−26 J⋅T−1[2] 6997152103220530000♠1.5210322053(46)×10−3 μB[2] 7000279284735079999♠2.7928473508(85) μN[2]Magnetic polarizability 6996190000000000000♠1.9(5)×10−4 fm3Spin 1/2Isospin 1/2Parity +1Condensed I(JP) = 1/2(1/2+)A proton is a subatomic
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Base Catalysis
In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalyzed by an acid or a base. The acid is the proton donor and the base is the proton acceptor, known as Brønsted-Lowry acid and base respectively. Typical reactions catalyzed by proton transfer are esterfications and aldol reactions. In these reactions the conjugate acid of the carbonyl group is a better electrophile than the neutral carbonyl group itself. Catalysis by either acid or base can occur in two different ways: specific catalysis and general catalysis. Many enzymes operate by acid-catalysis.Contents1 Applications and examples1.1 Brønsted acids 1.2 Solid acid catalysts2 Mechanism2.1 Specific catalysis 2.2 General catalysis3 ReferencesApplications and examples[edit] Brønsted acids[edit] Acid catalysis is mainly used for organic chemical reactions. Many acids can function as sources for the protons
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Litmus Paper
Litmus
Litmus
is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity.Contents1 History 2 Natural sources 3 Uses 4 Chemistry 5 Mechanism 6 ReferencesHistory[edit] Litmus
Litmus
was used for the first time about 1300 AD by Spanish physician Arnaldus de Villa Nova.[1] From the 16th century on, the blue dye was extracted from some lichens, especially in the Netherlands. Natural sources[edit]Parmelia sulcata Litmus
Litmus
can be found in different species of lichens
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Aqueous Solution
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water. It is usually shown in chemical equations by appending (aq) to the relevant chemical formula. For example, a solution of table salt, or sodium chloride (NaCl), in water would be represented as Na+(aq) + Cl−(aq). The word aqueous means pertaining to, related to, similar to, or dissolved in, water. As water is an excellent solvent and is also naturally abundant, it is a ubiquitous solvent in chemistry. Substances that are hydrophobic ('water-fearing') often do not dissolve well in water, whereas those that are hydrophilic ('water-friendly') do. An example of a hydrophilic substance is sodium chloride. Acids and bases are aqueous solutions, as part of their Arrhenius definitions. The ability of a substance to dissolve in water is determined by whether the substance can match or exceed the strong attractive forces that water molecules generate between themselves
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Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry
is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.[1][2] Chemistry
Chemistry
addresses topics such as how atoms and molecules interact via chemical bonds to form new chemical compounds. There are four types of chemical bonds: covalent bonds, in which compounds share one or more electron(s); ionic bonds, in which a compound donates one or more electrons to another compound to produce ions: cations and anions; hydrogen bonds; and Van der Waals force
Van der Waals force
bonds
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