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Baronage
The _BARONAGE_ is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility , as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke . It was replaced eventually by the term _peerage _. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Obligation to attend parliament * 3 Replacement by peerage * 4 Surviving vestiges * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References ORIGINThe term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron . The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure _per baroniam_. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief , such as an earldom . Immediately after the Norman Conquest of 1066 a very few barons held the function of earldom , then not considered as a separate degree of nobility _per se_. An earl was at that time the highest executive office concerned with the administration of a shire . The earl held higher responsibilities than the sheriff (from shire-reeve). In Latin, a sheriff was referred to as _vice-comes_, meaning a deputy-count, that is to say a deputy-earl, "count" being the Norman-French term for the Anglo-Saxon "Earl". This later developed into the English peerage title of viscount
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Barony
A modern GEOGRAPHIC BARONY, in Scotland, Ireland
Ireland
and outlying parts of England, constitutes an administrative division of a country, usually of lower rank and importance than a county . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Surviving examples * 2.1 England
England
* 2.2 Scotland * 2.3 Ireland
Ireland
* 2.4 Norway
Norway
* 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINA geographic barony is a remnant from mediaeval times of the area of land held under the form of feudal land tenure termed feudal barony, or barony by tenure, either an English feudal barony , a Scottish feudal barony or an Irish feudal barony , which all operated under different legal and social systems. Just as modern counties are no longer under the administrative control of a noble count or earl , geographic baronies are generally no longer connected with feudal barons, certainly not in England
England
where such tenure was abolished with the whole feudal system by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 . The position in Scotland is more complex, although the legal force of the Scottish feudal baron was abolished early in the 21st century
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Baronetcy
A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation "Btss"), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish Black Knight , White Knight and Green Knight (of which only the Green Knight is extant). A baronet is addressed as "Sir" (just as is a knight ) or "Dame" in the case of a baronetess but ranks above all knighthoods and damehoods in the order of precedence , except for the Order of the Garter and the Order of the Thistle (and the dormant Order of St Patrick ). Comparisons with continental titles and ranks are tenuous due to the British system of primogeniture and the fact that claims to baronetcies must be proven; currently the Official Roll of the Baronetage is overseen by the Ministry of Justice (United Kingdom) . In practice this means that the UK Peerage and Baronetage consists of about 2000 families (some Peers are also Baronets), which is roughly 0.01% of UK families
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Magna Carta
_MAGNA CARTA LIBERTATUM_ ( Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called MAGNA CARTA (also _Magna Charta_; "(the) Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede , near Windsor , on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons , it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown , to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III , leading to the First Barons\' War . After John's death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III , reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content, in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause. At the end of the war in 1217, it formed part of the peace treaty agreed at Lambeth , where the document acquired the name Magna Carta, to distinguish it from the smaller Charter of the Forest which was issued at the same time. Short of funds, Henry reissued the charter again in 1225 in exchange for a grant of new taxes; his son, Edward I , repeated the exercise in 1297, this time confirming it as part of England's statute law
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Runnymede
RUNNYMEDE is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames
River Thames
in the English county of Surrey
Surrey
, and just over 20 miles (32 km) west of central London . It is notable for its association with the sealing of Magna Carta , and as a consequence is, with its adjoining hillside, the site of memorials. Runnymede
Runnymede
Borough is named after the area, Runnymede being at its northernmost point. CONTENTS * 1 Topography * 2 History * 2.1 Runnymede
Runnymede
Eco Village * 3 Features * 3.1 Urban H. Broughton Memorials * 3.2 Langham Pond SSSI * 3.3 Air Forces Memorial * 3.4 John F
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word _feodum_ or _feudum_ (fief), then in use, the term _feudalism_ and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), _feudalism_ describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs . A broader definition of feudalism, as described by Marc Bloch (1939), includes not only the obligations of the warrior nobility but also those of all three estates of the realm : the nobility, the clergy , and the peasantry bound by manorialism ; this is sometimes referred to as a "feudal society". Since the publication of Elizabeth A. R. Brown 's "The Tyranny of a Construct" (1974) and Susan Reynolds 's _Fiefs and Vassals_ (1994), there has been ongoing inconclusive discussion among medieval historians as to whether feudalism is a useful construct for understanding medieval society
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Nobility
NOBILITY is a social class , normally ranked immediately under royalty , that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence ), and vary from country to country and era to era. A Medieval chivalry motto Noblesse oblige which literally means "nobility obligates" explains that privileges carry a life-long obligation of duty to uphold social responsibilities, be it of honorable behavior, customary service or leadership, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond. Historically, membership in the nobility and the prerogatives thereof have been regulated or acknowledged by the monarch or government, thereby distinguishing it from other sectors of a nation's upper class wherein wealth, lifestyle or affiliation may be the salient markers of membership. Nonetheless, nobility _per se_ has rarely constituted a closed caste; acquisition of sufficient power, wealth, military prowess or royal favour has, with varying frequency, enabled commoners to ascend into the nobility. There is often a variety of ranks within the noble class
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Edward Coke
SIR EDWARD COKE SL PC (/ˈkʊk/ ("cook"), formerly /ˈkuːk/ ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister , judge and, later, opposition politician, who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Born into a middle-class family, Coke was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
, before leaving to study at the Inner Temple , where he was called to the Bar on 20 April 1578. As a barrister he took part in several notable cases, including _Slade\'s Case _, before earning enough political favour to be elected to Parliament, where he served first as Solicitor General and then as Speaker of the House of Commons . Following a promotion to Attorney General he led the prosecution in several notable cases, including those against Robert Devereux , Sir Walter Raleigh , and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators. As a reward for his services he was first knighted and then made Chief Justice of the Common Pleas . As Chief Justice, Coke restricted the use of the _ex officio _ (Star Chamber ) oath and, in the _ Case of Proclamations _ and _Dr. Bonham\'s Case _, declared the King to be subject to the law, and the laws of Parliament to be void if in violation of "common right and reason". These actions eventually led to his transfer to the Chief Justiceship of the King\'s Bench , where it was felt he could do less damage
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Peerage
A PEERAGE is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks. Peerages include: CONTENTS * 1 Canada * 2 France * 3 Japan * 4 United Kingdom, Ireland, and the British Empire * 4.1 The UK and Ireland * 5 See also CANADA * Canadian peerages in the nobility of France FRANCE * Peerage of France position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Peerage additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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English Feudal Barony
In the kingdom of England , a FEUDAL BARONY or BARONY BY TENURE was the highest degree of feudal land tenure , namely _per baroniam_ (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament . If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its _caput baroniae _ and if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight\'s fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor ) – then it was termed an "honour ". This type of barony must be distinguished from a barony, also feudal, which existed within a county palatine , such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester
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Tenant-in-chief
In medieval and early modern Europe the term TENANT-IN-CHIEF (or VASSAL-IN-CHIEF), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy . The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Duties of tenants-in-chief * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Citations * 7 Sources ETYMOLOGYOther names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron , although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron . The Latin term was tenens in capite ; HISTORYIn most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church; however in England after the Norman Conquest , the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown. A tenure by frankalmoin , which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement
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Feudal Land Tenure
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpetual, or non-free where the tenancy terminated on the tenant's death or at an earlier specified period. The main varieties are as follows: CONTENTS * 1 Military tenure * 2 Non-military tenure * 3 Uncategorised * 4 References MILITARY TENURE(Generally freehold) * BY BARONY (_per baroniam_). Such tenure constituted the holder a feudal baron , and was the highest degree of tenure. It imposed duties of military service and required attendance at parliament . All such holders were necessarily tenants-in-chief . * BY KNIGHT-SERVICE . This was a tenure ranking below barony, and was likewise for military service, of a lesser extent. It could be held _in capite _ from the king or as a _mesne _ tenancy from a tenant-in-chief. * BY CASTLE-GUARD . This was a form of military service which involved guarding a nearby castle for a specified number of days per year. * BY SCUTAGE where the military service obligations had been commuted, or replaced, by money payments.NON-MILITARY TENURE * BY SERJEANTY . Such tenure was in return for acting as a servant to the king, in a non-military capacity
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Tenants-in-chief
In medieval and early modern Europe the term TENANT-IN-CHIEF (or VASSAL-IN-CHIEF), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy . The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Duties of tenants-in-chief * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Citations * 7 Sources ETYMOLOGYOther names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron , although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron . The Latin term was tenens in capite ; HISTORYIn most countries allodial property could be held by laypeople or the church; however in England after the Norman Conquest , the king became in law the only holder of land by allodial title; thus all the lands in England became the property of the Crown. A tenure by frankalmoin , which in other countries was regarded as a form of privileged allodial holding, was in England regarded as a feudal tenement
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Earldom
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (_hertig_/_hertug_/_hertog_). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, _jarl_ could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of _jarl_ and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "Earl/Count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the _hakushaku_ of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era . In modern Britain, an earl is a member of the peerage , ranking below a marquess and above a viscount . A feminine form of _earl_ never developed; instead, _countess_ is used
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Shire
A SHIRE is a traditional term for a division of land, found in the United Kingdom and some other English speaking countries. It was first used in Wessex from the beginning of Anglo-Saxon settlement, and spread to most of the rest of England in the tenth century. In some rural parts of Australia, a shire is a local government area; however, in Australia it is not synonymous with a "county", which is a lands administrative division . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Shires in the United Kingdom * 3.1 Shire names in England * 3.2 Shire names in Scotland * 3.3 Shire names in Wales * 3.4 Non-county "shires" * 4 Shires in Australia * 5 Shires in the United States * 6 See also * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe word derives from the Old English _scir_, itself a derivative of the Proto-Germanic _skizo_ (cf. Old High German _scira_), meaning care or official charge. In the UK, "shire" is the original term for what is usually known now as a _county _; the word _county_ having been introduced at the Norman Conquest of England. The two are nearly synonymous. Although in modern British usage counties are referred to as "shires" mainly in poetic contexts, terms such as Shire Hall remain common
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Sheriff
A SHERIFF is a government official, with varying duties, existing in some countries with historical ties to England, where the office originated. There is an analogous although independently developed office in Iceland that is commonly translated to English as _sheriff_, and this is discussed below. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Term * 3 Modern usage * 3.1 Australia * 3.2 Canada * 3.2.1 Alberta * 3.2.2 British Columbia * 3.2.3 Nova Scotia * 3.3 Iceland * 3.4 India * 3.5 Republic of Ireland * 3.6 Scotland * 3.6.1 Sheriffs principal * 3.6.2 Sheriffs * 3.6.3 Summary sheriffs * 3.7 South Africa * 3.8 United States * 4 References * 5 External links DESCRIPTIONHistorically, a sheriff was a legal official with responsibility for a "shire " or county . In modern times, the specific combination of legal, political and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country. * In the United States , a sheriff is a sworn law enforcement officer and the duties of the office vary across states and counties. A sheriff is generally an elected county official, with duties that typically include policing unincorporated areas , maintaining county jails , providing security to courts in the county, and (in some states) serving warrants and court papers
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