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Baronage
The baronage is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility, as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke.[1] It was replaced eventually by the term peerage.Contents1 Origin 2 Obligation to attend parliament 3 Replacement by peerage 4 Surviving vestiges 5 Sources 6 Further reading 7 See also 8 ReferencesOrigin[edit] The term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron. The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure per baroniam. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief, such as an earldom. Immediately after the Norman Conquest of 1066 a very few barons held the function of earldom, then not considered as a separate degree of nobility per se
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Manorial Court
The manorial courts were the lowest courts of law in England during the feudal period. They had a civil jurisdiction limited both in subject matter and geography. They dealt with matters over which the lord of the manor had jurisdiction, primarily torts, local contracts and land tenure, and their powers only extended to those who lived within the lands of the manor: the demesne and such lands as the lord had enfeoffed to others, and to those who held land therein. Historians have divided manorial courts into those that were primarily seignorial – based on feudal responsibilities – and those based on separate delegation of authority from the monarch. There were three types of manorial court: the court of the honour; the court baron; and the court customary, also known as the halmote court.[1] Each manor had its own laws promulgated in a document called the custumal, and anyone in breach of those laws could be tried in a manorial court
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Nicholas Harris Nicolas
Sir (Nicholas) Harris Nicolas GCMG KH (10 March 1799 – 3 August 1848) was an English antiquary.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksLife[edit] The fourth son of Commander John Harris Nicolas R.N. (1758 - 1844) and Margaret née Blake, he was born at Dartmouth. He was the brother of Captain John Toup Nicholas RN CB KH KFM; 1st Lt Paul Harris Nicolas RM and Lt Keigwin Nicholas RN.[1] Having served in the navy from 1812 to 1816, he studied law and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple
Inner Temple
in 1825. His work as a barrister was confined principally to peerage cases before the House of Lords, and he devoted the rest of his time to the study of genealogy and history. In 1831 he was made a knight of the Royal Guelphic Order, and in 1832 chancellor and knight-commander of the Order of St Michael and St George, being advanced to the grade of the grand cross in 1840
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Courtesy Title
A courtesy title is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility, the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title).[1][2] In some contexts, courtesy title is used to mean the more general concept of a title or honorific such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Dr., Miss, Sir, and Madam.[3]Contents1 Africa 2 France2.1 Ancien Régime2.1.1 Courtesy title as principal title 2.1.2 Courtesy title used by sons and daughters3 United Kingdom 4 See also 5 ReferencesAfrica[edit] In much of Africa, many of the surviving noble titles are social courtesies that are recognized by customary law and little else
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Writ Of Acceleration
A writ in acceleration, commonly called a writ of acceleration, was a type of writ of summons that enabled the eldest son and heir apparent of a peer with multiple peerage titles to attend the British or Irish House of Lords, using one of his father's subsidiary titles. This procedure could be used to lower the average age of the house, and increase the number of capable members in a house that drew on a very small pool of talent (a few dozen families in its early centuries, a few hundred in its later centuries), without increasing the effective size of the peerage and thereby diluting the exclusivity of noble titles. The procedure of writs of acceleration was introduced by King Edward IV in the mid 15th century. It was a fairly rare occurrence, and only 98 writs of acceleration were issued in over 400 years
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Harold Macmillan
Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC, FRS[1] (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. Nicknamed "Supermac", he was known for his pragmatism, wit and unflappability. Macmillan served in the Grenadier Guards during the First World War. He was wounded three times, most severely in September 1916 during the Battle of the Somme. He spent the rest of the war in a military hospital unable to walk, and suffered pain and partial immobility for the rest of his life. After the war Macmillan joined his family business, then entered Parliament in the 1924 General Election, for the northern industrial constituency of Stockton-on-Tees. After losing his seat in 1929, he regained it in 1931, soon after which he spoke out against the high rate of unemployment in Stockton-On-Tees, and against appeasement
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Baron Jervis
Viscount St Vincent, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1801 for the noted naval commander John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent, with remainder to his nephews William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively, and after them to his niece Mary, wife of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk. He had already been created Baron Jervis, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, and Earl of St Vincent, in the Peerage of Great Britain, in 1797, with normal remainder to his heirs male. On Lord St Vincent's death in 1823 the barony and earldom became extinct while he was succeeded in the viscountcy according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second viscount
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Earl St Vincent
Viscount St Vincent, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1801 for the noted naval commander John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent, with remainder to his nephews William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively, and after them to his niece Mary, wife of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk. He had already been created Baron Jervis, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, and Earl of St Vincent, in the Peerage of Great Britain, in 1797, with normal remainder to his heirs male. On Lord St Vincent's death in 1823 the barony and earldom became extinct while he was succeeded in the viscountcy according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second viscount
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John Jervis, 1st Earl Of St Vincent
HMS Porcupine HMS Scorpion HMS Albany HMS Gosport HMS Alarm HMS Kent HMS Foudroyant Leeward Islands Station Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Fleet Channel Fleet First Lord of the AdmiraltyBattles/warsSeven Years' WarBattle of QuebecAmerican War of IndependenceBattle of Ushant Battle of Cape SpartelFrench Revolutionary WarsInvasion of Guadeloupe (1794) Battle of Cape St VincentNapoleonic WarsAwards Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the BathAdmiral of the Fleet John Jervis, 1st Earl
Earl
of St Vincent GCB, PC[1] (9 January 1735 – 14 March 1823) was an admiral in the Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom
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Commoner
The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy. Whereas historically many civilizations have institutionalized the notion of a common class within society, since the 20th century the term common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to the highly privileged (in either wealth or influence)
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Sine Qua Non
Sine qua non (/ˌsaɪni kweɪ ˈnɒn, ˌsɪni kwɑː ˈnoʊn/; Latin: [ˈsine kwaː ˈnoːn])[1] or condicio sine qua non (plural: condiciones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. It was originally a Latin legal term for "[a condition] without which it could not be", or "but for..." or "without which [there is] nothing"
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Marquess
A marquess (UK: /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/;[1] French: marquis, [mɑʁki];[2] Italian: marchese, Spanish: marqués, Portuguese: marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg, the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe
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Duke
A duke (male) (British English: /djuːk/[1] or American English: /duːk/[2]) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch. The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux, 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the title (as Herzog) signified first among the Germanic monarchies
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Letters Patent
Letters patent
Letters patent
(always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation. Letters patent can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms. Letters patent are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown, such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms, as well as appointing a Royal Commission. In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm. A particular form of letters patent has evolved into the modern patent (referred to as a utility patent or design patent in United States
United States
patent law) granting exclusive rights in an invention (or a design in the case of a design patent)
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Writ
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin
Latin
breve)[1] is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court. Warrants, prerogative writs, and subpoenas are common types of writ, but many forms exist and have existed. In its earliest form a writ was simply a written order made by the English monarch to a specified person to undertake a specified action; for example, in the feudal era a military summons by the king to one of his tenants-in-chief to appear dressed for battle with retinue at a certain place and time.[2] An early usage survives in the United Kingdom and Canada
Canada
in a writ of election, which is a written order issued on behalf of the monarch (in Canada, the Governor General) to local officials (High Sheriffs of every county in the historical UK) to hold a general election
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William Courthope (officer Of Arms)
William Courthope (1808–1866) was an English officer of arms, genealogist and writer, Somerset Herald
Somerset Herald
from 1854.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Family 4 NotesLife[edit] The son of Thomas Courthope and his wife Mary, daughter of Thomas Buxton, born 6 May 1808, he was engaged as private clerk by Francis Townsend, Rouge Dragon Pursuivant, in 1824, and entered the office of the College of Arms
College of Arms
as clerk in 1833. He was appointed Rouge Croix Pursuivant in 1839, Somerset Herald
Somerset Herald
in 1854, and registrar of the college in 1859.[1] Courthope was called to the bar as a member of the Inner Temple
Inner Temple
in 1851, but did not practise
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