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Baronage
The BARONAGE is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility , as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke
Edward Coke
. It was replaced eventually by the term peerage . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Obligation to attend parliament * 3 Replacement by peerage * 4 Surviving vestiges * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References ORIGINThe term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron . The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure per baroniam. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief , such as an earldom
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Sine Qua Non
SINE QUA NON (/ˌsaɪni kweɪ ˈnɒn/ ; Latin: ) or CONDITIO SINE QUA NON (plural: conditiones sine quibus non) is an indispensable and essential action, condition, or ingredient. It was originally a Latin legal term for " without which it could not be", or "but for..." or "without which nothing". "Sine qua non" causation is the formal terminology for "but-for" causation. CONTENTS * 1 Origin and spread * 2 General usages * 3 Usage in medicine * 4 "But-for" causation in law * 5 See also * 6 References ORIGIN AND SPREADAs a Latin term, it occurs in the work of Boethius , and originated in Aristotelian expressions. In Classical Latin
Classical Latin
, the form uses the word condicio (from the verb condico, condicere, to agree upon), but in later Latin the phrase is also used with conditio (condition)
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Commoner
The terms COMMON PEOPLE, COMMON MAN, COMMONERS, or the MASSES denote a broad social division referring to ordinary people who are members of neither royalty nor nobility nor the priesthood . Since the 20th century, the term common people has been used in a more general sense to refer to typical members of society in contrast to highly privileged (in either wealth or influence). CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Breakdown of the trifold division * 3 Social divisions in non-Western civilisations * 4 See also * 5 Notes and references * 6 Further reading * 7 External links HISTORYIn Europe, a distinct concept analogous to common people arose in the Classical civilization of ancient Rome around the 6th century BC, with the social division into patricians (nobles) and plebeians (commoners). The division may have been instituted by Servius Tullius , as an alternative to the previous clan based divisions that had been responsible for internecine conflict
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John Jervis, 1st Earl Of St Vincent
HMS Porcupine HMS Scorpion HMS Albany HMS Gosport HMS Alarm HMS Kent HMS Foudroyant Leeward Islands Station Mediterranean Fleet Channel Fleet First Lord of the Admiralty BATTLES/WARS* Seven Years\' War * Battle of Quebec * American War of Independence * Battle of Ushant * Battle of Cape Spartel * French Revolutionary Wars * Invasion of Guadeloupe (1794) * Battle of Cape St Vincent * Napoleonic Wars AWARDS Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Admiral of the Fleet JOHN JERVIS, 1ST EARL OF ST VINCENT GCB , PC (9 January 1735 – 14 March 1823) was an admiral in the Royal Navy and Member of Parliament in the United Kingdom. Jervis served throughout the latter half of the 18th century and into the 19th, and was an active commander during the Seven Years\' War , American War of Independence , French Revolutionary War and the Napoleonic Wars
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Marquess
A MARQUESS (UK : /ˈmɑːrkwɪs/ ; French : MARQUIS, ; Italian : marchese, Spanish : marqués, Portuguese : marquês) is a nobleman of hereditary rank in various European peerages and in those of some of their former colonies. The term is also used to translate equivalent Asian styles, as in imperial China and Japan
Japan
. In the German lands, a Margrave
Margrave
was a ruler of an immediate Imperial territory (examples include the Margrave
Margrave
of Brandenburg , the Margrave of Baden and the Margrave
Margrave
of Bayreuth ), not simply a nobleman like a marquess or marquis in Western and Southern Europe. German rulers did not confer the title of marquis; holders of marquisates in Central Europe were largely associated with the Italian and Spanish crowns
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Duke
A DUKE (male) ( British English
British English
: /djuːk/ or American English
American English
: /duːk/ ) or DUCHESS (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility , historically of highest rank below the monarch . The title comes from French duc, itself from the Latin dux , 'leader', a term used in republican Rome to refer to a military commander without an official rank (particularly one of Germanic or Celtic origin), and later coming to mean the leading military commander of a province. The title dux survived in the Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire
where it was used in several contexts signifying a rank equivalent to a captain or general. Later on, in the 11th century, the title Megas Doux
Megas Doux
was introduced for the post of commander-in-chief of the entire navy
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Writ
In common law , a WRIT is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction ; in modern usage, this body is generally a court . Warrants , prerogative writs and subpoenas are common types of writ but many forms exist and have existed. In its earliest form a writ was simply a written order made by the English monarch to a specified person to undertake a specified action; for example, in the feudal era a military summons by the king to one of his tenants-in-chief to appear dressed for battle with retinue at a certain place and time. An early usage survives in the United Kingdom and Canada
Canada
in a writ of election , which is a written order issued on behalf of the monarch (in Canada, the Governor General ) to local officials (High Sheriffs of every county in the historical UK) to hold a general election
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Letters Patent
LETTERS PATENT (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch , president , or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly , title, or status to a person or corporation . Letters patent
Letters patent
can be used for the creation of corporations or government offices, or for the granting of city status or a coat of arms . Letters patent
Letters patent
are issued for the appointment of representatives of the Crown , such as governors and governors-general of Commonwealth realms , as well as appointing a Royal Commission . In the United Kingdom they are also issued for the creation of peers of the realm
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Earl St Vincent
VISCOUNT ST VINCENT, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom . It was created in 1801 for the noted naval commander John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent , with remainder to his nephews William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively, and after them to his niece Mary, wife of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk . He had already been created BARON JERVIS, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, and EARL OF ST VINCENT, in the Peerage of Great Britain , in 1797, with normal remainder to his heirs male. On Lord St Vincent's death in 1823 the barony and earldom became extinct while he was succeeded in the viscountcy according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second viscount. In 1823 he assumed by royal licence the surname of Jervis in lieu of Ricketts
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Baron Jervis
VISCOUNT ST VINCENT, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom . It was created in 1801 for the noted naval commander John Jervis, Earl of St Vincent , with remainder to his nephews William Henry Ricketts and Edward Jervis Ricketts successively, and after them to his niece Mary, wife of William Carnegie, 7th Earl of Northesk . He had already been created BARON JERVIS, of Meaford in the County of Stafford, and EARL OF ST VINCENT, in the Peerage of Great Britain , in 1797, with normal remainder to his heirs male. On Lord St Vincent's death in 1823 the barony and earldom became extinct while he was succeeded in the viscountcy according to the special remainder by his nephew, the second viscount. In 1823 he assumed by royal licence the surname of Jervis in lieu of Ricketts
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Nicholas Harris Nicolas
SIR (NICHOLAS) HARRIS NICOLAS GCMG KH (10 March 1799 – 3 August 1848) was an English antiquary . CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Works * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links LIFEThe fourth son of Commander John Harris Nicolas R.N. (1758 - 1844) and Margaret née Blake, he was born at Dartmouth . He was the brother of Captain John Toup Nicholas RN CB KH KFM; 1st Lt Paul Harris Nicolas RM and Lt Keigwin Nicholas RN. Having served in the navy from 1812 to 1816, he studied law and was called to the bar at the Inner Temple
Inner Temple
in 1825. His work as a barrister was confined principally to peerage cases before the House of Lords
House of Lords
, and he devoted the rest of his time to the study of genealogy and history
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William Courthope (officer Of Arms)
OF or OF may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Arts and media * 2 Organizations * 3 Places * 4 Post-nominals * 5 Science and technology * 6 Other uses ARTS AND MEDIA * Odd Future , a Los Angeles-based hip-hop collective * Operation Flashpoint , a video game seriesORGANIZATIONS * Air Finland , a defunct Finnish airline (IATA airline code OF) * Občanské fórum , or Civic Forum, a Czech political movement established during the Velvet Revolution in 1989 * Osvobodilna fronta , the Liberation Front of the Slovenian People, the main anti-fascist Slovene civil resistance and political organization active during World War IIPLACES * Of, Turkey , a town and district in Trabzon Province, Turkey * Offenbach (district) and Offenbach am Main (German vehicle registration plates codes OF)POST-NOMINALS * Officer of the Order of Fiji , which has the post-nominal letters of OF * Old Fettesian, sometimes used as post-no
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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J. Horace Round
JOHN HORACE ROUND (1854–1928) was an historian and genealogist of the English mediaeval period. He translated the portion of the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
(1086) covering Essex
Essex
into contemporary English. As an expert in the history of the British peerage , he was appointed honorary historical adviser to the Crown . CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Family and early life * 1.2 Work as a genealogist and writer * 1.3 Illness and death * 2 Legacy * 2.1 Papers and correspondence * 2.2 Publications * 3 References * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYFAMILY AND EARLY LIFERound was born on 22 February 1854 in Hove
Hove
, Sussex. His parents were John Round (died 1887), a barrister , of West Bergholt , Essex
Essex
, and Laura, the daughter of the poet Horatio Smith
Horatio Smith
(died 1864)
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Courtesy Title
A COURTESY TITLE is a title that does not have legal significance but rather is used through custom or courtesy, particularly, in the context of nobility , the titles used by children of members of the nobility (c.f. substantive title ). In some contexts, courtesy title is used to mean the more general concept of a title or honorific such as Mr. , Mrs. , Ms. , Dr. , Miss , Sir
Sir
, and Madam
Madam
. CONTENTS * 1 Africa
Africa
* 2 France * 2.1 Ancien Régime * 2.1.1 Courtesy title as principal title * 2.1.2 Courtesy title used by sons and daughters * 3 United Kingdom
United Kingdom
* 4 See also * 5 References AFRICAIn much of Africa
Africa
, many of the surviving noble titles are social courtesies that are recognized by customary law and little else
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Harold Macmillan
Selwyn Lloyd OTHER MINISTERIAL OFFICES MINISTER OF DEFENCE IN OFFICE 19 October 1954 – 7 April 1955 PRIME MINISTER Sir Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
PRECEDED BY The Earl Alexander of Tunis SUCCEEDED BY Selwyn Lloyd MINISTER OF HOUS
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