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Baronage
The BARONAGE is the collectively inclusive term denoting all members of the feudal nobility , as observed by the constitutional authority Edward Coke
Edward Coke
. It was replaced eventually by the term peerage . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Obligation to attend parliament * 3 Replacement by peerage * 4 Surviving vestiges * 5 Sources * 6 Further reading * 7 See also * 8 References ORIGINThe term originated at a time when there was only one substantive degree of nobility, that of the feudal baron . The feudal baron held his lands directly from the king as a tenant-in-chief by the feudal land tenure per baroniam. This gave him the obligation to provide knights and troops for the royal feudal army. Barons could hold other executive offices apart from the duties they owed the king as a tenants-in-chief , such as an earldom
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Barony
A modern GEOGRAPHIC BARONY, in Scotland, Ireland
Ireland
and outlying parts of England, constitutes an administrative division of a country, usually of lower rank and importance than a county . CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Surviving examples * 2.1 England
England
* 2.2 Scotland * 2.3 Ireland
Ireland
* 2.4 Norway
Norway
* 3 See also * 4 References ORIGINA geographic barony is a remnant from mediaeval times of the area of land held under the form of feudal land tenure termed feudal barony, or barony by tenure, either an English feudal barony , a Scottish feudal barony or an Irish feudal barony , which all operated under different legal and social systems
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Baronetcy
A BARONET (/ˈbærənɪt/ or /ˈbærəˌnɛt/ ; abbreviated BART or BT ) or the rare female equivalent, a BARONETESS (/ˈbærənɪtɪs/ , /ˈbærənɪtɛs/ , or /ˌbærəˈnɛtɛs/ ; abbreviation "Btss"), is the holder of a baronetcy, a hereditary title awarded by the British Crown. The practice of awarding baronetcies was originally introduced in England in the 14th century and was used by James I of England in 1611 as a means of raising funds. A baronetcy is the only British hereditary honour that is not a peerage , with the exception of the Anglo-Irish
Anglo-Irish
Black Knight
Knight
, White Knight
Knight
and Green Knight
Knight
(of which only the Green Knight
Knight
is extant)
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Magna Carta
_MAGNA CARTA LIBERTATUM_ ( Medieval Latin for "the Great Charter of the Liberties"), commonly called MAGNA CARTA (also _Magna Charta_; "(the) Great Charter"), is a charter agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede , near Windsor , on 15 June 1215. First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons , it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown , to be implemented through a council of 25 barons. Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III , leading to the First Barons\' War . After John's death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III , reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content, in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause
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Runnymede
RUNNYMEDE is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames
River Thames
in the English county of Surrey
Surrey
, and just over 20 miles (32 km) west of central London . It is notable for its association with the sealing of Magna Carta , and as a consequence is, with its adjoining hillside, the site of memorials. Runnymede
Runnymede
Borough is named after the area, Runnymede being at its northernmost point. CONTENTS * 1 Topography * 2 History * 2.1 Runnymede
Runnymede
Eco Village * 3 Features * 3.1 Urban H. Broughton Memorials * 3.2 Langham Pond SSSI * 3.3 Air Forces Memorial * 3.4 John F
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Feudalism
FEUDALISM was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries. Broadly defined, it was a way of structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. Although derived from the Latin word _feodum_ or _feudum_ (fief), then in use, the term _feudalism_ and the system it describes were not conceived of as a formal political system by the people living in the Middle Ages. In its classic definition, by François-Louis Ganshof (1944), _feudalism_ describes a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the warrior nobility, revolving around the three key concepts of lords , vassals and fiefs
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Nobility
NOBILITY is a social class , normally ranked immediately under royalty , that possesses more acknowledged privileges and higher social status than most other classes in a society, membership thereof typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be largely honorary (e.g., precedence ), and vary from country to country and era to era. A Medieval chivalry motto Noblesse oblige which literally means "nobility obligates" explains that privileges carry a life-long obligation of duty to uphold social responsibilities, be it of honorable behavior, customary service or leadership, that lives on by a familial or kinship bond
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Edward Coke
SIR EDWARD COKE SL PC (/ˈkʊk/ ("cook"), formerly /ˈkuːk/ ; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister , judge and, later, opposition politician, who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. Born into a middle-class family, Coke was educated at Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College, Cambridge
, before leaving to study at the Inner Temple , where he was called to the Bar on 20 April 1578. As a barrister he took part in several notable cases, including _Slade\'s Case _, before earning enough political favour to be elected to Parliament, where he served first as Solicitor General and then as Speaker of the House of Commons . Following a promotion to Attorney General he led the prosecution in several notable cases, including those against Robert Devereux , Sir Walter Raleigh , and the Gunpowder Plot conspirators
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Peerage
A PEERAGE is a legal system historically comprising hereditary titles in various countries, comprising various noble ranks. Peerages include: CONTENTS * 1 Canada * 2 France * 3 Japan * 4 United Kingdom, Ireland, and the British Empire * 4.1 The UK and Ireland * 5 See also CANADA * Canadian peerages in the nobility of France FRANCE * Peerage of France position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Peerage additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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English Feudal Barony
In the kingdom of England , a FEUDAL BARONY or BARONY BY TENURE was the highest degree of feudal land tenure , namely _per baroniam_ (Latin for "by barony") under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons cannot now be defined exactly, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament . If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its _caput baroniae _ and if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight\'s fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor ) – then it was termed an "honour ". This type of barony must be distinguished from a barony, also feudal, which existed within a county palatine , such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester
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Tenant-in-chief
In medieval and early modern Europe the term TENANT-IN-CHIEF (or VASSAL-IN-CHIEF), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy . The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Duties of tenants-in-chief * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Citations * 7 Sources ETYMOLOGYOther names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron , although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron
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Feudal Land Tenure
Under the English feudal system several different forms of land tenure existed, each effectively a contract with differing rights and duties attached thereto. Such tenures could be either free-hold, signifying that they were hereditable or perpetual, or non-free where the tenancy terminated on the tenant's death or at an earlier specified period. The main varieties are as follows: CONTENTS * 1 Military tenure * 2 Non-military tenure * 3 Uncategorised * 4 References MILITARY TENURE(Generally freehold) * BY BARONY (per baroniam). Such tenure constituted the holder a feudal baron , and was the highest degree of tenure. It imposed duties of military service and required attendance at parliament . All such holders were necessarily tenants-in-chief . * BY KNIGHT-SERVICE . This was a tenure ranking below barony, and was likewise for military service, of a lesser extent
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Tenants-in-chief
In medieval and early modern Europe the term TENANT-IN-CHIEF (or VASSAL-IN-CHIEF), denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy . The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities as the tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Duties of tenants-in-chief * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 Citations * 7 Sources ETYMOLOGYOther names for tenant-in-chief were captal or baron , although the latter term came to mean specifically one who held in-chief by the tenure per baroniam, the feudal baron
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Earldom
An EARL /ɜːrl/ is a member of the nobility . The title is Anglo-Saxon in origin, akin to the Scandinavian form JARL, and meant "chieftain ", particularly a chieftain set to rule a territory in a king's stead. In Scandinavia, it became obsolete in the Middle Ages and was replaced by duke (hertig/hertug/hertog). In later medieval Britain, it became the equivalent of the continental count (in England in the earlier period, it was more akin to a duke ; in Scotland
Scotland
it assimilated the concept of mormaer ). However, earlier in Scandinavia, jarl could also mean a sovereign prince . For example, the rulers of several of the petty kingdoms of Norway had the title of jarl and in many cases they had no less power than their neighbours who had the title of king. Alternative names for the rank equivalent to "Earl/Count" in the nobility structure are used in other countries, such as the hakushaku of the post-restoration Japanese Imperial era
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