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Baritone
A baritone[1] is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types. It is the most common male voice.[2][3] Originally from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning heavy sounding, music for this voice is typically written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C (A2 to A4) in operatic music, but can be extended at either end
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George Frideric Handel
George Frideric (or Frederick) Handel (/ˈhændəl/;[a] born Georg Friedrich Händel[b] German: [ˈhɛndəl] ( listen); 23 February 1685 (O.S.) [(N.S.) 5 March] – 14 April 1759)[2][c] was a German, later British, Baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well-known for his operas, oratorios, anthems, and organ concertos. Handel received important training in Halle-upon-Saale and worked as a composer in Hamburg
Hamburg
and Italy before settling in London
London
in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727.[4] He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque
Italian Baroque
and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition. Within 15 years, Handel had started three commercial opera companies to supply the English nobility with Italian opera
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Norma (opera)
Norma (Italian: [ˈnɔrma]) is a tragedia lirica or opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
with libretto by Felice Romani
Felice Romani
after Norma, ou L'infanticide (Norma, or The Infanticide) by Alexandre Soumet. It was first produced at La Scala
La Scala
in Milan
Milan
on 26 December 1831. The opera is regarded as a leading example of the bel canto genre, and the soprano prayer Casta diva in Act I is a famous piece
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Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (Italian: [vinˈtʃɛntso salvaˈtoːre karˈmɛːlo franˈtʃesko belˈliːni] ( listen); 3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer,[1][2] who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania".[3] Many years later, in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
"praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody: 'there are extremely long melodies as no-one else had ever made before'."[4] A large amount of what is known about Bellini's life and his activities comes from surviving letters—except for a short period—which were written over his lifetime to his friend Francesco Florimo, whom he had met as a fellow student in Naples
Naples
and with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(/ˈwʊlfɡæŋ æməˈdeɪəs ˈmoʊtsɑːrt/ MOHT-sart;[1] German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeːʊs ˈmoːtsaʁt]; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,[2] was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
Salzburg
court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna
Vienna
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
Salzburg
position
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Polyphony
In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony. Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Baroque forms such as fugue, which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal
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Religious Music
Religious music
Religious music
(also sacred music) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence
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Scientific Pitch Notation
Scientific pitch notation (or SPN, also known as American Standard Pitch Notation (ASPN) and International Pitch Notation (IPN))[1][unreliable source?] is a method of specifying musical pitch by combining a musical note name (with accidental if needed) and a number identifying the pitch's octave. Although scientific pitch notation (SPN) was originally designed as a companion to "scientific pitch" (see below), the two are not synonymous, and should not be confused. Scientific pitch is a pitch standard—a system which defines the specific frequencies of particular pitches (see below). SPN concerns only how pitch names are notated, that is, how they are designated in printed and written text, and does not inherently specify actual frequencies
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C (musical Note)
C (Italian: Do, French: ut, German: C) is the first note of the C major scale, the third note of the A minor scale (the relative minor of C major), and the fourth note (F, A, B, C) of the Guidonian hand, commonly pitched around 261.63 Hz. The actual frequency has depended on historical pitch standards, and for transposing instruments a distinction is made between written and sounding or concert pitch. In English the term Do is used interchangeably with C only by adherents of fixed-Do solfège; in the movable Do system Do refers to the tonic of the prevailing key.Contents1 Frequency 2 Octave nomenclature 3 Designation by octave 4 Graphic presentation 5 Scales5.1 Common scales beginning on C 5.2 Diatonic scales 5.3 Jazz melodic minor6 B sharp 7 See also 8 ReferencesFrequency[edit] Historically, concert pitch has varied
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Filippo Galli (bass)
Filippo Galli (1783 – Paris, 3 June 1853) was an Italian opera singer who began his career as a tenor in 1801 but went on to become one of the most acclaimed basses of the bel canto era, with a voice known for its wide range, extreme agility, and expressivity, and a remarkable gift for acting.[according to whom?]Contents1 Early life 2 Career as bass 3 Repertoire 4 SourcesEarly life[edit] Born in Rome, Galli was a marginal buffo tenor, appearing in Naples, Bologna, Parma, and Turin, primarily in the works of Nasolini, Generali, and Zingarelli. It is said that following an illness in 1810, his voice changed markedly into that of bass, but this may have been a cover story for his technical transition into the bass repertoire upon the advice of the composer Giovanni Paisiello or singer Luigi Marchesi
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Giacomo Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meyerbeer[n 1] (born Jacob Liebmann Beer; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish
Jewish
birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century.[1] With his 1831 opera Robert le diable
Robert le diable
and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'.[2] Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe
Eugène Scribe
and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra
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Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ˈverdi]; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto
Busseto
to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Vincenzo Bellini, Gaetano Donizetti, and Gioachino Rossini, whose works significantly influenced him. By his 30s, he had become one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician
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Opera Seria
Opera seria
Opera seria
(Italian pronunciation: [ˈɔːpera ˈsɛːrja]; plural: opere serie; usually called dramma per musica or melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" style of Italian opera
Italian opera
that predominated in Europe from the 1710s to about 1770. The term itself was rarely used at the time and only attained common usage once opera seria was becoming unfashionable and beginning to be viewed as a historical genre. The popular rival to opera seria was opera buffa, the 'comic' opera that took its cue from the improvisatory commedia dell'arte. Italian opera
Italian opera
seria (invariably to Italian libretti) was produced not only in Italy
Italy
but also in Spain, Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria, England, Saxony, German states, and other countries
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Gioachino Rossini
Gioachino Antonio Rossini[1][2] (Italian: [dʒoaˈkiːno anˈtɔːnjo rosˈsiːni] ( listen); 29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote 39 operas as well as some sacred music, songs, chamber music, and piano pieces. He was a precocious composer of operas, and he made his debut at age 18 with La cambiale di matrimonio. His best-known operas include the Italian comedies The Barber of Seville
The Barber of Seville
(Il barbiere di Siviglia), The Italian Girl in Algiers (L'italiana in Algeri), and Cinderella
Cinderella
(La Cenerentola). He also wrote a string of serious operas in Italian, including works such as Tancredi, Otello, and Semiramide. The Thieving Magpie (La gazza ladra) features one of his most celebrated overtures. Rossini moved to Paris
Paris
in 1824 where he began to set French librettos to music
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Gaetano Donizetti
Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (Italian: [doˈmeːniko ɡaeˈtaːno maˈriːa donidˈdzetti] ( listen); 29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini
Rossini
and Vincenzo Bellini, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi.[1] Donizetti was born in Bergamo
Bergamo
in Lombardy. Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer Simon Mayr[2] who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint
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Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
(Italian pronunciation: [dɔn dʒoˈvanni]; K. 527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punished, namely Don Giovanni
Don Giovanni
or The Libertine
Libertine
Punished) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
and Italian libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte. It is based on the legends of Don Juan, a fictional libertine and seducer. It was premiered by the Prague Italian opera at the National Theater (of Bohemia), now called the Estates Theatre, on 29 October 1787.[1] Da Ponte's libretto was billed as a dramma giocoso, a common designation of its time that denotes a mixing of serious and comic action. Mozart entered the work into his catalogue as an opera buffa
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