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Baritone
A BARITONE is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range lies between the bass and the tenor voice types . It is the most common male voice. Originally from the Greek βαρύτονος (barýtonos), meaning deep (or heavy) sounding, music for this voice is typically written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e. F2 –F4) in choral music, and from the second A below middle C to the A above middle C (A2 to A4) in operatic music, but can be extended at either end. The baritone voice type is generally divided into the baryton-Martin baritone (light baritone), lyric baritone, Kavalierbariton, Verdi baritone, dramatic baritone, baryton-noble baritone, and the bass-baritone
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (/ˈwʊlfɡæŋ æməˈdeɪəs ˈmoʊtsɑːrt/ ; MOHT-sart ; German: ; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as JOHANNES CHRYSOSTOMUS WOLFGANGUS THEOPHILUS MOZART, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era . Born in Salzburg
Salzburg
, he showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin , he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
Salzburg
court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna
Vienna
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
Salzburg
position
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Filippo Galli (bass)
FILIPPO is an Italian male given name, which is the equivalent of the English name Philip , meaning "friend of horses ", from the Greek Philippos. The female variant is Filippa
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George Frideric Handel
GEORGE FRIDERIC (or FREDERICK) HANDEL (/ˈhændəl/ ; born GEORG FRIEDRICH HäNDEL German: ( listen ); 23 February 1685 (O.S.) – 14 April 1759) was a German, later British, baroque composer who spent the bulk of his career in London, becoming well known for his operas , oratorios , anthems , and organ concertos . Handel received important training in Halle and worked as a composer in Hamburg and Italy before settling in London
London
in 1712; he became a naturalised British subject in 1727 . He was strongly influenced both by the great composers of the Italian Baroque and by the middle-German polyphonic choral tradition
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Polyphony
In music , POLYPHONY is one type of musical texture , where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, POLYPHONY consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony , or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords , which is called homophony . Within the context of the Western musical tradition, the term polyphony is usually used to refer to music of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance . Baroque forms such as fugue , which might be called polyphonic, are usually described instead as contrapuntal . Also, as opposed to the species terminology of counterpoint, polyphony was generally either "pitch-against-pitch" / "point-against-point" or "sustained-pitch" in one part with melismas of varying lengths in another
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Religious Music
RELIGIOUS MUSIC (also SACRED MUSIC) is music performed or composed for religious use or through religious influence. RITUAL MUSIC is music, sacred or not, performed or composed for or as ritual . CONTENTS * 1 Christian music
Christian music
* 2 Hindu music * 3 Sikh music * 4 Jewish music * 5 Islamic music * 6 Rastafarian music * 7 Shintō music * 8 Buddhist music * 9 Zoroastrian music * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links CHRISTIAN MUSIC Main articles: Church music and Christian music
Christian music
According to some scholars, the earliest music in the Christian Church came from Jewish worship music, with some additional Syriac influence
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Opera Seria
OPERA SERIA (Italian pronunciation: ; plural: opere serie; usually called dramma per musica or melodramma serio) is an Italian musical term which refers to the noble and "serious" style of Italian opera that predominated in Europe from the 1710s to c. 1770. The term itself was rarely used at the time and only attained common usage once opera seria was becoming unfashionable and beginning to be viewed as a historical genre. The popular rival to opera seria was opera buffa , the 'comic' opera that took its cue from the improvisatory commedia dell\'arte . Italian opera seria (invariably to Italian libretti ) was produced not only in Italy
Italy
but also in Spain
Spain
, Habsburg
Habsburg
Austria
Austria
, England
England
, Saxony
Saxony
, German states , and other countries
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Gioachino Rossini
GIOACHINO ANTONIO ROSSINI (Italian: ; 29 February 1792 – 13 November 1868) was an Italian composer who wrote operas , as well as some sacred music , songs, chamber music and piano pieces. A precocious composer of operas, he made his full debut at the age of eighteen (with La cambiale di matrimonio ). His best-known operas include the Italian comedies Il barbiere di Siviglia (The Barber of Seville ), L'italiana in Algeri
L'italiana in Algeri
(The Italian Girl in Algiers ) and La Cenerentola (Cinderella). He also wrote a string of serious operas in Italian, including works such as Tancredi , Otello and Semiramide . The semi-serious opera La Gazza Ladra ( The Thieving Magpie ) has one of Rossini's most celebrated overtures . After moving to Paris in 1824, he eventually started to write in French
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Giacomo Meyerbeer
GIACOMO MEYERBEER (born JACOB LIEBMANN BEER; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish
Jewish
birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable
Robert le diable
and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe
Eugène Scribe
and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra
Paris Opéra
. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century
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Giuseppe Verdi
GIUSEPPE FORTUNINO FRANCESCO VERDI (Italian: ; 9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer. Verdi was born near Busseto to a provincial family of moderate means, and developed a musical education with the help of a local patron. Verdi came to dominate the Italian opera scene after the era of Bellini , Donizetti , and Rossini , whose works significantly influenced him, becoming one of the pre-eminent opera composers in history. In his early operas, Verdi demonstrated a sympathy with the Risorgimento movement which sought the unification of Italy. He also participated briefly as an elected politician. The chorus "Va, pensiero " from his early opera Nabucco (1842), and similar choruses in later operas, were much in the spirit of the unification movement, and the composer himself became esteemed as a representative of these ideals
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Norma (opera)
NORMA (Italian: ) is a tragedia lirica or opera in two acts by Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
with libretto by Felice Romani
Felice Romani
after Norma, ou L'infanticide (Norma, or The Infanticide
Infanticide
) by Alexandre Soumet . It was first produced at La Scala
La Scala
in Milan
Milan
on 26 December 1831. The opera is regarded as a leading example of the bel canto genre, and the soprano prayer Casta diva in Act I is justly famous. Notable exponents of the title role in the post-war period have been Maria Callas , Joan Sutherland , Montserrat Caballé and, in the 2007, Biondi-Minasi critical edition based on Bellini's autograph score, Cecilia Bartoli
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Vincenzo Bellini
VINCENZO SALVATORE CARMELO FRANCESCO BELLINI (Italian: ; 3 November 1801 – 23 September 1835) was an Italian opera composer, who was known for his long-flowing melodic lines for which he was named "the Swan of Catania". Many years later, in 1898, Giuseppe Verdi
Giuseppe Verdi
"praised the broad curves of Bellini's melody: 'there are extremely long melodies as no-one else had ever made before' " A large amount of what is known about Bellini's life and his activities comes from surviving letters—except for a short period—which were written over his lifetime to his friend Francesco Florimo , whom he had met as a fellow student in Naples
Naples
and with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship
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Gaetano Donizetti
DOMENICO GAETANO MARIA DONIZETTI (Italian: ; 29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was an Italian composer. Along with Gioachino Rossini and Vincenzo Bellini
Vincenzo Bellini
, Donizetti was a leading composer of the bel canto opera style during the first half of the nineteenth century. Donizetti's close association with the bel canto style was undoubtedly an influence on other composers such as Giuseppe Verdi (1813–1901). Donizetti was born in Bergamo
Bergamo
in Lombardy . Although he did not come from a musical background, at an early age he was taken under the wing of composer Simon Mayr who had enrolled him by means of a full scholarship in a school which he had set up. There he received detailed training in the arts of fugue and counterpoint
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Scientific Pitch Notation
SCIENTIFIC PITCH NOTATION (or SPN, also known as American Standard Pitch Notation (ASPN) and International Pitch Notation (IPN)) is a method of specifying musical pitch by combining a musical note name (with accidental if needed) and a number identifying the pitch's octave . Although scientific pitch notation (SPN) was originally designed as a companion to "scientific pitch " (see below), the two are not synonymous, and should not be confused. Scientific pitch is a pitch standard —a system which defines the specific frequencies of particular pitches (see below). SPN concerns only how pitch names are notated, that is, how they are designated in printed and written text, and does not inherently specify actual frequencies
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Henri-Bernard Dabadie
DABADIE may refer to: * Jean-Loup Dabadie , French academician * Henri-Bernard Dabadie , French baritone This page lists people with the surname DABADIE
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C (musical Note)
In terms of musical pitch , C, often referred to as DO, is the first note of the fixed-Do solfège scale . The use of the term Do to refer to C is not universal. While C refers to a specific pitch (usually 261.63 Hz), Do is used by some authors to the tonic note of a musical key . In other words, depending on the author Do may vary with the key of the music whereas C is always a fixed pitch. CONTENTS * 1 Middle C * 2 Designation by octave * 3 Graphic presentation * 4 Scales * 4.1 Common scales beginning on C * 4.2 Diatonic scales * 4.3 Jazz melodic minor * 5 B sharp * 6 See also * 7 References MIDDLE CWhen the A440 pitch standard is used to tune a musical instrument, Middle C has a frequency around 261.63 Hz. Middle C is designated C4 in scientific pitch notation because of the note's position as the fourth C key from left on a standard 88-key piano keyboard
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