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Baol
The KINGDOM OF BAOL or BAWOL in central Senegal
Senegal
was one of the kingdoms that arose from the split-up of the Empire of Jolof (Diolof) in 1555. The ruler (Teigne or Teen ) reigned from a capital in Diourbel . The Kingdom encompassed a strip of land extending east from the ocean to the capital city and included the cities of Touba and MBacke. It was directly south of the Kingdom of Cayor and north of the Kingdom of Sine . The first King of Baol
Baol
is Ji the Great. Baol
Baol
was famous for its horses. It has special breeds, which were faster and stronger than most of the horses on the plain. Baol citizens are good riders. Baol
Baol
was ethnically a Wolof kingdom, but it included communities of Serer-Safen and other Serer groups. The social and political systems were basically the same as those of Cayor
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Code Noir
The CODE NOIR (French pronunciation: ​ , Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France
France
's King Louis XIV in 1685. The Code Noir defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire , restricted the activities of free Negroes , forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, and ordered all Jews
Jews
out of France's colonies. The Code Noir
Code Noir
resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi
Mississippi
) They were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses, properties and even slaves. The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race, slavery, and freedom ever drawn up in Europe"
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Royal African Company
The ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY (RAC) was an English mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and London
London
merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa. It was led by James , Duke of York
Duke of York
, Charles II 's brother. Its original purpose was to exploit the gold fields up the Gambia River , which were identified by Prince Rupert during the Interregnum . It was established after Charles II gained the English throne in the Restoration of 1660. However, it was soon engaged in the slave trade , as well as with other commodities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dissolution * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYOriginally known as the COMPANY OF ROYAL ADVENTURERS TRADING TO AFRICA, by its charter issued in 1660 it was granted a monopoly over English trade with West Africa
West Africa

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Atlantic Slave Trade
The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE or TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa
Africa
to the Americas
Americas
, and then their sale there. The slave trade used mainly the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage , and existed from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported in the transatlantic slave trade were Africans from central and western Africa, who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small number being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), who brought them to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economies especially were dependent on the supply of secure labour for the production of commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe
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Mali Federation
The MALI FEDERATION (French : Fédération du Mali) was a federation in West Africa
West Africa
linking the French colonies of Senegal
Senegal
and the Sudanese Republic
Republic
(or French Sudan) for a period of only two months in 1960. It was founded on 4 April 1959 as a territory with self-rule within the French Community and became independent after negotiations with France
France
on 20 June 1960. Two months later, on 19 August 1960, the Sudanese Republic
Republic
leaders in the Mali
Mali
Federation
Federation
mobilized the army and Senegal
Senegal
leaders in the federation retaliated by mobilizing the gendarmerie (national police) which resulted in a tense stand-off and the withdrawal from the federation by Senegal
Senegal
the next day
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President Of Senegal
The PRESIDENT OF SENEGAL is the head of state of Senegal
Senegal
. According to the 2001 Constitution , the president is elected for a 5-year term; this was changed back to the pre-2001 seven-year term in 2008, though incumbent president Macky Sall
Macky Sall
has stated he wants to have it reverted to five-year terms. The following is a list of Presidents of Senegal, since the country gained independence from France
France
in 1960
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Touba, Senegal
TOUBA (Hassaniya : Ṭūbā "Felicity") is a city in central Senegal , part of Diourbel Region and Mbacké district. With a population of 529,176 in 2010, it is the second most populated Senegalese city after Dakar . It is the holy city of Mouridism and the burial place of its founder, Shaikh Aamadu Bàmba Mbàkke . Next to his tomb lies a large mosque , completed in 1963. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Overview * 2.2 Climate * 3 Mouridism * 4 Great Mosque * 5 Personalities * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYShaikh Aamadu Bàmba Mbàkke, commonly known as "Cheikh Amadou Bamba" (1853-1927), is said to have founded Touba under a large tree when, in a moment of transcendence, he experienced a cosmic vision of light. In Arabic, ṭūbā means "felicity" or "bliss" and evokes the sweet pleasures of eternal life in the hereafter. In Islamic tradition, Ṭūbā is also the name of the tree of Paradise
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Diourbel
DIOURBEL (Serer : Jurbel, Wolof : Njaaréem) is a town in Senegal lying east of Thiès . It is known for its mosque and local groundnut industry and is the capital of the Diourbel
Diourbel
Region . The population in 2013 was 133,705. CONTENTS * 1 Transport * 2 International relations * 2.1 Twin towns — Sister cities * 3 See also * 4 References TRANSPORT Diourbel
Diourbel
lies on the N3 road linking it to Dakar
Dakar
and is also served by a junction station on the Dakar-Niger Railway . Both the railway and the N3 cross the River Sine in the town
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Kingdom Of Sine
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology)
Kingdom (biology)
, a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God
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Senegambia (Dutch West India Company)
SENEGAMBIA, also known in Dutch as Bovenkust ("Upper Coast"), was the collective noun for the fortifications and trading posts owned by the Dutch West India Company (DWIC) in the region now known as Senegal . The main purpose of these trading posts was to obtain slaves in order to ship them to the Americas . The government of the territory was based on Gorée . In 1677, the Dutch lost this island to France . The next year, the French also conquered all DWIC trading posts on the Senegalese coast as well as the island of Arguin . Having lost almost all the trade in gum arabic , bezoar stone , ambergris and ostrich feathers, the DWIC wanted to regain its position. The Frenchman Jean du Casse , head of the Compagnie de Sénégal, reached an agreement with the local leaders, who decided to destroy the Dutch trading posts and the DWIC lost its position for good. SENEGAMBIA POSSESSIONS OF THE DWIC * Gorée : 1617 - 1663, 1664 - 1677.With the fortifications: Nassau and Orange
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Wolof People
The WOLOF PEOPLE (UK : /woʊlɒf/ ) are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal , The Gambia , and southwestern coastal Mauritania . In Senegal, the Wolof are the largest ethnic group (~ 39%), while elsewhere they are a minority. They refer to themselves as Wolof, and speak the Wolof language – a West Atlantic branch of the Niger-Congo family of languages. Their early history is unclear and based on oral traditions that link the Wolof to the Almoravids . The earliest documented mention of the Wolof is found in the records of 15th-century Portuguese financed Italian traveller Alvise Cadamosto , who mentioned well established Islamic Wolof chiefs advised by Muslim counselors and divines. The Wolof belonged to the medieval era Wolof Empire of Senegambia region
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Songhai Empire
The SONGHAI EMPIRE (also transliterated as SONGHAY) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history . The state is known by its historiographical name, derived from its leading ethnic group and ruling elite, the Songhai . Sonni Ali established Gao as the capital of the empire, although a Songhai state had existed in and around Gao since the 11th century. Other important cities in the empire were Timbuktu and Djenné , conquered in 1468 and 1475 respectively, where urban-centered trade flourished. Initially, the empire was ruled by the Sonni dynasty (c. 1464–1493), but it was later replaced by the Askiya dynasty (1493–1591)
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Mossi Kingdoms
The MOSSI KINGDOMS, sometimes referred to as the MOSSI EMPIRE, were a number of different powerful kingdoms in modern-day Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
which dominated the region of the upper Volta river for hundreds of years. The kingdoms were founded when warriors from the Mamprusi area, in modern-day Ghana
Ghana
moved into the area and intermarried with local people. Centralization of the political and military powers of the kingdoms begin in the 13th century and led to conflicts between the Mossi kingdoms and many of the other powerful states in the region. In 1896, the French took over the kingdoms and created the French Upper Volta which largely used the Mossi administrative structure for many decades in governing the colony
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Louis Faidherbe
LOUIS LéON CéSAR FAIDHERBE (3 June 1818 – 29 September 1889) was a French general and colonial administrator. He created the Senegalese Tirailleurs when he was governor of Senegal
Senegal
. CONTENTS * 1 Early life * 2 West Africa * 2.1 Direct control of the Senegal
Senegal
River * 2.2 Conflict in the interior * 2.3 War with the Toucouleur * 2.4 War with the Serer people
Serer people
* 2.5 Economics * 2.6 Legacy in French colonialism * 3 Marriage and family * 4 Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
* 5 Political life and retirement * 6 Works * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 Further reading * 10 External links EARLY LIFEFaidherbe was born into a lower-middle-class family in Lille
Lille
. He was the fifth child of Louis César Joseph Faidherde, a hosier , and his wife, Sophie Monnier
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Sokoto Caliphate
The SOKOTO CALIPHATE was an independent Islamic Caliphate , in West Africa . Founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1809 by Usman dan Fodio , it was abolished when the British defeated the caliphate in 1903 and put the area under the Northern Nigeria Protectorate . Developed in the context of multiple, independent Hausa kingdoms , at its height the Caliphate linked over 30 different emirates and over 10 million people in the most powerful state in its region and one of the most significant empires in Africa in the nineteenth century. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzerainty of the "commander of the faithful ", the sultan or caliph. The caliphate brought decades of economic growth throughout the region. An estimated one to 2.5 million non-Muslim slaves were captured during the Fulani War
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Shilluk Kingdom
The SHILLUK KINGDOM was located along the banks of the White Nile river in modern South Sudan
South Sudan
. Its capital and royal residence was in the town of Fashoda . According to their folk history and neighboring accounts, the kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, the demigod Nyikang. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk were affected by military assaults from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
and later British colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan . The Shilluk king is currently not an independent political leader, but a traditional chieftain within the governments of South Sudan
South Sudan
and Sudan
Sudan
. The monarchy (the Reth) has been political and religious in nature. The monarch guaranteed social order; his health and the health of the nation were intertwined
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