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Baol
The KINGDOM OF BAOL or BAWOL in central Senegal
Senegal
was one of the kingdoms that arose from the split-up of the Empire of Jolof (Diolof) in 1555. The ruler (Teigne or Teen ) reigned from a capital in Diourbel . The Kingdom encompassed a strip of land extending east from the ocean to the capital city and included the cities of Touba and MBacke. It was directly south of the Kingdom of Cayor
Cayor
and north of the Kingdom of Sine . The first King of Baol
Baol
is Ji the Great. Baol
Baol
was famous for its horses. It has special breeds, which were faster and stronger than most of the horses on the plain. Baol citizens are good riders. Baol
Baol
was ethnically a Wolof kingdom, but it included communities of Serer-Safen and other Serer groups. The social and political systems were basically the same as those of Cayor. In fact, the kingdoms merged from time to time for mutual defense. The French conquest of Baol
Baol
began in 1859. Most of Baol
Baol
was conquered by the French in 1874, however complete control of the former kingdom was not gained by France until 1895. It was one of many campaigns of Governor Louis Faidherbe
Louis Faidherbe
who oversaw the conquest of Cayor
Cayor
in 1886
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History Of Senegal
The HISTORY OF SENEGAL is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era. CONTENTS * 1 Paleolithic * 2 Neolithic * 3 Prehistory * 4 Kingdoms and Empires * 5 The era of trading posts and trafficking * 5.1 The Portuguese navigators * 5.2 The Dutch West India Company * 5.3 Against the backdrop of Anglo-French rivalry * 5.4 A trading economy * 5.5 The progressive weakening of the colony * 6 Modern colonialism * 6.1 List of deputies elected to the French Parliament * 7 Independence * 8 1980–2006 * 9 2007-The present * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 12.1 English Language * 12.2 French language * 12.2.1 Primary sources * 12.2.2 Secondary sources * 13 External links PALEOLITHICThe earliest evidence of human life is found in the valley of the Falémé in the south-east. The presence of man in the Lower Paleolithic is attested by the discovery of stone tools characteristic of Acheulean such as hand axes reported by Théodore Monod at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were also found stones shaped by the Levallois technique , characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic
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Timeline Of Serer History
This is a TIMELINE of the history and development of SERER RELIGION and the SERER PEOPLE of Senegal , The Gambia and Mauritania . This timeline merely gives an overview of their history, consisting of calibrated archaeological discoveries in Serer countries , Serer religion, politics , royalty , etc. Dates are given according to the Common Era . For a background to these events, see Roog , Serer religion , Serer creation myth , Serer prehistory , Lamane , States headed by Serer Lamanes , Serer history and Serer people . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries. CONTENTS * 1 Prehistory * 2 Medieval era (The Golden Age of West Africa) * 2.1 9th century * 2.2 11th century * 2.3 13th century * 2.4 14th century * 2.5 15th century * 2.6 16th century * 3 Early modern period * 3.1 17th century * 3.2 18th century * 4 Modern history * 4.1 19th century * 4.2 20th century * 4.3 21st century * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 6.1 Bibliography * 6.2 Further reading PREHISTORY * The Takrur period represents the prehistory of the Serer people. The Senegalese, Namandiru and Waalo period inaugurates Serer history
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Ghana Empire
The GHANA EMPIRE (c. 400 until c. 1200), properly known as AWKAR ( Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania and western Mali . Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times But the introduction of the camel to western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. gave way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco to the Niger river . The Ghana Empire grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt allowing for larger urban centres to develop. It furthermore encouraged territorial expansion to gain control over the different trade-routes. When Ghana's ruling dynasty began is uncertain; it is mentioned for the first time in written records by Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī in 830. In the 11th century the Cordoban scholar Abu Ubayd al-Bakri collected stories from a number of travelers to the region, and gave a detailed description of the kingdom. He claimed that the _Ghana_ could "put 200,000 men into the field, more than 40,000 of them archers" and noted they had cavalry forces as well
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Takrur
( Serer religion ) GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy
KING • 1030s War Jabi HISTORICAL ERA Middle Ages
Middle Ages
• Established 800s • Islam
Islam
1030s • Conquered by Mali Empire 1285 PRECEDED BY SUCCEEDED BY Serer people Fula people Toucouleur people Kaniaga Mali Empire PART OF A SERIES ON THE History of the Gambia CHRONOLOGICAL * Senegambian stone circles * Takrur * Mali Empire * Songhai Empire * Couronian colonization * Albreda
Albreda
* Gambia Colony and Protectorate
Gambia Colony and Protectorate
* Gambia Independence Act 1964 * Senegambia Confederation * 1994 Gambian coup d\'état * 2014 Gambian coup d\'état attempt Gambia portal * v * t * e TAKRUR, TEKRUR or TEKROUR (c. 800 – c. 1285) was an ancient state of West Africa
West Africa
, which flourished roughly parallel to the Ghana Empire
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Serer People
Senegal (1.84 million), Gambia (31,900), Mauritania and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages , Wolof French ( Senegal and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal 2002: 90% Islam , 9% Christianity and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African ethnoreligious group . They are the third largest ethnic group in Senegal making up 15% of the Senegalese population. They are also found in northern Gambia and southern Mauritania. The Serer people originated in the Senegal River valley at the border of Senegal and Mauritania, moved south in the 11th and 12th century, then again in the 15th and 16th centuries as their villages were invaded and they were subjected to religious pressures. They have had a sedentary settled culture and have been known for their farming expertise. The Serer people have been historically noted as a matrilineal ethnic group that long resisted the expansion of Islam, fought against jihads in the 19th century, then opposed the French colonial rule
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Saltigue
SALTIGUE, sometimes spelt Saltigué or wrongly Saltigui, are Serer high priests and priestesses who preside over the religious ceremonies and affairs of the Serer people, such as the Xoy ceremony, the biggest event in the Serer religious calendar. They usually come from ancient Serer paternal families. Such a title is usually inherited by birthright. The term "Saltigi" is also adopted by the Fula people . They were the leaders of the Fulas in some Fula areas, belonging to the Denianke Dynasty of the Empire of Great Fulo founded by Koli Tengella Bâ in the 16th century. It is proposed that the word "Saltigi", used in reference to the Fulas, comes from the Mandinka language , in which it means "master of the road", used in reference to their neighbors who are Fulani herders and tenders of the flock, the traditional activity of Fulani leaders. In Serer country, Saltigue, not to be confused with Saltigi, are always diviners . In Wolof areas, they were the assistant chiefs. The scope of this article deals only with Saltigue
Saltigue
or Saltigué - "diviners" (the high priests and priestesses) and termed by some scholars as "the ministers of the religious cult"; "pastors of the people" or within the remits of these definitions
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Mali Empire
The MALI EMPIRE (Manding : _Nyeni_ or _Niani_; also historically referred to as the MANDEN KURUFABA, sometimes shortened to MANDEN) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita . The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun , 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus . The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition , through storytellers known as griots . The empire began as a small Mandinka kingdom at the upper reaches of the Niger River , centred around the town of Niani (the empire's namesake in Manding). During the 11th and 12th centuries it began to develop as an empire following the decline of the Ghana Empire to the north. During this period, trade routes shifted southward to the savanna, stimulating the growth of states
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Jolof Empire
The JOLOF EMPIRE (French : Djolof or Diolof), also known as the WOLOF or WOLLOF EMPIRE, was a West African state that ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Following the 1549 battle of Danki , its vassal states were fully or de facto independent; in this period, it is known as the Jolof Kingdom . This was largely conquered by the imamate of Futa Jallon in 1875 and its territories fully incorporated into French West Africa
West Africa
by 1890. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Early history * 3 Society in Imperial Jolof * 4 Women in Imperial Jolof * 5 Political organization * 6 Contact with Europe * 7 Late period * 8 Battle of Danki and Disintegration * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 See also ORIGINSTraditional accounts among the Wolof agree that the founder of the state and later empire was the possibly mythical Ndiadiane Ndiaye (also spelled Njaajaan Njaay). :484 Traditional stories of the ancestry of this leader vary. One suggests that he was "the first and only son of a noble and saintly Berber Almoravid father Abubakr Ibn Omar also called Abu Dardai and a Toucouleur princess who was the daughter of the Lam Toro, Fatimata Sall
Sall
. This gives him an Almoravid lineage, ie a Berber and Islamic background, on his father's side, and a link on his mother's side to the Takrur aristocracy
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Kingdom Of Sine
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology) , a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE * Kingdom (director) (born 1975), Japanese adult video director * Park Yong-Wook
Park Yong-Wook
, also known as "Kingdom", a professional Korean StarCraft player * Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
(1806–1859), English engineerPOPULAR CULTURE * _Kingdoms_ (board game) , a board game by Reiner Knizia * _Kingdom_ (comics) , a comic series by Dan Abnett and Richard Elson published in the weekly _2000 AD_ * _Kingdom_ (manga) , a 2006 Japanese manga * _Kingdom_ (UK TV series) , a 2007 British television drama starring Stephen Fry * _Kingdom_ (U.S
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Atlantic Slave Trade
The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE or TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th through the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported to the New World , mainly on the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage , were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small minority being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), and brought to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economic system centered on producing commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe, and increasing the numbers of African slaves brought to the New World. This was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires. The Portuguese were the first to engage in the New World slave trade in the 16th century. Between 1418 and the 1470s, the Portuguese launched a series of exploratory expeditions that remapped the oceans south of Portugal, charting new territories that one explorer described as "oceans where none have ever sailed before". In 1526, the Portuguese completed the first transatlantic slave voyage from Africa to the Americas, and other countries soon followed
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Senegambia (Dutch West India Company)
SENEGAMBIA, also known in Dutch as Bovenkust ("Upper Coast"), was the collective noun for the fortifications and trading posts owned by the Dutch West India Company (DWIC) in the region now known as Senegal
Senegal
. The main purpose of these trading posts was to obtain slaves in order to ship them to the Americas . The government of the territory was based on Gorée . In 1677, the Dutch lost this island to France
France
. The next year, the French also conquered all DWIC trading posts on the Senegalese coast as well as the island of Arguin . Having lost almost all the trade in gum arabic , bezoar stone , ambergris and ostrich feathers, the DWIC wanted to regain its position. The Frenchman Jean du Casse , head of the Compagnie de Sénégal, reached an agreement with the local leaders, who decided to destroy the Dutch trading posts and the DWIC lost its position for good. SENEGAMBIA POSSESSIONS OF THE DWIC * Gorée : 1617 - 1663, 1664 - 1677.With the fortifications: Nassau and Orange . Trading posts: * Portudal : 1633 - 1678
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Royal African Company
The ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY (RAC) was an English mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and London merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa. It was led by James , Duke of York , Charles II 's brother. Its original purpose was to exploit the gold fields up the Gambia River , which were identified by Prince Rupert during the Interregnum . It was established after Charles II gained the English throne in the Restoration of 1660. However, it was soon engaged in the slave trade , as well as with other commodities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dissolution * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYOriginally known as the COMPANY OF ROYAL ADVENTURERS TRADING TO AFRICA, by its charter issued in 1660 it was granted a monopoly over English trade with West Africa . With the help of the army and navy, it established forts on the West African coast that served as staging and trading stations and was responsible for seizing any English ships that attempted to operate in violation of the company's monopoly. In the prize court, the King received half of the proceeds and the company half. The company fell heavily into debt in 1667, during the war with the Netherlands , the very war it had itself started when its Admiral Robert Holmes had attacked the Dutch African trade posts in 1664, as it had lost most of its forts on the African coast except for Cape Corse
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Code Noir
The _CODE NOIR_ (French pronunciation: ​ , _Black Code_) was a decree originally passed by France
France
's King Louis XIV in 1685. The _Code Noir_ defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire , restricted the activities of free Negroes , forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism , and ordered all Jews
Jews
out of France's colonies. The _Code Noir_ resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi
Mississippi
) They were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses, properties and even slaves. The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race, slavery, and freedom ever drawn up in Europe". CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Context * 3 Summary * 3.1 Rules about religion * 3.2 Rules about sexual relations and marriage * 3.3 Prohibitions * 3.4 Punishments * 3.5 Freedom * 4 In popular culture * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINSIn his 1987 analysis of the _Code Noir'_s significance, Louis Sala-Molins claimed that its two primary objectives were to assert French sovereignty in her colonies and to secure the future of the cane sugar plantation economy. Central to these goals was control of the slave trade
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French Conquest Of Senegal
{{Infobox military conflict Africa was shared like a piece of cake caption=French capture of Gorée from the Dutch in 1677. place=present-day Senegal
Senegal
result=France conquers territory of present-day Senegal
Senegal
combatant1= Waalo Kingdom Kingdom of Cayor
Cayor
Jolof Empire Baol
Baol
Kingdom of Sine Saloum
Saloum
combatant2= France commander1= commander2= strength1= strength2= casualties1= casualties2= }} The FRENCH CONQUEST OF SENEGAL started from 1659 with the establishment of Saint-Louis, Senegal
Senegal
, followed by the French capture of the island of Gorée from the Dutch in 1677, but would only become a full-scale campaign in the 19th century. CONTENTS * 1 First establishments * 2 19th-century territorial conquests * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading FIRST ESTABLISHMENTSAccording to some historians, French merchants from the Normandy cities of Dieppe and Rouen
Rouen
traded with the Gambia
Gambia
and Senegal
Senegal
coasts, and with the Ivory Coast
Ivory Coast
and the Gold Coast , between 1364 and 1413. Probably as a result, an ivory-carving industry developed in Dieppe after 1364
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Mali Federation
The MALI FEDERATION (French : Fédération du Mali) was a federation in West Africa
West Africa
linking the French colonies of Senegal
Senegal
and the Sudanese Republic
Republic
(or French Sudan) for a period of only two months in 1960. It was founded on 4 April 1959 as a territory with self-rule within the French Community
French Community
and became independent after negotiations with France
France
on 20 June 1960. Two months later, on 19 August 1960, the Sudanese Republic
Republic
leaders in the Mali