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Baol
The KINGDOM OF BAOL or BAWOL in central Senegal
Senegal
was one of the kingdoms that arose from the split-up of the Empire of Jolof (Diolof) in 1555. The ruler (Teigne or Teen ) reigned from a capital in Diourbel
Diourbel
. The Kingdom encompassed a strip of land extending east from the ocean to the capital city and included the cities of Touba and MBacke. It was directly south of the Kingdom of Cayor
Cayor
and north of the Kingdom of Sine . The first King of Baol
Baol
is Ji the Great. Baol
Baol
was famous for its horses. It has special breeds, which were faster and stronger than most of the horses on the plain. Baol citizens are good riders. Baol
Baol
was ethnically a Wolof kingdom, but it included communities of Serer-Safen and other Serer groups. The social and political systems were basically the same as those of Cayor
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History Of Senegal
The HISTORY OF SENEGAL is commonly divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period, colonialism, and the contemporary era
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Timeline Of Serer History
This is a TIMELINE of the history and development of SERER RELIGION and the SERER PEOPLE of Senegal
Senegal
, The Gambia
The Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. This timeline merely gives an overview of their history, consisting of calibrated archaeological discoveries in Serer countries , Serer religion, politics , royalty , etc. Dates are given according to the Common Era
Common Era
. For a background to these events, see Roog
Roog
, Serer religion , Serer creation myth , Serer prehistory , Lamane
Lamane
, States headed by Serer Lamanes , Serer history and Serer people . This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries
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Ghana Empire
The GHANA EMPIRE (c. 400 until c. 1200), properly known as AWKAR ( Ghana
Ghana
or Ga'na being the title of its ruler) was located in what is now southeastern Mauritania
Mauritania
and western Mali
Mali
. Complex societies based on trans-Saharan trade with salt and gold had existed in the region since ancient times But the introduction of the camel to western Sahara in the 3rd century A.D. gave way to great changes in the area that became the Ghana
Ghana
Empire. By the time of the Muslim conquest of North Africa in the 7th century the camel had changed the ancient more irregular trade routes into a trade network running from Morocco
Morocco
to the Niger river
Niger river
. The Ghana
Ghana
Empire
Empire
grew rich from this increased trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt allowing for larger urban centres to develop
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Takrur
( Serer religion
Serer religion
) GOVERNMENT Monarchy
Monarchy
KING • 1030s War Jabi HISTORICAL ERA
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Serer People
Senegal
Senegal
(1.84 million), Gambia
Gambia
(31,900), Mauritania
Mauritania
and expats. LANGUAGES Serer proper , Cangin languages
Cangin languages
, Wolof French ( Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania), English (Gambia), RELIGION Senegal
Senegal
2002: 90% Islam
Islam
, 9% Christianity
Christianity
and Serer religion (ƭat Roog) RELATED ETHNIC GROUPS Wolof people , Toucouleur people
Toucouleur people
and Lebou people The SERER PEOPLE are a West African
West African
ethnoreligious group
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Saltigue
SALTIGUE, sometimes spelt Saltigué or wrongly Saltigui, are Serer high priests and priestesses who preside over the religious ceremonies and affairs of the Serer people, such as the Xoy ceremony, the biggest event in the Serer religious calendar. They usually come from ancient Serer paternal families. Such a title is usually inherited by birthright. The term "Saltigi" is also adopted by the Fula people . They were the leaders of the Fulas in some Fula areas, belonging to the Denianke Dynasty of the Empire of Great Fulo
Empire of Great Fulo
founded by Koli Tengella Bâ in the 16th century. It is proposed that the word "Saltigi", used in reference to the Fulas, comes from the Mandinka language , in which it means "master of the road", used in reference to their neighbors who are Fulani herders and tenders of the flock, the traditional activity of Fulani leaders
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Mali Empire
The MALI EMPIRE (Manding : _Nyeni_ or _Niani_; also historically referred to as the MANDEN KURUFABA, sometimes shortened to MANDEN) was an empire in West Africa from c. 1230 to 1670. The empire was founded by Sundiata Keita and became renowned for the wealth of its rulers, especially Musa Keita . The Manding languages were spoken in the empire. It was the largest empire in West Africa and profoundly influenced the culture of West Africa through the spread of its language, laws and customs. Much of the recorded information about the Mali Empire comes from 14th century North African Arab historian Ibn Khaldun , 14th century Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta and 16th century Moroccan traveller Leo Africanus . The other major source of information is Mandinka oral tradition , through storytellers known as griots
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Jolof Empire
The JOLOF EMPIRE (French : Djolof or Diolof), also known as the WOLOF or WOLLOF EMPIRE, was a West African state that ruled parts of Senegal from 1350 to 1549. Following the 1549 battle of Danki , its vassal states were fully or de facto independent; in this period, it is known as the Jolof Kingdom . This was largely conquered by the imamate of Futa Jallon in 1875 and its territories fully incorporated into French West Africa
West Africa
by 1890. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Early history * 3 Society in Imperial Jolof * 4 Women in Imperial Jolof * 5 Political organization * 6 Contact with Europe * 7 Late period * 8 Battle of Danki and Disintegration * 9 References * 10 Sources * 11 See also ORIGINSTraditional accounts among the Wolof agree that the founder of the state and later empire was the possibly mythical Ndiadiane Ndiaye (also spelled Njaajaan Njaay). :484 Traditional stories of the ancestry of this leader vary
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Kingdom Of Sine
KINGDOM commonly refers to: * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by a king or queen regnant * Kingdom (biology) , a category in biological taxonomy * Kingdom of God , a foundational concept in the three Abrahamic religionsKINGDOM may also refer to: CONTENTS * 1 People * 2 Popular culture * 2.1 Music * 3 Other * 4 See also PEOPLE * Kingdom (director) (born 1975), Japanese adult video director *
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Atlantic Slave Trade
The ATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE or TRANSATLANTIC SLAVE TRADE took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 15th through the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those who were enslaved and transported to the New World , mainly on the triangular trade route and its Middle Passage , were Africans from the central and western parts of the continent who had been sold by other West Africans to Western European slave traders (with a small minority being captured directly by the slave traders in coastal raids), and brought to the Americas. The South Atlantic and Caribbean economic system centered on producing commodity crops, making goods and clothing to sell in Europe, and increasing the numbers of African slaves brought to the New World. This was crucial to those western European countries which, in the late 17th and 18th centuries, were vying with each other to create overseas empires
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Senegambia (Dutch West India Company)
SENEGAMBIA, also known in Dutch as Bovenkust ("Upper Coast"), was the collective noun for the fortifications and trading posts owned by the Dutch West India Company (DWIC) in the region now known as Senegal
Senegal
. The main purpose of these trading posts was to obtain slaves in order to ship them to the Americas . The government of the territory was based on Gorée
Gorée
. In 1677, the Dutch lost this island to France
France
. The next year, the French also conquered all DWIC trading posts on the Senegalese coast as well as the island of Arguin . Having lost almost all the trade in gum arabic , bezoar stone , ambergris and ostrich feathers, the DWIC wanted to regain its position. The Frenchman Jean du Casse , head of the Compagnie de Sénégal, reached an agreement with the local leaders, who decided to destroy the Dutch trading posts and the DWIC lost its position for good
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Royal African Company
The ROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY (RAC) was an English mercantile company set up by the Stuart family and London
London
merchants to trade along the west coast of Africa. It was led by James , Duke of York
Duke of York
, Charles II 's brother. Its original purpose was to exploit the gold fields up the Gambia River , which were identified by Prince Rupert during the Interregnum . It was established after Charles II gained the English throne in the Restoration of 1660. However, it was soon engaged in the slave trade , as well as with other commodities. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dissolution * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYOriginally known as the COMPANY OF ROYAL ADVENTURERS TRADING TO AFRICA, by its charter issued in 1660 it was granted a monopoly over English trade with West Africa
West Africa

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Code Noir
The CODE NOIR (French pronunciation: ​ , Black Code) was a decree originally passed by France
France
's King Louis XIV in 1685. The Code Noir defined the conditions of slavery in the French colonial empire
French colonial empire
, restricted the activities of free Negroes , forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, and ordered all Jews
Jews
out of France's colonies. The Code Noir
Code Noir
resulted in a far higher percentage of blacks being free people of colour (13.2% in Louisiana compared to 0.8% in Mississippi
Mississippi
) They were on average exceptionally literate, with a significant number of them owning businesses, properties and even slaves. The code has been described by Tyler Stovall as "one of the most extensive official documents on race, slavery, and freedom ever drawn up in Europe"
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French Conquest Of Senegal
{{Infobox military conflict Africa was shared like a piece of cake caption=French capture of Gorée
Gorée
from the Dutch in 1677. place=present-day Senegal
Senegal
result=France conquers territory of present-day Senegal
Senegal
combatant1= Waalo Kingdom Kingdom of Cayor Jolof Empire Baol Kingdom of Sine Saloum
Saloum
combatant2= France commander1= commander2= strength1= strength2= casualties1= casualties2= }} The FRENCH CONQUEST OF SENEGAL started from 1659 with the establishment of Saint-Louis, Senegal
Senegal
, followed by the French capture of the island of Gorée
Gorée
from the Dutch in 1677, but would only become a full-scale campaign in the 19th century
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Mali Federation
The MALI FEDERATION (French : Fédération du Mali) was a federation in West Africa linking the French colonies of Senegal
Senegal
and the Sudanese Republic (or French Sudan) for a period of only two months in 1960. It was founded on 4 April 1959 as a territory with self-rule within the French Community and became independent after negotiations with France