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Banyan Vines
Banyan VINES was a network operating system developed by Banyan Systems for computers running AT&T's UNIX System V. VINES is an acronym for Virtual Integrated NEtwork Service. Like Novell NetWare, VINES's network services were based on the archetypical Xerox XNS stack. James Allchin, who later worked as Group Vice President for Platforms at Microsoft
Microsoft
until his retirement on January 30, 2007, was the chief architect of Banyan VINES.Contents1 VINES technology 2 Protocol stack 3 VINES client software 4 Initial market release 5 Defense Department adoption 6 VINES competitors 7 Decline 8 Version history 9 References 10 ResourceVINES technology[edit] VINES ran on a low-level protocol known as VIP—the VINES Internetwork Protocol—that was essentially identical to the lower layers of XNS
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Protocol Stack
The protocol stack or network stack is an implementation of a computer networking protocol suite or protocol family. The terms are often used interchangeably; strictly speaking, the suite is the definition of the Communications protocols, and the stack is the software implementation of them.[1] Individual protocols within a suite are often designed with a single purpose in mind. This modularization makes design and evaluation easier. Because each protocol module usually communicates with two others, they are commonly imagined as layers in a stack of protocols. The lowest protocol always deals with low-level interaction with the communications hardware. Every higher layer adds more features and capability. User applications usually deal only with the topmost layers (see also OSI model).[2] In practical implementation, protocol stacks are often divided into three major sections: media, transport, and applications
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PC DOS
IBM
IBM
PC DOS
DOS
(an acronym for IBM
IBM
personal computer disk operating system) is a discontinued operating system for the IBM
IBM
Personal Computer, manufactured and sold by IBM
IBM
from the early 1980s into the 2000s. Before version 6.1, PC DOS
DOS
was an IBM-branded version of MS-DOS
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Token Ring
Token Ring local area network (LAN) technology is a communications protocol for local area networks. It uses a special three-byte frame called a "token" that travels around a logical "ring" of workstations or servers
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MS-DOS
MS- DOS
DOS
(/ˌɛmˌɛsˈdɒs/ em-ess-DOSS; acronym for Microsoft
Microsoft
Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft. Collectively, MS-DOS, its rebranding as IBM PC
IBM PC
DOS, and some operating systems attempting to be compatible with MS-DOS, are sometimes referred to as "DOS" (which is also the generic acronym for disk operating system)
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Microsoft Windows
Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows NT
Windows NT
and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded
Windows Embedded
Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server
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Directory Services
In computing, directory service or name service maps the names of network resources to their respective network addresses. It is a shared information infrastructure for locating, managing, administering and organizing everyday items and network resources, which can include volumes, folders, files, printers, users, groups, devices, telephone numbers and other objects. A directory service is a critical component of a network operating system. A directory server is a server which provides such a service. Each resource on the network is considered an object by the directory server. Information about a particular resource is stored as a collection of attributes associated with that resource or object. A directory service defines a namespace for the network
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Third World
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War
Cold War
to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO
NATO
or the Communist Bloc. The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Western European nations and their allies represented the First World, while the Soviet Union, China, Cuba, and their allies represented the Second World. This terminology provided a way of broadly categorizing the nations of the Earth into three groups based on political and economic divisions. The Third World
Third World
was normally seen to include many countries with colonial pasts in Africa, Latin America, Oceania
Oceania
and Asia. It was also sometimes taken as synonymous with countries in the Non-Aligned Movement
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NetWare Directory Services
eDirectory is an X.500-compatible directory service software product from NetIQ. Previously owned by Novell, the product has also been known as Novell Directory Services (NDS) and sometimes referred to as NetWare Directory Services. NDS was initially released by Novell in 1993 for Netware 4, replacing the Netware bindery mechanism used in previous versions, for centrally managing access to resources on multiple servers and computers within a given network
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Disk Operating System
A disk operating system (abbreviated DOS) is a computer operating system that can use a disk storage device, such as a floppy disk, hard disk drive, or optical disc. A disk operating system must provide a file system for organizing, reading, and writing files on the storage disk. Strictly speaking, this definition does not apply to current generations of operating systems, such as versions of Microsoft Windows in use, and is more appropriately used only for older generations of operating systems. Disk operating systems were available for mainframes, microprocessors and home computers and were usually loaded from the disks themselves as part of the boot process.Contents1 History 2 Disk operating systems that were extensions to the OS 3 Disk operating systems that were the main OS 4 ReferencesHistory[edit] In the early days of computers, there were no disk drives, floppy disks or modern flash storage devices
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IBM LAN Manager
IBM LAN Server started as a close cousin of Microsoft LAN Manager and first shipped in early 1988. It was originally designed to run on top of Operating System/2 Extended Edition. The network client was called IBM LAN Requester and was included with OS/2 EE 1.1 by default. (Eventually IBM shipped other clients and supported yet more. Examples include the IBM OS/2 File/Print Client, IBM OS/2 Peer, and client software for Windows.) Here the short term LAN Server refers to the IBM OS/2 LAN Server product
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HDLC
High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) is a bit-oriented code-transparent synchronous data link layer protocol developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
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Microsoft LAN Manager
LAN Manager was a Network Operating System (NOS) available from multiple vendors and developed by Microsoft in cooperation with 3Com Corporation. It was designed to succeed 3Com's 3+Share network server software which ran atop a heavily modified version of MS-DOS.Contents1 History 2 Cryptanalysis 3 LM hash details 4 Algorithm 5 Security weaknesses 6 Workarounds 7 Reasons for continued use of LM hash 8 See also 9 Notes 10 References 11 External linksHistory[edit] LAN Manager was based on the OS/2 operating system co-developed by IBM and Microsoft. It originally used the Server Message Block protocol atop either the NetBIOS Frames protocol (NBF) or a specialized version of the Xerox Network Systems (XNS) protocol. These legacy protocols had been inherited from previous products such as MS-Net for MS-DOS, Xenix-NET for MS-Xenix, and the afore-mentioned 3+Share
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Windows NT
Windows NT
Windows NT
is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It is a processor-independent, multiprocessing, multi-user operating system. The first version of Windows NT
Windows NT
was Windows NT 3.1
Windows NT 3.1
and was produced for workstations and server computers. It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS
MS-DOS
(including Windows 1.0
Windows 1.0
through Windows 3.1x). Gradually, the Windows NT
Windows NT
family was expanded into Microsoft's general-purpose operating system product line for all personal computers, deprecating the Windows 9x
Windows 9x
family. "NT" formerly expanded to "New Technology" but no longer carries any specific meaning
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Windows 2000
Windows 2000
Windows 2000
is an operating system for use on both client and server computers. It was produced by Microsoft
Microsoft
and released to manufacturing on December 15, 1999,[2] and launched to retail on February 17, 2000.[3] It is the successor to Windows NT
Windows NT
4.0, and is the last version of Microsoft
Microsoft
Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It is succeeded by Windows XP
Windows XP
(released in October 2001) and Windows Server 2003 (released in April 2003)
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