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Banu Mazghanna
The Sanhaja
Sanhaja
(Berber languages: Aẓnag, pl. Iẓnagen, and also Aẓnaj, pl. Iẓnajen; Arabic: صنهاجة‎, Ṣanhaja) were once one of the largest Berber tribal confederations, along with the Iznaten and Imesmuden confederations.[1] Many tribes in Morocco and Mauritania bore and still carry this ethnonym, especially in its Berber form. Other names for the population include Zenaga, Sanhája, Znaga, Sanhâdja and Senhaja.Contents1 History 2 Present day 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingHistory[edit]Dance group of Sanhaja
Sanhaja
from the western Sahara at the National Folklore Festival at MarrakechAfter the arrival of Islam, the Sanhâdja spread out to the borders of the Sudan as far as the Senegal River and the Niger
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Zenata
The Zenata
Zenata
(Berber: Iznaten, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵜⴻⵏ[citation needed] or Iznasen, ⵉⵣⵏⴰⵙⴻⵏ; Arabic: زناتة‎ Zanātah) were a Berber tribe, who inhabited an area stretching from western Egypt
Egypt
to Morocco
Morocco
in antiquity along with the Sanhaja
Sanhaja
and Masmuda.[1] Their lifestyle was mainly nomadic.[2][3] The Zenata
Zenata
adopted Islam early, still in the 7th century. While other Berber tribes continued to resist the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
conquest well into the 8th century, they were quickly Arabized.[4] They also formed a substantial contingent in the subsequent Muslim invasion of Iberia. The 14th-century historiographer Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
reports that the Zenata were divided into three large tribes: Jarawa, Maghrawa, and Banu Ifran
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Lamtuna
The Lamtuna are a nomadic Berber tribe belonging to the Sanhaja (Zenaga) confederation, who traditionally inhabited areas from Sous
Sous
to Adrar Plateau. During the Almoravid period, many Lamtunas emigrated northwards. The Sahrawi Tajakant tribe are of the most recognisable offshoots of the Lamtunas. They inhabit the area between Morocco
Morocco
and Western Sahara. During the eighth century the Lamtuna created a kingdom out of a confederation of Berber tribes, which they dominated until the early tenth century
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Musulamii
The Musulamii
Musulamii
were a confederation of the Berber Gaetulian tribes,[1] who inhabited the desert regions of what is today known as Chotts Regions in Tunisia
Tunisia
and Algeria, as well as the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, which was annexed to the Roman empire in 44 AD
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Nasamones
The Nasamones were a nomadic Berber tribe inhabiting southeast Libya. They were mistakenly believed to be a Numidian people, along with the Garamantes.[1] History[edit] The Nasamones were centered in the oases of Augila and Siwa in the Libyan Desert. They used war chariots, like the Garamantes. They were known to attack the Greek colonies in Cyrenaica. During the Peloponnesian War, the citizens of Euesperides
Euesperides
received aid from the Spartan general Gylippus, who helped defend the town from the Nasamones on his way to Sicily. Later, Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
recounts that the Nasamones defeated the Psylli tribe in a war, expelling them from the area
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Numidians
The Numidians
Numidians
were the Berber population of Numidia
Numidia
(present day Algeria) and in a smaller part of Tunisia. The Numidians
Numidians
were one of the earliest Berber tribes to trade with the settlers of Carthage. As Carthage
Carthage
grew, the relationship with the Numidians
Numidians
blossomed. Carthage's military used the Numidian cavalry
Numidian cavalry
as mercenaries
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Masaesyli
The Masaesyli were a Berber tribe of western Numidia[1] and the main antagonists of the Massylii in eastern Numidia. During the Second Punic War
Second Punic War
the Masaesyli initially supported the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and were led by Syphax
Syphax
against the Massylii, who were led by Masinissa. After Masinissa
Masinissa
threatened to unite all Numidians
Numidians
in a confederacy against Rome, the Masaesyli turned against Rome and undertook the siege of Carthage. Syphax
Syphax
was defeated, however, and spent the remainder of his days in Roman captivity, while his tribe was assimilated into the kingdom of Masinissa.Notes[edit]^ Good, John (1819). Pantologia
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Massylii
The Massylii or Maesulians were a Berber federation of tribes in eastern Numidia, which was formed by an amalgamation of smaller tribes during the 4th century BC.[1] They were ruled by a king. On their loosely defined western frontier were the powerful Masaesyli. To their east lay the territory of the rich and powerful Carthaginian Republic. Their relationship to Carthage resembled that of a protectorate.[1] Carthage maintained its dominance over the Massylii by skillful diplomatic manoeuvering, playing off local tribal and kingdom rivalries.[1] The principal towns of the Massylii were Cirta, Tébessa and Thugga. Role In The Second Punic War[edit] In 218 BC war broke out between the Carthaginians and the Romans
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Quinquegentiani
The Quinquegentiani
Quinquegentiani
were a Classical Age Berber tribe inhabiting the lands between the cities of Saldae
Saldae
and Rusuccuru, a region which is now known as Kabylia.[1] Their territory laid at the eastern border of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis, and although they were officially under Roman rule, they acted very autonomously.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Notes 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The ethnonym Quinquegentiani
Quinquegentiani
means "People of the Five Tribes" in Latin. This suggests that the Quinquegentiani
Quinquegentiani
were a confederation of several different Berber tribes instead of a single tribe.[2] History[edit] In AD 253, the Quinquegentiani, who had formed a confederation with the Bavares and the Fraxinenses, two other Berber tribes from the region, started attacking and pillaging Roman and Roman-aligned settlements in Numidia
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Barghawata
The Barghawatas (also Barghwata or Berghouata) were a group of Berber tribes on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, belonging to the Masmuda confederacy. After allying with the Sufri
Sufri
Kharijite
Kharijite
rebellion in Morocco
Morocco
against the Umayyad Caliphate, they established an independent state (CE 744 - 1058) in the area of Tamesna on the Atlantic coast between Safi and Salé
Salé
under the leadership of Tarif al-Matghari.Contents1 Etymology 2 History 3 Religion 4 Tribes 5 Barghawata
Barghawata
kings 6 See also 7 References 8 NotesEtymology[edit] Some historians believe that the term Barghawata
Barghawata
is a phonetic deformation of the term Barbati, a nickname which Tarif carried
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Guanches
Guanches
Guanches
were the aboriginal Berber inhabitants of the Canary Islands.[1] It is believed that they migrated to the archipelago around 1000 BC or perhaps earlier. The Guanches
Guanches
were the only native people known to have lived in the Macaronesian region before the arrival of Europeans, as there is no evidence that the other Macaronesian archipelagos (Azores, Cape Verde, Madeira) were inhabited before Europeans arrived
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Houara
Houara (Berber: Ihuwwaren, Arabic: هوارة‎), also spelled Hawwara, is a large Berber tribe spread widely in the Maghreb (Tamazgha) and has descendants in Upper Egypt. Houara are amongst the most prominent tribes in Upper Egypt, with branches found mainly in Sohag, Qena, and Asyut. They are considered to be the aristocracy of Sohag to this day. Hawwara tribes were deemed to be the real rulers of the region, up until the campaigns of Ibrahim Pasha in 1813, which finally crushed their influence.[1] During the Mamluk rule in Egypt, the Hawwara were the most dominant tribe in Upper Egypt
Upper Egypt
under the leadership of Sheikh
Sheikh
Hammam.[2] Sultan Barquq
Barquq
made relationships with the Hawwara in order to keep the Arab tribes from becoming powerful.[3] Towards the end of the Mamluk dynasty, the Hawwara and Arabs
Arabs
began cooperating to kill Mamluks
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Kutama
The Kutama (Berber: Iktamen) were a major Berber Tribe in northern Algeria
Algeria
classified among the Berber Confederation of the Bavares. the Kutama are attested much earlier, in the form Koidamousii by the Greek geographer Ptolemy.[1] The Kutama played a pivotal role during the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate (909–1171), forming the Fatimid
Fatimid
army which eventually overthrew the Aghlabids
Aghlabids
who controlled Ifriqiya, and which then went on to conquer Egypt and the southern Levant
Levant
in 969–975. The Kutama remained one of the mainstays of the Fatimid
Fatimid
army until well into the 11th century.Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 21st century 4 See also 5 NotesOrigins[edit] The Kutama are part of the Branes branch of Berbers
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Banu Ifran
The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata
Zenata
Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria
Algeria
with Tlemcen
Tlemcen
as its capital. The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina
Kahina
in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad
Umayyad
invaders
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Mauri People
Mauri (from which derives the English term "Moors") was the Latin designation for the Berber population of Mauretania
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Jarawa (Berber Tribe)
Jarawa may refer to:Jarawas (Andaman Islands), one of the indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands Jarawa language (Andaman Islands) Jarawa (Berber tribe), a Berber tribal confederacy that flourished in northwest Africa during the seventh century Jarawa (Nigeria), an ethnic group in Plateau State, Nigeria
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