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Banu Ifran
The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (Arabic: بنو يفرن‎, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata
Zenata
Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.In the 8th century, they established a kingdom in Central Maghreb, Algeria
Algeria
with Tlemcen
Tlemcen
as its capital. The Banu Ifran
Banu Ifran
resisted or revolted against foreign occupiers—Romans, Vandals, and Byzantines—of their territory in Africa. In the seventh century, they sided with Kahina
Kahina
in her resistance against the Muslim Umayyad
Umayyad
invaders
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎, al-ʻarabiyyah, [al ʕaraˈbijja] (listen) or عَرَبِيّ‎, ʻarabī, [ˈʕarabiː] (listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Semitic language that first emerged in the 1st to 4th centuries CE.[5] It is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[6] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east and the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in Northwestern Arabia
Arabia
and in the Sinai Peninsula. The ISO classifies Arabic
Arabic
as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic,[7] which is derived from Classical Arabic
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Kharijites
PoliticalHizb ut-Tahrir Iranian Revolution Jamaat-e-Islami Millî Görüş Muslim Brotherhood List of Islamic political partiesMilitantMilitant Islamism
Islamism
based inMENA region South Asia Southeast Asia Sub-Saharan AfricaKey textsReconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam (Iqbal 1930s)Principles of State and Government (Asad 1961)Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones") (Qutb 1965)Islamic Government: Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih") (Khomeini 1970)Heads of state
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Córdoba, Spain
Córdoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/, Spanish: [ˈkoɾðoβa]),[4] also called Cordoba (/ˈkɔːrdəbə/) in English,[5] is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. It was a Roman settlement, then colonized by Muslim armies in the eighth century. It became the capital of the Islamic Emirate, and then of the Caliphate of Córdoba, including most of the Iberian Peninsula. Córdoba consisted of hundreds of workshops that created goods such as silk. It was a center of culture and learning during the Islamic Golden Age. Caliph
Caliph
Al Hakam II opened many libraries in addition to the many medical schools and universities which existed at the time, making Córdoba a centre for education. During these centuries it became the center of a society ruled by Muslims, in which all other groups had a second-class status.[6] It was recaptured by Christian forces in 1236, during the Reconquista
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Corippus
Flavius Cresconius Corippus was a late Roman epic poet of the 6th century, who flourished under East Roman Emperors Justinian I
Justinian I
and Justin II. His major works are the epic poem Iohannis and the panegyric In laudem Iustini minoris. Corippus was probably the last important Latin author of Late Antiquity.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Iohannis 2.2 In laudem Iustini minoris3 Style and influences 4 Editions 5 References 6 FootnotesBiography[edit] He was a native of Africa, and in one of the manuscripts is called grammaticus (teacher). He has sometimes been identified, but on insufficient grounds, with Cresconius Africanus, a Catholic bishop (7th century), author of a Concordia Canonum, or collection of the laws of the church. Nothing is known of Corippus beyond what is contained in his own poems
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Justinian I
Justinian I
Justinian I
(/dʒʌˈstɪniən/; Latin: Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus Augustus; Greek: Φλάβιος Πέτρος Σαββάτιος Ἰουστινιανός Flávios Pétros Sabbátios Ioustinianós; c. 482 – 14 November 565), traditionally known as Justinian the Great and also Saint
Saint
Justinian the Great in the Eastern Orthodox Church,[3][4] was the Eastern Roman emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the empire's greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire
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John Troglita
John Troglita
John Troglita
(Latin: Ioannes Troglita, Greek: Ἰωάννης Τρωγλίτης) was a 6th-century Byzantine general. He participated in the Vandalic War
Vandalic War
and served in North Africa as a regional military governor during the years 533–538, before being sent east to the wars with the Sassanid Persians. As dux Mesopotamiae, Troglita distinguished himself in several battles, and was noticed by agents of the Byzantine emperor, Justinian I
Justinian I
(r. 527–565). In summer 546, Justinian chose John Troglita
John Troglita
to assume overall command of Byzantine forces in Africa, where a succession of revolts by the indigenous Moorish tribes and within the imperial army itself had seriously reduced the Byzantine position
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Fatimid
The Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: الفاطميون‎, al-Fāṭimīyūn) was an Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia
Shia
Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea
Red Sea
in the east to the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
in the west. The dynasty of Arab origin[4][5] ruled across the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast of Africa and ultimately made Egypt
Egypt
the centre of the caliphate. At its height the caliphate included in addition to Egypt
Egypt
varying areas of the Maghreb, Sudan, Sicily, the Levant, and Hijaz. The Fatimids
Fatimids
claimed descent from Fatimah, the daughter of Islamic prophet Muhammad
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Caliph Of Córdoba
The Caliphate
Caliphate
of Córdoba (Arabic: خلافة قرطبة‎; trans. Khilāfat Qurṭuba) was a state in Islamic Iberia
Iberia
along with a part of North Africa
North Africa
ruled by the Umayyad
Umayyad
dynasty. The state, with the capital in Córdoba, existed from 929 to 1031. The region was formerly dominated by the Umayyad
Umayyad
Emirate of Córdoba
Emirate of Córdoba
(756–929). The period was characterized by an expansion of trade and culture, and saw the construction of masterpieces of al-Andalus architecture. In January 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III
Abd-ar-Rahman III
proclaimed himself caliph (Arabic: خليفة) of Córdoba[2] in place of his original title, Emir
Emir
of Córdoba (Arabic: أمير قرطبة 'Amīr Qurṭuba)
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Kairouan
Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: القيروان‎  Qeirwān, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
in Tunisia. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage site. The city was founded by the Umayyads
Umayyads
around 670.[1] In the period of Caliph
Caliph
Mu'awiya (reigned 661–680), it became an important centre for Sunni
Sunni
Islamic scholarship and Quranic learning,[2] and thus attracting a large number of Muslims from various parts of the world, next only to Mecca and Medina
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Banu Sulaym
The Banu Sulaym (بنو سليم) were an Arab
Arab
tribe that dominated part of the Hejaz
Hejaz
in the pre-Islamic era. They maintained close ties with the Quraysh
Quraysh
of Mecca
Mecca
and the inhabitants of Medina, and fought in a number of battles against the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
before ultimately converting to Islam
Islam
before his demise in 632. They took part in the Muslim conquest of the Levant, and established themselves in Upper Mesopotamia, whilst part of the tribe remained in the Hejaz. During the early Muslim era, the tribe produced noted generals such as Safwan ibn Mu'attal, Abu'l-A'war and Umayr ibn al-Hubab
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Oran
Oran
Oran
(Arabic: وَهران‎, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ Wehran), is a coastal city that is located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria
Algeria
after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance. It is 432 km (268 mi) from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008,[2] while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000[3] making it the second largest city in Algeria.[4] A legend says that in 900 AD, lions still lived in the area
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Gawhar Al-Siqilli
Jawhar (Arabic: جوهر‎; fl. 966–d. 992) was a Fatimid general. Under the command of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'izz, he led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt,[1] founded the city of Cairo[2] and the great al-Azhar Mosque. A Greek slave by origin, he was freed by Al-Mu'izz.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 Epithets 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBiography[edit] Jawhar was a Sicilian ghulam of Greek ethnicity.[4][5][6][7][8] His family originated from the Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
(hence the epithet الصقلي = the Sicilian), and came as a slave to North Africa. He was sent to the Fatimid Caliph
Caliph
Ismail al-Mansur
Ismail al-Mansur
on account of his intelligence and cunning. Under his son al-Muizz (953-975) he gained his freedom and became his personal secretary. Soon he was the vizier and the highest-ranking military commander of the Fatimids
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NoMad
A nomad (Greek: νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.[2] Among the various ways nomads relate to their environment, one can distinguish the hunter-gatherer, the pastoral nomad owning livestock, or the "modern" peripatetic nomad. As of 1995, there were an estimated 30–40 million nomads in the world.[3] Nomadic hunting and gathering, following seasonally available wild plants and game, is by far the oldest human subsistence method.[citation needed] Pastoralists raise herds, driving them, or moving with them, in patterns that normally avoid depleting pastures beyond their ability to recover.[citation needed] Nomadism is also a lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
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Málaga
Málaga
Málaga
(/ˈmæləɡə/, Spanish: [ˈmalaɣa]) is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community
Autonomous Community
of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 569,130 in 2015,[1] it is the second-most populous city of Andalusia
Andalusia
and the sixth-largest in Spain. The southernmost large city in Europe, it lies on the Costa del Sol (Coast of the Sun) of the Mediterranean, about 100 kilometres (62.14 miles) east of the Strait of Gibraltar
Strait of Gibraltar
and about 130 km (80.78 mi) north of Africa. Málaga's history spans about 2,800 years, making it one of the oldest cities in the world. It was founded by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
as Malaka about 770 BC, and from the 6th century BC was under the hegemony of Ancient Carthage
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Tadla-Azilal
Tadla- Azilal
Azilal
(Berber: Tadla-Aẓilal, Arabic: تادلة أزيلال‎) was formerly one of the sixteen regions of Morocco from 1997 to 2015. It was situated in central Morocco. It covered an area of 17,125 km² and had a population of 1,607,509 (2014 census). The capital was Beni Mellal
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