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Bacteriophage
A bacteriophage (/ˈbækˈtɪərioʊˌfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea. The term was derived from "bacteria" and the Greek: φαγεῖν (phagein), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
genome, and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes. Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm. Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist
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Inoviridae
Inoviridae is a family of viruses
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Lipothrixviridae
Lipothrixviridae is a family of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales. Thermophilic
Thermophilic
archaea in the kingdom Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota
serve as natural hosts
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Archaea
Paleoarchean
Paleoarchean
or perhaps Eoarchean
Eoarchean
– recent Halobacterium
Halobacterium
sp. strain NRC-1, each cell about 5 μm longScientific classification Domain: Archaea Woese, Kandler & Wheelis, 1990[1]Kingdoms[3] and phyla[4]"Euryarchaeota" Woese et al. 1990"Methanopyri" Garrity and Holt 2002 "Methanococci" Boone 2002 "Eurythermea" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2] "Neobacteria" Cavalier-Smith 2002[2]"DPANN""ARMAN""Micrarchaeota" Baker et al. 2010 "Parvarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013"Aenigmarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Diapherotrites" Rinke et al. 2013 "Nanoarchaeota" Huber et al. 2002 "Nanohaloarchaeota" Rinke et al. 2013 "Pacearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015 "Woesearchaeota" Castelle et al. 2015"Proteoarchaeota" Petitjean et al. 2014"TACK""Aigarchaeota" Nunoura et al. 2011 "Bathyarchaeota" Meng et al
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Ligamenvirales
Ligamenvirales is an order of linear viruses that infect archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota
Crenarchaeota
and have double-stranded DNA genomes.[1] The order was established by D. Prangishvili and M. Krupovic in 2012. The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
ligamen, meaning string or thread. Taxonomy[edit] There are two families in this order – Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae. The virons are filamentous with a helical nucleocapsid. At either end are attached either fibers or more complex structures involved in host adhesion. The major coat proteins of both lipothrixviruses and rudiviruses have an unusual four-helix bundle topology.[2] Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The genome is non segmented linear double stranded DNA. References[edit]^ Prangishvili D, Krupovic M (2012). "A new proposed taxon for double-stranded DNA viruses, the order "Ligamenvirales"". Arch Virol. 157 (4): 791–795
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Biosphere
The biosphere (from Greek βίος bíos "life" and σφαῖρα sphaira "sphere") also known as the ecosphere (from Greek οἶκος oîkos "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems. It can also be termed the zone of life on Earth, a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating.[1] By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus. It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria, which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless.[1] The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm
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Acidianus Filamentous Virus 1
Gammalipothrixvirus is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales, in the family Lipothrixviridae. Archaea acidianus serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Acidianus filamentous virus 1.[1][2]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Structure 3 Life cycle 4 References 5 External linksTaxonomy[edit] Group: dsDNAOrder: LigamenviralesFamily: LipothrixviridaeGenus: GammalipothrixvirusAcidianus filamentous virus 1[2] Structure[edit] Viruses in Gammalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 24 nm, with a length of 900 nm. Genomes are linear, around 20kb in length. The genome codes for 40 proteins.[1]Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentationGammalipothrixvirus Rod-shapedEnveloped Linear MonopartiteLife cycle[edit] Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell
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International Committee On Taxonomy Of Viruses
The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses.[1][2][3] The ICTV have developed a universal taxonomic-scheme for viruses, and means to describe, name, and classify every virus that affects living organisms
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Bicaudaviridae
Bicaudaviridae is a family of viruses. Genus acidianus serve as natural hosts. There was only one genus (Bicaudavirus) and one species in this family: the type species Acidianus two-tailed virus.[1][2] until the Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1 (STSV-1) was regarded to belong to this family also.[3]Contents1 Taxonomy 2 Structure 3 Life cycle 4 History 5 References 6 External linksTaxonomy[edit] Group: dsDNAOrder: UnassignedFamily: BicaudaviridaeGenus: BicaudavirusAcidianus two-tailed virus[2] Structure[edit] Viruses
Viruses
in Bicaudaviridae are enveloped, with lemon-shaped geometries. Genomes are circular, around 62kb in length. The genome has 72 open reading frames.[1]Genus Structure Symmetry Capsid Genomic arrangement Genomic segmentationBicaudavirus Lemon-shapedCircular MonopartiteLife cycle[edit] Viral replication is cytoplasmic
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Clavaviridae
Clavaviridae is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea. This family was first described by the team led by D. Prangishvili in 2010. There is one genus in this family (Clavavirus). Within this genus, only a single species has been described to date: Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1. The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
word clava meaning stick. Virology[edit] The virons are bacilliform in shape and 143 nanometers (nm) in length and 15.8 nm in diameter.[1][2] One end is pointed and the other is rounded. The structure of the APBV1 virion has been solved by cryo-electron microscopy to near-atomic resolution, revealing how the helical particle is built from an alpha-helical major capsid protein with a unique structural fold.[2] The genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 5.3 kb
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Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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M13 Bacteriophage
Enterobacteria phage M13M13 is a virus that infects the bacterium Escherichia coli. It is composed of a circular single-stranded DNA molecule encased in a thin flexible tube made up of about 2700 copies of a single protein called P8, the major coat protein. The ends of the tube are capped with minor coat proteins. Infection starts when the minor coat protein P3 attaches to the receptor at the tip of the F pilus of the bacterium. Infection with M13 is not lethal; however, the infection causes turbid plaques in E. coli because infected bacteria grow more slowly than the surrounding uninfected bacteria. It engages in a viral lifestyle known as a chronic infection which is neither lytic nor temperate. However a decrease in the rate of cell growth is seen in the infected cells. M13 plasmids are used for many recombinant DNA processes, and the virus has also been studied for its uses in nanostructures and nanotechnology.Contents1 Phage particles 2 Replication in E
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Leviviridae
Leviviridae is a family of viruses. Bacteria, including Enterobacteria, Caulobacter, Pseudomonas, and Acinetobacter
Acinetobacter
serve as natural hosts for these bacteriophages. There are currently four species in this family, divided among 2 genera.[1][2] They are small RNA viruses with linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes that encode only four proteins
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