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Bacteriophage
A BACTERIOPHAGE /ˈbækˈtɪər.i.oʊˌfeɪdʒ/ , also known informally as a PHAGE /ˈfeɪdʒ/ , is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium . The term was derived from "bacteria" and the Greek : φαγεῖν (phagein), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes . Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm . Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It’s estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined
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Inoviridae
INOVIRIDAE is a family of viruses . Bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are, as of 2014, 43 species in this family, divided between two genera
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Biosphere
The BIOSPHERE (from Greek βίος _bíos_ "life" and σφαῖρα _sphaira_ "sphere") also known as the ECOSPHERE (from Greek οἶκος _oîkos_ "environment" and σφαῖρα), is the worldwide sum of all ecosystems . The two joined words are "bio" and "sphere". It can also be termed as the zone of life on Earth , a closed system (apart from solar and cosmic radiation and heat from the interior of the Earth), and largely self-regulating. By the most general biophysiological definition, the biosphere is the global ecological system integrating all living beings and their relationships, including their interaction with the elements of the lithosphere , geosphere , hydrosphere , and atmosphere . The biosphere is postulated to have evolved , beginning with a process of biopoiesis (life created naturally from non-living matter, such as simple organic compounds) or biogenesis (life created from living matter), at least some 3.5 billion years ago
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Cytoplasm
In cell biology , the CYTOPLASM is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus . It comprises cytosol (the gel-like substance enclosed within the cell membrane) and the organelles – the cell 's internal sub-structures. All of the contents of the cells of prokaryotic organisms (such as bacteria , which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryotic organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm . The cytoplasm is about 80% water and usually colorless. The submicroscopic ground cell substance or cytoplasmatic matrix which remains after exclusion the cell organelles and particles is groundplasm . It is the hyaloplasm of light microscopy, and high complex, polyphasic system in which all of resolvable cytoplasmic elements of are suspended, including the larger organelles such as the ribosomes , mitochondria , the plant plastids , lipid droplets, and vacuoles
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International Committee On Taxonomy Of Viruses
The INTERNATIONAL COMMITTEE ON TAXONOMY OF VIRUSES (ICTV) authorizes and organizes the taxonomic classification of and the nomenclatures for viruses . The ICTV have developed a universal taxonomic-scheme for viruses, and means to describe, name, and classify every virus that affects living organisms. The members of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses are considered experts virologists . The ICTV was formed from and is governed by the Virology Division of the International Union of Microbiological Societies . Detailed work, such as delimiting the boundaries of species within a family, typically is performed by study groups of experts in the families
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Archaea
The ARCHAEA (/ɑːrˈkiːə/ (_ listen ) or /ɑːrˈkeɪə/ ar-KEE-ə_ or _ar-KAY-ə_ ) constitute a domain and kingdom of single-celled microorganisms . These microbes (ARCHAEA; singular ARCHAEON) are prokaryotes , meaning that they have no cell nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles in their cells. Archaea
Archaea
were initially classified as bacteria , receiving the name ARCHAEBACTERIA (in the Archaebacteria kingdom), but this classification is outdated. Archaeal cells have unique properties separating them from the other two domains of life, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Eukaryota . The Archaea
Archaea
are further divided into multiple recognized phyla . Classification is difficult because the majority have not been isolated in the laboratory and have only been detected by analysis of their nucleic acids in samples from their environment
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Ligamenvirales
LIGAMENVIRALES is an order of linear viruses that infect archaea of the kingdom Crenarchaeota and have double-stranded DNA genomes. The order was established by D. Prangishvili and M. Krupovic in 2012. The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
LIGAMEN, meaning string or thread. TAXONOMYThere are two families in this order – Lipothrixviridae and Rudiviridae . The virons are filamentous with a helical nucleocapsid. At either end are attached either fibers or more complex structures involved in host adhesion. The major coat proteins of both lipothrixviruses and rudiviruses have an unusual four-helix bundle topology. Viruses from the two families share up to ten genes. The genome is non segmented linear double stranded DNA. REFERENCES * ^ Prangishvili D, Krupovic M (2012). "A new proposed taxon for double-stranded DNA viruses, the order "Ligamenvirales"". Arch Virol. 157 (4): 791–795. PMID 22270758
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Lipothrixviridae
LIPOTHRIXVIRIDAE is a family of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales . Thermophilic
Thermophilic
archaea in the kingdom Crenarchaeota serve as natural hosts. There are currently nine species in this family, divided among 4 genera
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Acidianus Filamentous Virus 1
GAMMALIPOTHRIXVIRUS is a genus of viruses in the order Ligamenvirales , in the family Lipothrixviridae . Archaea acidianus serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: the type species Acidianus filamentous virus 1. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Structure * 3 Life cycle * 4 References * 5 External links TAXONOMYGROUP: DSDNA ORDER: LIGAMENVIRALES * FAMILY: LIPOTHRIXVIRIDAE * GENUS: GAMMALIPOTHRIXVIRUS * ACIDIANUS FILAMENTOUS VIRUS 1STRUCTURE Viruses
Viruses
in Gammalipothrixvirus are enveloped, with rod-shaped geometries. The diameter is around 24 nm, with a length of 900 nm. Genomes are linear, around 20kb in length. The genome codes for 40 proteins. GENUS STRUCTURE SYMMETRY CAPSID GENOMIC ARRANGEMENT GENOMIC SEGMENTATION Gammalipothrixvirus Rod-shaped Enveloped Linear MonopartiteLIFE CYCLEViral replication is cytoplasmic
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Bicaudaviridae
BICAUDAVIRIDAE is a family of viruses . Genus acidianus serve as natural hosts. There was only one genus (Bicaudavirus) and one species in this family: the type species Acidianus two-tailed virus. until the Sulfolobus tengchongensis spindle-shaped virus 1 ( STSV-1 ) was regarded to belong to this family also. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Structure * 3 Life cycle * 4 History * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMYGROUP: DSDNA ORDER: UNASSIGNED * FAMILY: BICAUDAVIRIDAE * GENUS: BICAUDAVIRUS * ACIDIANUS TWO-TAILED VIRUSSTRUCTURE Viruses
Viruses
in Bicaudaviridae are enveloped, with lemon-shaped geometries. Genomes are circular, around 62kb in length. The genome has 72 open reading frames. GENUS STRUCTURE SYMMETRY CAPSID GENOMIC ARRANGEMENT GENOMIC SEGMENTATION Bicaudavirus Lemon-shaped Circular MonopartiteLIFE CYCLEViral replication is cytoplasmic
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Soviet Union
The SOVIET UNION (Russian : Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. _Sovetsky Soyuz_; IPA: ), officially the UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS (USSR; Russian : Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР), tr. _Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)_; IPA: (_ listen )), also known unofficially as RUSSIA (Russian : Росси́я, tr. Rossiya_; IPA: ), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple equal national Soviet republics , its government and economy were highly centralized . The country was a one-party federation , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital
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Greek Language
GREEK ( Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: ελληνικά , _elliniká_, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα (_ listen ), ellinikí glóssa_, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean . It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet
Greek alphabet
for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B
Linear B
and the Cypriot syllabary
Cypriot syllabary
, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin
Latin
, Cyrillic
Cyrillic
, Armenian , Coptic , Gothic and many other writing systems
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Protein
PROTEINS (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ᵻnz/ ) are large biomolecules , or macromolecules , consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues . Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms , including catalysing metabolic reactions , DNA replication , responding to stimuli , and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes , and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide . A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides , or sometimes oligopeptides
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Clavaviridae
CLAVAVIRIDAE is a family of double-stranded viruses that infect archaea. This family was first described by the team led by D. Prangishvili in 2010. There is one genus in this family (Clavavirus). Within this genus, only a single species has been described to date: Aeropyrum pernix bacilliform virus 1 . The name is derived from the Latin
Latin
word clava meaning stick. VIROLOGYThe virons are bacilliform in shape and 143 nanometers (nm) in length and 15.8 nm in diameter. One end is pointed and the other is rounded. The structure of the APBV1 virion has been solved by cryo-electron microscopy to near-atomic resolution, revealing how the helical particle is built from an alpha-helical major capsid protein with a unique structural fold. The genome is a circular double-stranded DNA molecule of 5.3 kb. It does not integrate into the host genome. Infection with this virus does not cause host cell lysis
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Leviviridae
LEVIVIRIDAE is a family of viruses . Bacteria, including Enterobacteria , Caulobacter
Caulobacter
, Pseudomonas , and Acinetobacter serve as natural hosts for these bacteriophages . There are currently four species in this family, divided among 2 genera. They are small RNA viruses with linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genomes that encode only four proteins. All phages of this family require bacterial pili to attach to and infect cells. CONTENTS * 1 Taxonomy * 2 Structure * 3 Life cycle * 4 Genome * 5 References * 6 External links TAXONOMYThe family has two genera, both of which currently have two known species
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