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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms
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Bacterium (genus)
The genus BACTERIUM was a taxon described in 1828 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg . The type species was later changed from Bacterium triloculare to Bacterium coli (now Escherichia coli ) as it was lost. In 1951 and then in 1954 it was recognised as a nomen generum rejiciendum, which means a generic name to be rejected, this also applied to its family Bacteriaceae. This genus included non-spore forming rods whose relation to other species was obscure (a "taxonomy dumping group "). This is different from the genus Bacillus , whose members were spore forming rods (sensu Cohn 1872 ). SPECIESMany species were placed under the genus. Given that the genus was abolished in the process of forming the Bacteriological Code there is no such thing as an official list of species present
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Bacteria (other)
The BACTERIA are a major group of prokaryotic living organisms. BACTERIA may also refer to: * Bacteria
Bacteria
(malware) or Rabbit Programs, a type of malicious software * Bacteria, a fictional country in The Great Dictator * Bacteria
Bacteria
, the wife of Unhygienix in the Asterix comics * Bacteriidae , a family of South American stick insects This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BACTERIA. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bacteria_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (_Arkhē_), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Holocene
The HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος (_holos_, whole or entire) and καινός (_kainos_, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period. The Holocene encompasses the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history , development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition toward urban living in the present
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean . It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth . The name Proterozoic comes from Greek and means "earlier life", the Greek root protero-,means "former, earlier" and zoic-, means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian Supereon. It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning _visible life_, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian , the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the _ Precambrian _ supereon, is now divided into the Hadean , Archaean and Proterozoic eons
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Scanning Electron Microscope
A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons . The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, and at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments. The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected depends, among other things, on specimen topography
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Escherichia Coli
_ Bacillus coli communis_ Escherich 1885 _ESCHERICHIA COLI_ (/ˌɛʃᵻˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/ ; also known as _E. COLI_) is a gram-negative , facultatively anaerobic , rod-shaped , coliform bacterium of the genus _ Escherichia
Escherichia
_ that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms). Most _E. coli_ strains are harmless, but some serotypes can cause serious food poisoning in their hosts, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls due to food contamination . The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut , and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2 , and preventing colonization of the intestine with pathogenic bacteria , having a symbiotic relationship. _E. coli_ is expelled into the environment within fecal matter. The bacterium grows massively in fresh fecal matter under aerobic conditions for 3 days, but its numbers decline slowly afterwards. _E
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Bacillus (shape)
A BACILLUS (plural BACILLI) or BACILLIFORM BACTERIUM is a rod-shaped bacterium . Bacilli are found in many different taxonomic groups of bacteria. However, the name Bacillus
Bacillus
, capitalized and italicized , refers to a specific genus of bacteria. The name Bacilli , capitalized but not italicized, can also refer to a less specific taxonomic group of bacteria that includes two orders, one of which contains the genus Bacillus. When the word is formatted with lowercase and not italicized, 'bacillus', it will most likely be referring to shape and not to the genus at all. Bacilliform bacteria are also often simply called rods when the bacteriologic context is clear. Bacilli usually divide in the same plane and are solitary, but can combine to form diplobacilli, streptobacilli, and palisades
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Carl Woese
CARL RICHARD WOESE (/ˈwoʊz/ ; July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist . Woese is famous for defining the Archaea
Archaea
(a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA
16S ribosomal RNA
, a technique pioneered by Woese which revolutionized the discipline of microbiology. He was also the originator of the RNA world hypothesis
RNA world hypothesis
in 1967, although not by that name. He held the Stanley O. Ikenberry Chair and was professor of microbiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
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Otto Kandler
OTTO KANDLER (born 23 October 1920 in Deggendorf , died on 29 August 2017 in Munich
Munich
, Bavaria ) is a German Botanist and Microbiologist . With Carl Woese
Carl Woese
Kandler proposed the change from the preceding view of living organisms as a Two-empire system of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes to the Three-domain system of the domains Eukaryota, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea . While bacteria and archaea appear to be similar in form and structure , Woese, Kandler and Wheelis demonstrated that they were genetically very dissimilar . They demonstrated this through analysis of Ribosomal RNA
Ribosomal RNA
. Kandler taught and conducted research at Ludwig Maximilian Unive