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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica
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Scanning Electron Microscope
A SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons . The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, and at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments. The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected depends, among other things, on specimen topography
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature )
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GC-content
In molecular biology and genetics , GC-CONTENT (or GUANINE-CYTOSINE CONTENT) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA
DNA
or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA
DNA
and adenine and uracil in RNA). This may refer to a certain fragment of DNA
DNA
or RNA, or that of the whole genome . When it refers to a fragment of the genetic material, it may denote the GC-content
GC-content
of section of a gene (domain), single gene, group of genes (or gene clusters), or even a non-coding region. G (guanine) and C (cytosine) undergo a specific hydrogen bonding , whereas A (adenine) bonds specifically with T (thymine, in DNA) or U (uracil, in RNA). The GC pair is bound by three hydrogen bonds , while AT and AU pairs are bound by two hydrogen bonds
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Proterozoic
The PROTEROZOIC ( /ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk, prɔː-, -trə-/ ) is a geological eon representing the time just before the proliferation of complex life on Earth
Earth
. The name Proterozoic
Proterozoic
comes from Greek and means "earlier life": the Greek root "protero-" means "former, earlier" and "zoic-" means "animal, living being". The Proterozoic Eon extended from 7016788940000000000♠2500 Ma to 7016170726616000000♠541 Ma (million years ago), and is the most recent part of the Precambrian
Precambrian
Supereon. It can be also described as the time range between the appearance of oxygen in Earth's atmosphere and the appearance of first complex life forms (like trilobites or corals ). It is subdivided into three geologic eras (from oldest to youngest): the Paleoproterozoic , Mesoproterozoic , and Neoproterozoic
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Phanerozoic
The PHANEROZOIC Eon ( British English
British English
PHANæROZOIC) is the current geologic eon in the geologic time scale , and the one during which abundant animal and plant life has existed. It covers 541 million years to the present, and began with the Cambrian
Cambrian
Period when diverse hard-shelled animals first appeared. Its name was derived from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words φανερός (phanerós) and ζωή (zōḗ), meaning visible life, since it was once believed that life began in the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of this eon. The time before the Phanerozoic, called the Precambrian
Precambrian
supereon, is now divided into the Hadean
Hadean
, Archaean and Proterozoic
Proterozoic
eons
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Hadean
The HADEAN ( /ˈheɪdiən/ ) is a geologic eon of the Earth
Earth
predating the Archean
Archean
. It began with the formation of the Earth
Earth
about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the ICS , 4 billion years ago. The geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label the period before the earliest-known rocks on Earth. W. Brian Harland later coined an almost synonymous term: the "PRISCOAN PERIOD". Other, older texts simply refer to the eon as the PRE-ARCHEAN. In 2015, traces of carbon minerals interpreted as "remains of biotic life " were found in 4.1-billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia
Western Australia
. Artist's impression of a Hadean
Hadean
landscape
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Holocene
? Preboreal (10.3–9 ka ) Boreal (9–7.5 ka ) Atlantic (7.5 –5 ka ) Subboreal (5 –2.5 ka ) Subatlantic (2.5 ka –present) Holocene
Holocene
Epoch This box: * view * talk * edit ↑ Pleistocene HoloceneThe HOLOCENE ( /ˈhɒləˌsiːn, ˈhoʊ-/ ) is the current geological epoch . It began after the Pleistocene , approximately 11,700 years before present . The Holocene
Holocene
is part of the Quaternary period. Its name comes from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
words ὅλος (holos, whole or entire) and καινός (kainos, new), meaning "entirely recent". It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1 , and is considered by some to be an interglacial period
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Otto Kandler
OTTO KANDLER (born 23 October 1920 in Deggendorf , Bavaria
Bavaria
) is a German Botanist
Botanist
and Microbiologist
Microbiologist
. With Carl Woese Kandler proposed the change from the preceding view of living organisms as a Two-empire system of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes to the Three-domain system of the domains Eukaryota, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea
Archaea
. While bacteria and archaea appear to be similar in form and structure , Woese, Kandler and Wheelis demonstrated that they were genetically very dissimilar . They demonstrated this through analysis of Ribosomal RNA . Kandler taught and conducted research at Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich from 1968 to 1986. Kandler became a member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1983
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Archean
The ARCHEAN Eon ( /ɑːrˈkiːən/ , also spelled ARCHAEAN) is a geologic eon , 4,000 to 2,500 million years ago (4 to 2.5 billion years), that followed the Hadean
Hadean
Eon and preceded the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
Eon. During the Archean, the Earth's crust had cooled enough to allow the formation of continents. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology and changes in classification * 2 Earth
Earth
at the beginning of the Archean
Archean
* 2.1 Palaeoenvironment * 3 Geology
Geology
* 4 Early life in the Archean
Archean
* 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY AND CHANGES IN CLASSIFICATION Archean
Archean
(or Archaean) comes from the ancient Greek Αρχή (Arkhē), meaning "beginning, origin"
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Mark Wheelis
MARK L. WHEELIS is an American microbiologist . Wheelis is currently a professor in the College of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis . Carl Woese and Otto Kandler with Wheelis wrote the important paper Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya that proposed a change from the Two-empire system of Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes to the Three-domain system of the domains Eukaryota, Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea
Archaea
. Wheelis's research interests include the history of biological warfare . He co-authored (with Larry Gonick ) The Cartoon Guide to Genetics (1983). Wheelis provided the scientific knowledge and text, while Gonick contributed the illustrations and humor. WORKS This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it . * Larry Gonick 1999
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Bacterium (genus)
The genus BACTERIUM was a taxon described in 1828 by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg . The type species was later changed from Bacterium triloculare to Bacterium coli (now Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
) as it was lost. In 1951 and then in 1954 it was recognised as a nomen generum rejiciendum, which means a generic name to be rejected, this also applied to its family Bacteriaceae. This genus included non-spore forming rods whose relation to other species was obscure (a "taxonomy dumping group "). This is different from the genus Bacillus
Bacillus
, whose members were spore forming rods (sensu Cohn 1872 ). SPECIESMany species were placed under the genus. Given that the genus was abolished in the process of forming the Bacteriological Code there is no such thing as an official list of species present
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain , kingdom , phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class , order , family , genus and species . The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms
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Carl Woese
CARL RICHARD WOESE (/ˈwoʊz/ ; July 15, 1928 – December 30, 2012) was an American microbiologist and biophysicist . Woese is famous for defining the Archaea
Archaea
(a new domain or kingdom of life) in 1977 by phylogenetic taxonomy of 16S ribosomal RNA
16S ribosomal RNA
, a technique pioneered by Woese which revolutionized the discipline of microbiology. He was also the originator of the RNA world hypothesis
RNA world hypothesis
in 1967, although not by that name. He held the Stanley O. Ikenberry Chair and was professor of microbiology at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
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Domain (biology)
Eukaryota (represented by the Australian green tree frog , left), Bacteria
Bacteria
(represented by Staphylococcus aureus , middle) and Archaea (represented by Sulfolobus , right). The hierarchy of biological classification 's eight major taxonomic ranks . Life
Life
is divided into domains, which are subdivided into further groups. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. In biological taxonomy , a DOMAIN ( Latin : REGIO ) is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese , an American microbiologist and biophysicist . According to the Woese system, introduced in 1990, the tree of life (biology) consists of three domains: Archaea (a term which Woese created), Bacteria
Bacteria
, and Eukarya
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