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Backhoe
A BACKHOE, also called a REAR ACTOR or BACK ACTOR, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two-part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader , the latter forming a 'backhoe loader ' (colloquially known as a JCB in Ireland and UK). The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the DIPPER or dipper-stick, terms derived from steam shovels ). The boom is generally attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the king-post, which allows the arm to pivot left and right, usually through a total of around 180–200 degrees. CONTENTS * 1 Characteristics * 2 Thumb * 3 Origins * 4 Backhoe
Backhoe
fade * 5 Notable manufacturers * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links CHARACTERISTICS Kobelco Excavator
Excavator
in shovel configuration The name "backhoe" refers to the action of the shovel, not its location on the vehicle: a backhoe digs by drawing earth backwards, rather than lifting it with a forward motion like a man shovelling, a steam shovel or a bulldozer
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Backnoe End
THURLEIGH is a village and civil parish in north Bedfordshire , England. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Airfield * 2 Geography * 3 Demography * 4 Economy * 5 Community, sport and recreation * 6 Landmarks * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYExcavations have shown evidence the locality was occupied in the Iron-Age , Roman and Saxon periods. In Domesday
Domesday
of 1086 it is referred to as LaLega, and by 1372 it is Thyrleye. In 1813, Thurleigh, or Thurley, is recorded as being in the Hundred of Willey and the Deanery of Eaton. Lega is a Latinized form of leigh. The name may derive from Anglo-Saxon (æt) þǣre Lēa = "(at) the clearing". There was a church here in Saxon times. The current church has some parts still dating from around 1150, and at about that same time a castle was built here. The deanery of Eaton contains the rectories of Bolnhurst , Colmworth , Shelton , Staughton Parva , Tilbrook , Wilden and Yielden ; the vicarages of Eaton Socon , Keysoe , Melchburn , Pertenhall , Renhold , Ravensden , Riseley , Roxton , Great Barford and Thurleigh; and the perpetual curacy of Dean
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J. C. Bamford
J.C. BAMFORD EXCAVATORS LIMITED, universally known as JCB, is a British multinational corporation , with headquarters in Rocester
Rocester
, Staffordshire , manufacturing equipment for construction , agriculture , waste handling and demolition . It is the world's third-largest construction equipment manufacturer. It produces over 300 types of machine, including diggers (backhoes ), excavators , tractors and diesel engines . It has 22 factories across Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; its products are sold in over 150 countries. JCB was founded in 1945 by Joseph Cyril Bamford , after whom it is named; it continues to be owned by the Bamford family. In the UK and India, 'JCB' is often used colloquially as a generic description for mechanical diggers and excavators and now appears in the Oxford English Dictionary , although it is still held as a trademark
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Tokyo
TOKYO (Japanese: (_ listen ), English: /ˈtoʊki.oʊ/ ), officially TOKYO METROPOLIS, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures . The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government . Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands . Formerly known as Edo , it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu_) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, _Tōkyō-shi_). Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Excavator
EXCAVATORS (Hydraulic Excavators) are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom , dipper (or stick), bucket and cab on a rotating platform known as the "house". The house sits atop an undercarriage with tracks or wheels . They are a natural progression from the steam shovels and often mistakenly called power shovels . All movement and functions of a hydraulic excavator are accomplished through the use of hydraulic fluid , with hydraulic cylinders and hydraulic motors . Due to the linear actuation of hydraulic cylinders, their mode of operation is fundamentally different from cable-operated excavators which use winches and steel ropes to accomplish the movements. CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Usage * 3 Configurations * 4 Excavator
Excavator
attachments * 5 Notable manufacturers * 6 See also * 7 References TERMINOLOGYExcavators are also called DIGGERS, JCBS (a proprietary name , in an example of a generic trademark ), MECHANICAL SHOVELS, or 360-DEGREE EXCAVATORS (sometimes abbreviated simply to 360). Tracked excavators are sometimes called "trackhoes" by analogy to the backhoe
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Tractor
A TRACTOR is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort (or torque ) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction . Most commonly, the term is used to describe a farm vehicle that provides the power and traction to mechanize agricultural tasks, especially (and originally) tillage , but nowadays a great variety of tasks. Agricultural implements may be towed behind or mounted on the tractor, and the tractor may also provide a source of power if the implement is mechanised. The word tractor was taken from Latin
Latin
, being the agent noun of trahere "to pull". The first recorded use of the word meaning "an engine or vehicle for pulling wagons or ploughs" occurred in 1901, displacing the earlier term "traction engine " (1859)
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Loader (equipment)
A LOADER is a heavy equipment machine used in construction to move aside or load materials such as asphalt , demolition debris, dirt , snow , feed , gravel , logs , raw minerals , recycled material, rock , sand , woodchips , etc. into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck , conveyor belt , feed-hopper, or railroad car ). There are many types of loader, which, depending on design and application, are called by various names, including BUCKET LOADER, FRONT LOADER, FRONT-END LOADER, PAYLOADER, SCOOP, SHOVEL, SKIP LOADER, WHEEL LOADER, or skid-steer . CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Major components * 3 Armored wheel loaders * 4 Tractor
Tractor
front loaders * 5 Compact front end loaders * 6 Skid loaders "> Loader removing snow in Jyväskylä , Finland. A loader is a type of tractor , usually wheeled, sometimes on tracks, that has a front-mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground, such as dirt, sand or gravel, and move it from one place to another without pushing the material across the ground. A loader is commonly used to move a stockpiled material from ground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or into an open trench excavation. The loader assembly may be a removable attachment or permanently mounted
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Backhoe Loader
A BACKHOE LOADER, also called a LOADER BACKHOE, DIGGER in layman's terms, or colloquially shortened to BACKHOE within the industry, is a heavy equipment vehicle that consists of a tractor like unit fitted with a loader -style shovel /bucket on the front and a backhoe on the back. Due to its (relatively) small size and versatility, backhoe loaders are very common in urban engineering and small construction projects (such as building a small house, fixing urban roads, etc.) as well as developing countries. This type of machine is similar to and derived from what is now known as a TLB (Tractor-Loader-Backhoe), which is to say, an agricultural tractor fitted with a front loader and rear backhoe attachment. The true development of the backhoe actually began in 1947 by the inventors that started the Wain-Roy Corporation of Hubbardston, Massachusetts. In 1947 Wain-Roy Corporation developed and tested the first actual backhoes. In April 1948 Wain-Roy Corporation sold the very first all hydraulic backhoes, mounted to a Ford Model 8N tractor, to the Connecticut Light and Power Company for the sum of $705. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Use * 3 Manufacturers * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY Modern Unimog
Unimog
as a backhoe loader Evolving in parallel to development in the U.S., backhoes were first produced in the UK in 1953 by JCB , but it was just a prototype
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Steam Shovel
A STEAM SHOVEL is a large steam-powered excavating machine designed for lifting and moving material such as rock and soil . It is the earliest type of power shovel or excavator . They played a major role in public works in the 19th and early 20th century, being key to the construction of railroads and the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
. The development of simpler, cheaper diesel-powered shovels caused steam shovels to fall out of favor in the 1930s. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Origins and development * 1.2 Growth and uses * 1.3 Successors * 2 Operation * 3 Steam shovel
Steam shovel
manufacturers * 3.1 Power shovel/dragline manufacturers * 4 Preservation * 4.1 The Le Roy Marion * 4.2 Ruston Proctor Steam Navvy
Navvy
No 306 * 4.3 1923 Bucyrus Model 50-B * 4.4 Northwest Model * 5 In fiction * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links HISTORYORIGINS AND DEVELOPMENT A Link-Belt steam shovel crane, circa 1890. Grimshaw of Boulton "> A steam shovel excavating for the San Diego and Arizona Railway line, circa 1919. Expanding railway networks (in the US and the UK) fostered a demand for steam shovels. The extensive mileage of railways, and corresponding volume of material to be moved, forced the technological leap. As a result, steam shovels became commonplace
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Bulldozer
A BULLDOZER is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor ) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade ) used to push large quantities of soil , sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a claw-like device (known as a ripper ) to loosen densely compacted materials. Bulldozers can be found on a wide range of sites, mines and quarries , military bases, heavy industry factories, engineering projects and farms . The term "bulldozer" correctly refers only to a tractor (usually tracked) fitted with a dozer blade. CONTENTS* 1 Description * 1.1 Blade * 1.2 Ripper * 2 Modifications * 2.1 Armored bulldozers * 3 History * 4 Manufacturers * 5 History of the word * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DESCRIPTION A Caterpillar D10 N bulldozer equipped with a single shank ripper. Most often bulldozers are large and powerful tracked heavy equipment. The tracks give them excellent ground holding capability and mobility through very rough terrain. Wide tracks help distribute the bulldozer's weight over a large area (decreasing ground pressure ), thus preventing it from sinking in sandy or muddy ground. Extra wide tracks are known as _swamp tracks_ or _LGP_ (low ground pressure) tracks. Bulldozers have transmission systems designed to take advantage of the track system and provide excellent tractive force
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Swivel Seat
A SWIVEL or REVOLVING CHAIR is a chair with a single central leg that allows the seat to rotate 360 degrees to the left or right. The first swivel chair was invented by Thomas Jefferson , and is purported to be the chair on which he drafted the United States Declaration of Independence in 1776. CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Swivel seat * 3 Origin * 4 Footnotes TYPESSwivel chairs may have wheels on the base allowing the user to move the chair around their work area without getting up. This type is common in modern offices and are often also referred to as office chairs . Office swivel chairs, like computer chairs, usually incorporate a gas lift to adjust the height of the seat, but not usually large (e.g. recliner ) swivelling armchairs. A draughtsman 's chair is a swivel chair without wheels that is usually taller than an 'office chair' for use in front of a drawing board . They also have a foot-ring to support the legs when it is not possible to reach the ground. SWIVEL SEATWhen the swivel chair is installed in an aircraft , an automobile or on a stair lift and can not move independently because it is on a fixed base, it is rather called a SWIVEL SEAT. Some swivel seats are also bucket seats
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Hydraulic
HYDRAULICS (From Greek : Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering , chemistry , and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids . At a very basic level, hydraulics is the liquid counterpart of pneumatics , which concerns gases . Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the applied engineering using the properties of fluids. In its fluid power applications, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through some parts of science and most of engineering modules, and cover concepts such as pipe flow , dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps . The principles of hydraulics are in use naturally in the human body within the heart and the male erection. Free surface hydraulics is the branch of hydraulics dealing with free surface flow, such as occurring in rivers , canals , lakes , estuaries and seas . Its sub-field open channel flow studies the flow in open channels . The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (_hydraulikos_) which in turn originates from ὕδωρ (_hydor_, Greek for water ) and αὐλός (_aulos_, meaning pipe ). CONTENTS* 1 Ancient and medieval era * 1.1 Greek / Hellenistic age * 1.2 China * 1.3 Sri Lanka * 1.4 Innovations in Ancient Rome * 2 Modern era (c
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Tiltrotator
A TILTROTATOR (known under a number of trade names) is an hydraulic attachment/tool used on most excavators , and backhoes between 3-30 tons in the Nordic countries ( Sweden
Sweden
, Finland
Finland
, and Norway
Norway
). A tiltrotator is mounted on the excavator such that the excavator bucket can be rotated through 360 degrees and one tilts +/- 45 degrees, in order to increase the flexibility and precision of the excavator . A tiltrotator can best be described as a wrist between the arm of the excavator and bucket, (or whatever other tool is fitted to the tiltrotator's quick coupler). With its integral quick coupler and rotary swivel, the tiltrotator can also use extra hydraulic functions to power and manipulate other worktools below it such as a breaker , grapple or an auger , which can be attached to the quickcoupler on the tiltrotator, for simplified attachment mounting, dramatically increasing the excavator 's utilization on the jobsite. control systems which allows the operator to operate the machine fully through the joysticks. Recognized control systems are SVAB, ICS by Indexator, Engcon Microprop DC2 and Steelwrist XControl G2. The tiltrotator is nowadays controlled through machines two or four electro-proportionally controlled hydraulic lines
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Breaker (hydraulic)
A BREAKER is a powerful percussion hammer fitted to an excavator for demolishing concrete structures or rocks. It is powered by an auxiliary hydraulic system from the excavator, which is fitted with a foot-operated valve for this purpose. Additionally, demolition crews employ the hoe ram for jobs too large for jackhammering or areas where blasting is not possible due to safety or environmental issues. BREAKERS are often referred to as "hammers", "peckers", "hoe rams" or "hoe rammers." These terms are popular and commonly used amongst construction /demolition workers. The first hydraulic breaker "Hydraulikhammer HM 400" was invented in 1967 by German company Krupp (today German company Atlas Copco ) in Essen . SEE ALSO * Jackhammer * Excavator REFERENCES * ^ New Mexico State Highway and Transportation Department - Hoe Ram Archived January 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ http://arrowmaster.com/hammer.shtmlBIBLIOGRAPHY * Association of Equipment Manufacturers (2010). Carrier Mounted Hydraulic Breaker: Safety Manual for Operating and Maintenance Personnel. This tool article is a stub . You can help by expanding it . * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Breaker_(hydraulic) additional terms may apply
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Grapple (construction)
A GRAPPLE is a hook or claw used to catch or hold something. A ship's anchor is a type of grapple, especially the "grapnel" anchor . A soldier loading a hook. A THROWING GRAPPLE (or "grappling hook ") is a multi-pronged hook that is tied to a rope and thrown to catch a grip, as on a parapet or branch of a tree. It may also be used in a boat to "drag" the bottom of a waterway to hook debris or to find missing objects. Grapple truck In logging and other engineering vehicles , a grapple is a hydraulically powered claw with two or more opposing levers that pinch a log or other materials, usually to lift or drag them. The logging grapple used in swing yarding is not moved by hydraulics but by cables. To open and close the tongs of the grapple, two cables are used. One is tensioned and the other is slacked off to move the tongs. A third cable goes back to the tail hold then to the yarder. This third cable is used to pull the grapple out into the sett