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Backdoor (computing)
A backdoor is a method, often secret, of bypassing normal authentication or encryption in a computer system, a product, or an embedded device (e.g. a home router), or its embodiment, e.g. as part of a cryptosystem, an algorithm, a chipset, or a "homunculus computer"[1] (such as that as found in Intel's AMT technology). Backdoors are often used for securing remote access to a computer, or obtaining access to plaintext in cryptographic systems. A backdoor may take the form of a hidden part of a program one uses,[2] a separate program (e.g. Back Orifice may subvert the system through a rootkit), or code in the firmware of ones hardware[3] or parts of ones operating system such as Microsoft Windows.[4][5][6] Although normally surreptitiously installed, in some cases backdoors are deliberate and widely known
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Authentication
Authentication
Authentication
(from Greek: αὐθεντικός authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity. In contrast with identification, which refers to the act of stating or otherwise indicating a claim purportedly attesting to a person or thing's identity, authentication is the process of actually confirming that identity. It might involve confirming the identity of a person by validating their identity documents, verifying the authenticity of a website with a digital certificate,[1] determining the age of an artifact by carbon dating, or ensuring that a product is what its packaging and labeling claim to be
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Microsoft Outlook
Microsoft
Microsoft
Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft
Microsoft
Office suite. Although often used mainly as an email application, it also includes a calendar, task manager, contact manager, note taking, journal, and web browsing. It can be used as a stand-alone application, or can work with Microsoft
Microsoft
Exchange Server and Microsoft
Microsoft
SharePoint
SharePoint
Server for multiple users in an organization, such as shared mailboxes and calendars, Exchange public folders, SharePoint
SharePoint
lists, and meeting schedules. Microsoft
Microsoft
has also released mobile applications for most mobile platforms, including iOS and Android
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Source Code
In computing, source code is any collection of computer instructions, possibly with comments, written using[1] a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a program is specially designed to facilitate the work of computer programmers, who specify the actions to be performed by a computer mostly by writing source code. The source code is often transformed by an assembler or compiler into binary machine code understood by the computer. The machine code might then be stored for execution at a later time. Alternatively, source code may be interpreted and thus immediately executed. Most application software is distributed in a form that includes only executable files
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Easter Egg (virtual)
In computer software and media, an Easter egg is an intentional inside joke, hidden message or image, or secret feature of a work. It is usually found in a computer program, video game, or DVD/ Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc menu screen)
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Cloak And Dagger
" Cloak
Cloak
and dagger" refers to situations involving intrigue, secrecy, espionage, or mystery. The phrase has two possible origins. The first, dating from the early 19th century, is a translation from the French de cape et d'épée and Spanish de capa y espada (literally "of cloak and sword"). These phrases referred to a genre of swashbuckler drama in which the main characters literally wore these items
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Plausible Deniability
Plausible deniability is the ability of people (typically senior officials in a formal or informal chain of command) to deny knowledge of or responsibility for any damnable actions committed by others in an organizational hierarchy because of a lack of evidence that can confirm their participation, even if they were personally involved in or at least willfully ignorant of the actions. In the case that illegal or otherwise disreputable and unpopular activities become public, high-ranking officials may deny any awareness of such acts to insulate themselves and shift blame onto the agents who carried out the acts, as they are confident that their doubters will be unable to prove otherwise. The lack of evidence to the contrary ostensibly makes the denial plausible, that is, credible, although sometimes it merely makes it unactionable
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Photomask
A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern. They are commonly used in photolithography.Contents1 Overview 2 Mask Error Enhancement Factor (MEEF) 3 Pellicles 4 Leading commercial photomask manufacturers 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview[edit]A simulated photomask. The thicker features are the integrated circuit that is desired to be printed on the wafer. The thinner features are assists that do not print themselves, but help the integrated circuit print better out-of-focus. The zig-zag appearance of the photomask is because optical proximity correction was applied to it to create a better print.Lithographic photomasks are typically transparent fused silica blanks covered with a pattern defined with a chrome metal-absorbing film. Photomasks are used at wavelengths of 365 nm, 248 nm, and 193 nm
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Division Of Labour
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize. Individuals, organisations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialized capabilities and either form combinations or trade to take advantage of the capabilities of others in addition to their own. Specialized capabilities may include equipment or natural resources in addition to skills and training and complex combinations of such assets are often important, as when multiple items of specialized equipment and skilled operators are used to produce a single product. The division of labour is the motive for trade and the source of economic interdependence. Because of the large amount of labour saved by giving workers specialized tasks in Industrial Revolution-era factories, some classical economists as well as some mechanical engineers such as Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage
were proponents of division of labour
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Control (management)
Control, or controlling, is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing
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IBM PC Compatible
IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
computers are computers similar to the original IBM PC, XT, and AT, able to use the same software and expansion cards . Such computers used to be referred to as PC clones, or IBM clones. They duplicate almost exactly all the significant features of the PC architecture, facilitated by IBM's choice of commodity hardware components and various manufacturers' ability to reverse engineer the BIOS
BIOS
firmware using a "clean room design" technique. Columbia Data Products built the first clone of the IBM personal computer by a clean room implementation of its BIOS.[citation needed] Early IBM PC compatibles used the same computer bus as the original PC and AT models. The IBM AT compatible bus was later named the Industry Standard Architecture (ISA) bus by manufacturers of compatible computers
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Broadband
In telecommunications, broadband is wide bandwidth data transmission which transports multiple signals and traffic types. The medium can be coaxial cable, optical fiber, radio or twisted pair. In the context of Internet access, broadband is used to mean any high-speed Internet access
Internet access
that is always on and faster than dial-up access over traditional analog or ISDN
ISDN
PSTN services.Contents1 Overview 2 Broadband
Broadband
technologies2.1 Telecommunications 2.2 Computer networks 2.3 TV and video 2.4 Alternative technologies3 Internet broadband3.1 Global bandwidth concentration4 See also 5 ReferencesOverview[edit] Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times
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E-mail Spam
Email
Email
spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email. Many email spam messages are commercial in nature but may also contain disguised links that appear to be for familiar websites but in fact lead to phishing web sites or sites that are hosting malware. Spam email may also include malware as scripts or other executable file attachments (trojans). Spam is named after Spam luncheon meat by way of a Monty Python sketch in which Spam in the sketch is ubiquitous, unavoidable and repetitive.[1] Email
Email
spam has steadily grown since the early 1990s. Botnets, networks of virus-infected computers, are used to send about 80% of spam[citation needed]. Since the expense of the spam is borne mostly by the recipient,[2] it is effectively postage due advertising
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WOPR
WarGames
WarGames
is a 1983 American Cold War
Cold War
science fiction film written by Lawrence Lasker
Lawrence Lasker
and Walter F. Parkes and directed by John Badham. The film stars Matthew Broderick, Dabney Coleman, John Wood, and Ally Sheedy. The film follows David Lightman (Broderick), a young hacker who unwittingly accesses WOPR (War Operation Plan Response), a United States military supercomputer originally programmed to predict possible outcomes of nuclear war. Lightman gets WOPR to run a nuclear war simulation, believing it to be a computer game. The computer, now tied into the nuclear weapons control system and unable to tell the difference between simulation and reality, attempts to start World War III. The film was a box office success, costing $12 million and grossing $79 million after five months in the United States and Canada. The film was nominated for three Academy Awards
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Electronic Mail
Electronic Mail
Mail
(email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices. Email
Email
first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email
Email
operates across computer networks, which today is primarily the Internet. Some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email
Email
servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages
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Sony BMG CD Copy Prevention Scandal
A scandal erupted in 2005 regarding Sony BMG's implementation of deceptive, illegal, and harmful copy protection measures on about 22 million CDs. When inserted into a computer, the CDs installed one of two pieces of software which provided a form of digital rights management (DRM) by modifying the operating system to interfere with CD copying. Neither program could easily be uninstalled, and they created vulnerabilities that were exploited by unrelated malware. Sony claims this was unintentional
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