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Bacillus Subtilis
_BACILLUS SUBTILIS_, known also as the HAY BACILLUS or GRASS BACILLUS, is a Gram-positive , catalase -positive bacterium , found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans. A member of the genus _ Bacillus _, _B. subtilis_ is rod-shaped, and can form a tough, protective endospore , allowing it to tolerate extreme environmental conditions. _B. subtilis_ has historically been classified as an obligate aerobe , though evidence exists that it is a facultative aerobe . _B. subtilis_ is considered the best studied Gram-positive bacterium and a model organism to study bacterial chromosome replication and cell differentiation. It is one of the bacterial champions in secreted enzyme production and used on an industrial scale by biotechnology companies. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Habitat * 3 Reproduction * 4 Chromosomal replication * 5 Genome * 6 Transformation * 7 Uses * 7.1 1900s * 7.2 2000s * 8 Safety * 8.1 In animals * 8.2 In humans * 9 Identification * 10 See also * 11 References * 12 External links DESCRIPTION_ Bacillus subtilis_ is a Gram-positive bacterium, rod-shaped and catalase -positive. It was originally named _Vibrio subtilis_ by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg , and renamed _ Bacillus subtilis_ by Ferdinand Cohn in 1872 (subtilis being the Latin for 'fine')
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Transmission Electron Microscopy
TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (TEM, also sometimes CONVENTIONAL TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY or CTEM) is a microscopy technique in which a beam of electrons is transmitted through a specimen to form an image. The specimen is most often an ultrathin section less than 100 nm thick or a suspension on a grid. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the sample as the beam is transmitted through the specimen. The image is then magnified and focused onto an imaging device, such as a fluorescent screen, a layer of photographic film , or a sensor such as a charge-coupled device . Transmission electron microscopes are capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes , owing to the smaller de Broglie wavelength of electrons. This enables the instrument to capture fine detail—even as small as a single column of atoms, which is thousands of times smaller than a resolvable object seen in a light microscope. Transmission electron microscopy is a major analytical method in the physical, chemical and biological sciences. TEMs find application in cancer research , virology , and materials science as well as pollution , nanotechnology and semiconductor research. At lower magnifications TEM image contrast is due to differential absorption of electrons by the material due to differences in composition or thickness of the material
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Micrograph
A MICROGRAPH or PHOTOMICROGRAPH is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. MICROGRAPHY is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. The neuropathologist Solomon C. Fuller designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900. Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy. CONTENTS* 1 Types * 1.1 Photomicrograph * 1.2 Electron micrograph * 1.3 Digital micrography * 2 Magnification
Magnification
and micron bars * 3 Micrography as art * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links TYPESPHOTOMICROGRAPHA LIGHT MICROGRAPH or PHOTOMICROGRAPH is a micrograph prepared using an optical microscope , a process referred to as _photomicroscopy_. At a basic level, photomicroscopy may be performed simply by hooking up a regular camera to a microscope, thereby enabling the user to take photographs at reasonably high magnification
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Nanometer
The NANOMETRE (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures ; SI symbol: NM) or NANOMETER (American spelling ) is a unit of length in the metric system , equal to one billionth of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms . When used as a prefix for something other than a unit of measure (as in "nanoscience"), NANO refers to nanotechnology , or phenomena typically occurring on a scale of nanometres (see nanoscopic scale ). The nanometre is often used to express dimensions on an atomic scale: the diameter of a helium atom, for example, is about 0.1 nm, and that of a ribosome is about 20 nm. The nanometre is also commonly used to specify the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation near the visible part of the spectrum : visible light ranges from around 400 to 700 nm. The ångström, which is equal to 0.1 nm, was formerly used for these purposes, but is still used in other fields
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms . Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals . Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats . Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , and the deep portions of Earth\'s crust . Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals
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Firmicutes
The FIRMICUTES ( Latin
Latin
: _firmus_, strong, and _cutis_, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria , most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as _ Megasphaera _, _ Pectinatus _, _ Selenomonas _ and _ Zymophilus _, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative . Scientists once classified the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria . They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes
Firmicutes
produce endospores , which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria , produce energy through photosynthesis . Firmicutes
Firmicutes
play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage
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Bacilli
BACILLI refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria . It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales , which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis (the cause of anthrax ). All Bacilli
Bacilli
are gram-positive bacteria . CONTENTS * 1 Ambiguity * 2 Phylogeny * 2.1 Bacilli
Bacilli
part 2 (continued) * 3 References AMBIGUITYSeveral related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term " Bacillus
Bacillus
" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus ( Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli. The word "bacillus " (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli
Bacilli
or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli
Bacilli
are rod-shaped ( Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically)
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Bacillales
Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Pasteuriaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The BACILLALES are an order of Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
, placed within the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
. Representative genera include _ Bacillus
Bacillus
_, _Listeria _ and _ Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
_. REFERENCES * ^ Euzéby, J. P. "List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature". Retrieved March 24, 2014. * ^ George M. Garrity; Vos, P.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (September 15, 2009). _The Firmicutes_. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 3 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 1450. ISBN 978-0-387-95041-9 . British Library no. GBA561951
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Bacillaceae
Aeribacillus Alkalibacillus Amphibacillus Anoxybacillus Bacillus Caldalkalibacillus Cerasibacillus Exiguobacterium Filobacillus Geobacillus Gracilibacillus Halalkalibacillus Halobacillus Halolactibacillus Jeotgalibacillus Lentibacillus Lysinibacillus Marinibacillus Oceanobacillus Ornithinibacillus Paraliobacillus Paucisalibacillus Pelagibacillus Piscibacillus Pontibacillus Saccharococcus Salibacillus Salimicrobium Salinibacillus Salirhabdus Salsuginibacillus Tenuibacillus Terribacillus Thalassobacillus Ureibacillus Virgibacillus Vulcanibacillus The BACILLACEAE are a family of Gram-positive , heterotrophic , rod-shaped bacteria that may produce endospores . Motile members of this family are characterized by peritrichous flagella. Some Bacillaceae
Bacillaceae
are aerobic , while others are facultative or strict anaerobes . Most are not pathogenic , but Bacillus species are known to cause disease in humans. GRAM-VARIABLE CELL WALLSome Bacillaceae, such as the genera Filobacillus , Lentibacillus , and Halobacillus , stain Gram-negative or Gram-variable, but are known to have a Gram-positive cell wall
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Bacillus
B. acidiceler B. acidicola B. acidiproducens B. acidocaldarius B. acidoterrestris B. aeolius B. aerius B. aerophilus B. agaradhaerens B. agri B. aidingensis B. akibai B. alcalophilus B. algicola B. alginolyticus B. alkalidiazotrophicus B. alkalinitrilicus B. alkalisediminis B. alkalitelluris B. altitudinis B. alveayuensis B. alvei B. amyloliquefaciens * B. a. subsp. amyloliquefaciens * B. a. subsp. plantarumB. aminovorans B. amylolyticus B. andreesenii B. aneurinilyticus B. anthracis B. aquimaris B. arenosi B. arseniciselenatis B. arsenicus B. aurantiacus B. arvi B. aryabhattai B. asahii B. atrophaeus B. axarquiensis B. azotofixans B. azotoformans B. badius B. barbaricus B. bataviensis B. beijingensis B. benzoevorans B. beringensis B. berkeleyi B. beveridgei B. bogoriensis B. boroniphilus B. borstelensis B. brevis Migula B. butanolivorans B. canaveralius B. carboniphilus B. cecembensis B. cellulosilyticus B. centrosporus B. cereus B. chagannorensis B. chitinolyticus B. chondroitinus B. choshinensis B. chungangensis B. cibi B. circulans B. clarkii B. clausii B. coagulans B. coahuilensis B. cohnii B. composti B. curdlanolyticus B. cycloheptanicus B. cytotoxicus B. daliensis B. decisifrondis B. decolorationis B. deserti B. dipsosauri B. drentensis B. edaphicus B. ehimensis B. eiseniae B. enclensis B
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
CHRISTIAN GOTTFRIED EHRENBERG (19 April 1795 – 27 June 1876), German naturalist , zoologist , comparative anatomist , geologist , and microscopist , was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time. CONTENTS * 1 Early collections * 2 Focus on microscopic organisms * 3 Legacy * 4 Publications * 5 References * 6 External links EARLY COLLECTIONSThe son of a judge, Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg
was born in Delitzsch , near Leipzig
Leipzig
. He first studied theology at the University of Leipzig
Leipzig
, then medicine and natural sciences in Berlin
Berlin
and became a friend of the famous explorer Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
. In 1818, he completed his doctoral dissertation on fungi , Sylvae mycologicae Berolinenses. In 1820–1825, on a scientific expedition to the Middle East
Middle East
with his friend Wilhelm Hemprich , he collected thousands of specimens of plants and animals . He investigated parts of Egypt
Egypt
, the Libyan Desert , the Nile
Nile
valley and the northern coasts of the Red Sea
Red Sea
, where he made a special study of the corals . Subsequently parts of Syria
Syria
, Arabia
Arabia
and Abyssinia were examined
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature , a SYNONYM is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name, although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature. For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies
Picea abies
. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription , position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature ). A synonym cannot exist in isolation: it is always an alternative to a different scientific name. Given that the correct name of a taxon depends on the taxonomic viewpoint used (resulting in a particular circumscription, position and rank) a name that is one taxonomist's synonym may be another taxonomist's correct name (and vice versa). Synonyms may arise whenever the same taxon is described and named more than once, independently
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Bacillus Atrophaeus
BACILLUS ATROPHAEUS is a species of black-pigmented bacteria. Its type strain is NRRL NRS-213. B. atrophaeus strains have been used extensively in biomedicine as indicator strains for heat- and chemical-based decontamination regimens. Most of the strains in use are derivatives of a lineage of B. atrophaeus that originated at Camp Detrick in the 1950s, where many modern biocontainment procedures were developed. B. atrophaeus has historically been known by several other names, including B. globigii (the origin of its military moniker "BG") and B. subtilis var. niger. Modern phylogenetic analyses using multiple genetic methods have placed B. atrophaeus close to B. subtilis . Its original and still most prominent use is as a surrogate organism for pathogenic B. anthracis, beginning in the U.S. bio-weapons program , as its pigmentation readily facilitated discrimination from non-pigmented background organisms in environmental samples. Subsequent genomic and phenotypic analysis of strains derived from the Camp Detrick isolates revealed that they had been deliberately selected for strains that exhibited elevated rates of sporulation. REFERENCES * ^ Nakamura, L. K. (1989). "Taxonomic Relationship of Black-pigmented Bacillus subtilis Strains and a Proposal for Bacillus atrophaeus sp. nov.". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 39 (3): 295–300. ISSN 0020-7713 . doi :10.1099/00207713-39-3-295 . * ^ Wedum, Arnold
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Gram-positive
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope. This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test. Gram-negative bacteria cannot retain the violet stain after the decolorization step; alcohol used in this stage degrades the outer membrane of gram-negative cells making the cell wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal violet stain. Their peptidoglycan layer is much thinner and sandwiched between an inner cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane , causing them to take up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine ) and appear red or pink. Despite their thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram-positive bacteria are more receptive to antibiotics than gram-negative, due to the absence of the outer membrane
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