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Bacillus Anthracis
BACILLUS ANTHRACIS is the etiologic agent of anthrax —a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus . B. anthracis is a Gram-positive , endospore -forming, rod-shaped bacterium , with a width of 1.0–1.2 µm and a length of 3–5 µm. It can be grown in an ordinary nutrient medium under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. B. anthracis belongs to the B. cereus group of strains. Structure of B. anthracis It is one of few bacteria known to synthesize a protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid). Like Bordetella pertussis , it forms a calmodulin -dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as Anthrax edema factor , along with anthrax lethal factor . It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis . All three species share cellular dimensions and morphology . All form oval spores located centrally in an unswollen sporangium . B. anthracis endospores, in particular, are highly resilient, surviving extremes of temperature, low-nutrient environments, and harsh chemical treatment over decades or centuries. The endospore is a dehydrated cell with thick walls and additional layers that form inside the cell membrane. It can remain inactive for many years, but if it comes into a favorable environment, it begins to grow again. It initially develops inside the rod-shaped form
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Taxonomy (biology)
TAXONOMY (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis ), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method ') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank ; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. The Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus is regarded as the father of taxonomy, as he developed a system known as Linnaean taxonomy for categorization of organisms and binomial nomenclature for naming organisms. With the advent of such fields of study as phylogenetics , cladistics , and systematics , the Linnaean system
Linnaean system
has progressed to a system of modern biological classification based on the evolutionary relationships between organisms, both living and extinct
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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms . Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes , ranging from spheres to rods and spirals . Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth , and are present in most of its habitats . Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs , radioactive waste , and the deep portions of Earth\'s crust . Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals
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Firmicutes
The FIRMICUTES ( Latin
Latin
: _firmus_, strong, and _cutis_, skin, referring to the cell wall) are a phylum of bacteria , most of which have Gram-positive cell wall structure. A few, however, such as _ Megasphaera _, _ Pectinatus _, _ Selenomonas _ and _ Zymophilus _, have a porous pseudo-outer membrane that causes them to stain Gram-negative . Scientists once classified the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
to include all Gram-positive bacteria, but have recently defined them to be of a core group of related forms called the low-G+C group, in contrast to the Actinobacteria . They have round cells, called cocci (singular coccus), or rod-like forms (bacillus). Many Firmicutes
Firmicutes
produce endospores , which are resistant to desiccation and can survive extreme conditions. They are found in various environments, and the group includes some notable pathogens. Those in one family, the heliobacteria , produce energy through photosynthesis . Firmicutes
Firmicutes
play an important role in beer, wine, and cider spoilage
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Bacilli
BACILLI refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria . It includes two orders, Bacillales and Lactobacillales , which contain several well-known pathogens such as Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis (the cause of anthrax ). All Bacilli
Bacilli
are gram-positive bacteria . CONTENTS * 1 Ambiguity * 2 Phylogeny * 2.1 Bacilli
Bacilli
part 2 (continued) * 3 References AMBIGUITYSeveral related concepts make use of similar words, and the ambiguity can create considerable confusion. The term " Bacillus
Bacillus
" (capitalized and italicized) is also the name of a genus ( Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis) that, among many other genera, falls within the class Bacilli. The word "bacillus " (or its plural "bacilli", with a small b) is also a generic term to describe the morphology of any rod-shaped bacterium. This general term does not mean that the subject is a member of class Bacilli
Bacilli
or genus Bacillus. Thus, it does not necessarily imply a similar group of characteristics. Not all members of class Bacilli
Bacilli
are rod-shaped ( Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
is spherical), and many other rod-shaped bacteria that do not fall within that class exist (e.g., Clostridium kamina dalla kotta is rod-shaped but very different taxonomically)
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Bacillales
Alicyclobacillaceae Bacillaceae Caryophanaceae Listeriaceae Paenibacillaceae Pasteuriaceae Planococcaceae Sporolactobacillaceae Staphylococcaceae Thermoactinomycetaceae Turicibacteraceae The BACILLALES are an order of Gram-positive bacteria
Gram-positive bacteria
, placed within the Firmicutes
Firmicutes
. Representative genera include _ Bacillus
Bacillus
_, _Listeria _ and _ Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus
_. REFERENCES * ^ Euzéby, J. P. "List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature". Retrieved March 24, 2014. * ^ George M. Garrity; Vos, P.; Garrity, G.; Jones, D.; Krieg, N.R.; Ludwig, W.; Rainey, F.A.; Schleifer, K.-H.; Whitman, W.B. (September 15, 2009). _The Firmicutes_. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 3 (2nd ed.). New York: Springer. p. 1450. ISBN 978-0-387-95041-9 . British Library no. GBA561951
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Bacillaceae
Aeribacillus Alkalibacillus Amphibacillus Anoxybacillus Bacillus Caldalkalibacillus Cerasibacillus Exiguobacterium Filobacillus Geobacillus Gracilibacillus Halalkalibacillus Halobacillus Halolactibacillus Jeotgalibacillus Lentibacillus Lysinibacillus Marinibacillus Oceanobacillus Ornithinibacillus Paraliobacillus Paucisalibacillus Pelagibacillus Piscibacillus Pontibacillus Saccharococcus Salibacillus Salimicrobium Salinibacillus Salirhabdus Salsuginibacillus Tenuibacillus Terribacillus Thalassobacillus Ureibacillus Virgibacillus Vulcanibacillus The BACILLACEAE are a family of Gram-positive , heterotrophic , rod-shaped bacteria that may produce endospores . Motile members of this family are characterized by peritrichous flagella. Some Bacillaceae
Bacillaceae
are aerobic , while others are facultative or strict anaerobes . Most are not pathogenic , but Bacillus species are known to cause disease in humans. GRAM-VARIABLE CELL WALLSome Bacillaceae, such as the genera Filobacillus , Lentibacillus , and Halobacillus , stain Gram-negative or Gram-variable, but are known to have a Gram-positive cell wall
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Bacillus
B. acidiceler B. acidicola B. acidiproducens B. acidocaldarius B. acidoterrestris B. aeolius B. aerius B. aerophilus B. agaradhaerens B. agri B. aidingensis B. akibai B. alcalophilus B. algicola B. alginolyticus B. alkalidiazotrophicus B. alkalinitrilicus B. alkalisediminis B. alkalitelluris B. altitudinis B. alveayuensis B. alvei B. amyloliquefaciens * B. a. subsp. amyloliquefaciens * B. a. subsp. plantarumB. aminovorans B. amylolyticus B. andreesenii B. aneurinilyticus B. anthracis B. aquimaris B. arenosi B. arseniciselenatis B. arsenicus B. aurantiacus B. arvi B. aryabhattai B. asahii B. atrophaeus B. axarquiensis B. azotofixans B. azotoformans B. badius B. barbaricus B. bataviensis B. beijingensis B. benzoevorans B. beringensis B. berkeleyi B. beveridgei B. bogoriensis B. boroniphilus B. borstelensis B. brevis Migula B. butanolivorans B. canaveralius B. carboniphilus B. cecembensis B. cellulosilyticus B. centrosporus B. cereus B. chagannorensis B. chitinolyticus B. chondroitinus B. choshinensis B. chungangensis B. cibi B. circulans B. clarkii B. clausii B. coagulans B. coahuilensis B. cohnii B. composti B. curdlanolyticus B. cycloheptanicus B. cytotoxicus B. daliensis B. decisifrondis B. decolorationis B. deserti B. dipsosauri B. drentensis B. edaphicus B. ehimensis B. eiseniae B. enclensis B
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Binomial Nomenclature
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE (also called BINOMINAL NOMENCLATURE or BINARY NOMENCLATURE) is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms , although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a BINOMIAL NAME (which may be shortened to just "binomial"), a BINOMEN, BINOMINAL NAME or a SCIENTIFIC NAME; more informally it is also called a LATIN NAME. The first part of the name identifies the genus to which the species belongs; the second part identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong to the genus _ Homo _ and within this genus to the species _ Homo sapiens _. The _formal_ introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus , effectively beginning with his work _ Species Plantarum _ in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin , in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book _Pinax theatri botanici_ (English, _Illustrated exposition of plants_) many names of genera that were later adopted by Linnaeus. The application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the _ International Code of Zoological Nomenclature _ (_ICZN_) for animals and the _International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants _ (_ICN_)
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Etiology
ETIOLOGY (/iːtiˈɒlədʒi/ ; alternatively AETIOLOGY or æTIOLOGY) is the study of causation , or origination. The word is derived from the Greek αἰτιολογία, _aitiologia_, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία, _aitia_, "cause"; and -λογία, _-logia_). The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy , physics , psychology , government , geography , spatial analysis , medicine , theology , and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena . An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family, an origin story. CONTENTS * 1 Medicine
Medicine
* 2 Mythology
Mythology
* 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links MEDICINE Main article: Cause (medicine) In medicine, etiology refers to the many factors coming together to cause an illness. It is normally the focus of epidemiological studies. The etiology of scurvy is a good example. With scurvy, sailors going to sea often lacked fresh vegetables. Without knowing the precise cause, Captain James Cook suspected scurvy was caused by the lack of vegetables in the diet
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Anthrax
ANTHRAX is an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis
Bacillus anthracis
. It can occur in four forms: skin, lungs, intestinal, and injection. Symptoms begin between one day and two months after the infection is contracted. The skin form presents with a small blister with surrounding swelling that often turns into a painless ulcer with a black center. The inhalation form presents with fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath . The intestinal form presents with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or abdominal pain. The injection form presents with fever and an abscess at the site of drug injection . Anthrax
Anthrax
is spread by contact with the spores of the bacteria , which are often from infectious animal products. Contact is by breathing, eating, or through an area of broken skin. It does not typically spread directly between people. Risk factors include people who work with animals or animal products, travelers, postal workers, and military personnel. Diagnosis can be confirmed based on finding antibodies or the toxin in the blood or by culture of a sample from the infected site. Anthrax
Anthrax
vaccination is recommended for people who are at high risk. Immunizing animals against anthrax is recommended in areas where previous infections have occurred. Two months of antibiotics, such as doxycycline or ciprofloxacin , after exposure can also prevent infection
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Obligate
As an adjective, OBLIGATE means "by necessity" (antonym facultative ) and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as: * Obligate aerobe , an organism that cannot survive without oxygen * Obligate anaerobe , an organism that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen * Obligate air-breather, a term used in fish physiology to describe those that respire entirely from the atmosphere * Obligate biped, Bipedalism designed to walk on two legs * Obligate carnivore , an organism dependent for survival on a diet of animal flesh. * Obligate hibernation , a state of inactivity in which some organisms survive conditions of insufficiently available resources. * Obligate intracellular parasite , a parasitic microorganism that cannot reproduce without entering a suitable host cell * Obligate parasite , a parasite that cannot reproduce without exploiting a suitable host * Obligate photoperiodic plant , a plant that requires sufficiently long or short nights before it initiates flowering, germination or similarly functions * Obligate symbionts, organisms that can only live together in a symbiosis SEE ALSO * Opportunism (Biology) Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Obligate additional terms may apply
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Pathogen
In biology , a PATHOGEN (Greek : πάθος _pathos_ "suffering, passion" and -γενής _-genēs_ "producer of") in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease ; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus , bacterium , protozoa , prion , a fungus , or other micro-organism. There are several substrates including _pathways_ where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases. CONTENTS* 1 Pathogenicity * 1.1 Context-dependent pathogenicity * 1.2 Related concepts * 1.2.1 Virulence * 1.2.2 Transmission * 2 Types of pathogens * 2.1 Bacterial * 2.2 Viral * 2.3 Fungal * 2.4 Prionic * 2.5 Other parasites * 2.6 Algal * 3 Treatment and health care * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PATHOGENICITYPATHOGENICITY is the potential disease -causing capacity of pathogens. Pathogenicity is related to virulence in meaning, but some authorities have come to distinguish it as a _qualitative_ term, whereas the latter is _quantitative_. By this standard, an organism may be said to be pathogenic or non-pathogenic in a particular context, but not "more pathogenic" than another
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Gram-positive
GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA are bacteria that give a positive result in the Gram stain test, which is traditionally used to quickly classify bacteria into two broad categories according to their cell wall. Gram-positive bacteria take up the crystal violet stain used in the test, and then appear to be purple-coloured when seen through a microscope. This is because the thick peptidoglycan layer in the bacterial cell wall retains the stain after it is washed away from the rest of the sample, in the decolorization stage of the test. Gram-negative bacteria cannot retain the violet stain after the decolorization step; alcohol used in this stage degrades the outer membrane of gram-negative cells making the cell wall more porous and incapable of retaining the crystal violet stain. Their peptidoglycan layer is much thinner and sandwiched between an inner cell membrane and a bacterial outer membrane , causing them to take up the counterstain (safranin or fuchsine ) and appear red or pink. Despite their thicker peptidoglycan layer, gram-positive bacteria are more receptive to antibiotics than gram-negative, due to the absence of the outer membrane
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Endospore
An ENDOSPORE is a dormant , tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum. The name "endospore" is suggestive of a spore or seed-like form (endo means within), but it is not a true spore (i.e., not an offspring). It is a stripped-down, dormant form to which the bacterium can reduce itself. Endospore
Endospore
formation is usually triggered by a lack of nutrients, and usually occurs in gram-positive bacteria . In endospore formation, the bacterium divides within its cell wall. One side then engulfs the other. Endospores enable bacteria to lie dormant for extended periods, even centuries. Revival of spores millions of years old has been claimed. When the environment becomes more favorable, the endospore can reactivate itself to the vegetative state. Most types of bacteria cannot change to the endospore form. Examples of bacteria that can form endospores include Bacillus
Bacillus
and Clostridium . The endospore consists of the bacterium's DNA, ribosomes and large amounts of dipicolinic acid . Dipicolinic acid
Dipicolinic acid
is a spore-specific chemical that appears to help in the ability for endospores to maintain dormancy. This chemical comprises up to 10% of the spore's dry weight. Endospores can survive without nutrients
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Bacterium
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes
Firmicutes
(low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres
Fibrobacteres
Chlorobi
Chlorobi
( FCB group
FCB group
) Chlamydiae
Chlamydiae
Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae
Chlamydiae
( PVC group ) Proteobacteria
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria
Acidobacteria
Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres