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Bacillus Anthracis
Bacillus
Bacillus
anthracis is the etiologic agent of anthrax—a common disease of livestock and, occasionally, of humans—and the only obligate pathogen within the genus Bacillus.[1] B. anthracis is a Gram-positive, endospore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium, with a width of 1.0–1.2 µm and a length of 3–5 µm.[1] It can be grown in an ordinary nutrient medium under aerobic or anaerobic conditions.[2]B. anthracis belongs to the B. cereus group of strains.Structure of B. anthracisIt is one of few bacteria known to synthesize a protein capsule (poly-D-gamma-glutamic acid). Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as anthrax edema factor, along with anthrax lethal factor. It bears close genotypical and phenotypical resemblance to Bacillus
Bacillus
cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. All three species share cellular dimensions and morphology
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Taxonomy (biology)
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Aloys Pollender
Franz Anton Aloys Pollender
Aloys Pollender
(26 January 1799 – 17 August 1879) was a German physician who is credited with the discovery of the etiology of anthrax.Authority controlWorldCat Identities VIAF: 22888855 GND: 116264691This article about a German person in the field of medicine is a stub. You can help by expandi
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Spore
In biology, a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants, algae, fungi and protozoa.[1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula.[2] Spores are usually haploid and unicellular and are produced by meiosis in the sporangium of a diploid sporophyte. Under favourable conditions the spore can develop into a new organism using mitotic division, producing a multicellular gametophyte, which eventually goes on to produce gametes. Two gametes fuse to form a zygote which develops into a new sporophyte
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Sporangium
A sporangium (pl., sporangia[1]) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.[2] It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular. All plants, fungi, and many other lineages form sporangia at some point in their life cycle. Sporangia can produce spores by mitosis, but in nearly all land plants and many fungi, sporangia are the site of meiosis and produce genetically distinct haploid spores.Contents1 Fungi 2 Land plants2.1 Eusporangia and leptosporangia 2.2 Synangium3 Internal structures 4 See also 5 ReferencesFungi[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2016)The structure that contains the spores in fungal species. Land plants[edit] In mosses, liverworts and hornworts, an unbranched sporophyte produces a single sporangium, which may be quite complex morphologically
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Dipicolinic Acid
Dipicolinic acid
Dipicolinic acid
(pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid or PDC and DPA) is a chemical compound which composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores.[2][3] It is implicated as responsible for the heat resistance of the endospore.[2][4] However, mutants resistant to heat but lacking dipicolinic acid have been isolated, suggesting other mechanisms contributing to heat resistance are at work.[5] Dipicolinic acid
Dipicolinic acid
forms a complex with calcium ions within the endospore core. This complex binds free water molecules, causing dehydration of the spore. As a result, the heat resistance of macromolecules within the core increases
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United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe
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Imperial Japan
The Empire of Japan
Japan
(大日本帝國, Dai Nippon Teikoku, literally meaning "Great Japanese Empire")[9] was the historical nation-state[nb 2] and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.[1] Japan's rapid industrialization and militarization under the slogan Fukoku Kyōhei (富國強兵, "Enrich the Country, Strengthen the Armed Forces") led to its emergence as a world power and the establishment of a colonial empire
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United States
Coordinates: 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of AmericaFlagGreat SealMotto:  "In God
God
We Trust"[1][fn 1]Other traditional mottos  "E pluribus unum" (Latin) (de facto) "Out of many, one" "Annuit cœptis" (Latin) "He h
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Iraq
Coordinates: 33°N 44°E / 33°N 44°E / 33; 44 Republic
Republic
of Iraqجمهورية العراق (Arabic) کۆماری عێراق (Kurdish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: الله أكبر (Arabic) "Allahu Akbar" (transliteration) "God is the Greatest"Anthem: "Mawtini" "موطني" (English: "My Homeland")Capital and largest city Baghdad 33°20′N 44°26′E / 33.333°N 44.433°E / 33.333; 44.433Official languagesArabic KurdishReligion IslamDemonym IraqiGovernment Federal parliamentary republic•&#
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Greek Language
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά [eliniˈka], elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα [eliniˈci ˈɣlosa] ( listen), ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece
Greece
and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean
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Genotypical
The genotype is the part of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines one of its characteristics (phenotype).[1] The term was coined by the Danish botanist, plant physiologist and geneticist Wilhelm Johannsen in 1903.[2] Genotype is one of three factors that determine phenotype, along with inherited epigenetic factors and non-inherited environmental factors. Not all organisms with the same genotype look or act the same way because appearance and behavior are modified by environmental and growing conditions. Likewise, not all organisms that look alike necessarily have the same genotype. One's genotype differs subtly from one's genomic sequence, because it refers to how an individual differs or is specialized within a group of individuals or a species
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Cutaneous
Skin
Skin
is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates. Other animal coverings, such as the arthropod exoskeleton, have different developmental origin, structure and chemical composition. The adjective cutaneous means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
cutis, skin). In mammals, the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue, and guards the underlying muscles, bones, ligaments and internal organs. Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians, reptiles, and birds.[1] All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales, dolphins, and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors
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Lesion
A lesion is any abnormal damage or change in the tissue of an organism, usually caused by disease or trauma. It is also seen as a cell. Lesion is derived from the Latin laesio "injury".[1] Lesions may occur in plants as well as animals.Contents1 Types1.1 Location 1.2 Cause and behavior 1.3 Size and shape2 Research using lesions2.1 Research with humans 2.2 Research with animals3 Notable lesions 4 See also 5 ReferencesTypes[edit] There is no designated classification or naming convention for lesions. Because the definition of a lesion is so broad, the varieties of lesions are virtually endless. Although most frequently found in the mouth, on the skin, and in the brain, or anywhere where a tumor may occur,[citation needed] lesions can occur anywhere in the body that comprises soft tissue or osseous matter. Generally, lesions may be classified by their patterns, their sizes, their locations, or their causes
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Replicon (genetics)
A replicon is a DNA molecule or RNA molecule, or a region of DNA or RNA, that replicates from a single origin of replication.Contents1 Prokaryotes 2 Eukaryotes 3 See also 4 ReferencesProkaryotes[edit] For most prokaryotic chromosomes, the replicon is the entire chromosome. One notable exception found comes from archaea, where two Sulfolobus species have been shown to contain three replicons. Examples of bacterial species that have been found to possess multiple replicons include: Rhodobacter sphaeroides (2), Vibrio cholerae,[1] and Burkholderia multivorans (3). These "secondary" (or tertiary) chromosomes are often described as a molecule that is a mixture between a true chromosome and a plasmid and are sometimes called "chromids"
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