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BL 60-pounder Gun
The Ordnance BL 60-pounder[6] was a British 5 inch (127 mm) heavy field gun designed in 1903–05 to provide a new capability that had been partially met by the interim QF 4.7 inch Gun. It was designed for both horse draft and mechanical traction and served throughout the First World War
First World War
in the main theatres
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Ernest Brooks (photographer)
Ernest Brooks (23 February 1876 — 1957) was a British photographer, best known for his war photography from the First World War. He was the first official photographer to be appointed by the British military, and produced several thousand images between 1915 and 1918, more than a tenth of all British official photographs taken during the war
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Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army,[a] frequently shortened to Red Army,[b] was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established immediately after the 1917 October Revolution. The Bolsheviks
Bolsheviks
raised an army to oppose the military confederations (especially the various groups collectively known as the White Army) of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; taking the official name of "Soviet Army", until its dissolution in December 1991
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Pound (mass)
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. Various definitions have been used; the most common today is the international avoirdupois pound, which is legally defined as exactly 6999453592370000000♠0.45359237 kilograms, and which is divided into 16 avoirdupois ounces.[1] The international standard symbol for the avoirdupois pound is lb;[2] an alternative symbol is lbm[3] (for most pound definitions), # (chiefly in the U.S.), and ℔[4] or ″̶[5] (specifically for the apothecaries' pound). The unit is descended from the Roman libra (hence the abbreviation "lb"). The English word pound is cognate with, among others, German Pfund, Dutch pond, and Swedish pund
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Tonne
The tonne (/tʌn/ (listen); non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States and Canada, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms[1][2][3][4] or one megagram (symbol: Mg)
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Horse
at least 48 publishedThe horse (Equus ferus caballus)[2][3] is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus. It is an odd-toed ungulate mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature, Eohippus, into the large, single-toed animal of today. Humans began to domesticate horses around 4000 BC, and their domestication is believed to have been widespread by 3000 BC. Horses in the subspecies caballus are domesticated, although some domesticated populations live in the wild as feral horses. These feral populations are not true wild horses, as this term is used to describe horses that have never been domesticated, such as the endangered Przewalski's horse, a separate subspecies, and the only remaining true wild horse
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Holt Tractor
The Holt tractors were a range of continuous track haulers built by the Holt Manufacturing Company, which was named after Benjamin Holt. Between 1908 and 1913, twenty-seven of the first 100 Holt caterpillar track-type tractors were used on the Los Angeles Aqueduct
Los Angeles Aqueduct
project, which provided a good proving ground for these machines.[1]Contents1 Military Use 2 Specification 3 Literature 4 References 5 External linksMilitary Use[edit] They were most famously used by the British, French and Ame
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Palestine Campaign
 British Empire Australia  New Zealand  South Africa  India  Southern Rhodesia France  Italy Hejaz  Ottoman Empire German Empire  Austria-HungaryCommanders and leaders Sir John Maxwell (to March 1916) Sir Archibald Murray
Sir Archibald Murray
(to June 1917) Edmund Allenby
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Mesopotamian Campaign
British Empire United Kingdom Australia  India New Zealand Kuwait
Kuwait
(1914)[1]  Ottoman Empire German EmpireCommanders and leaders John Nixon Percy Lake Frederick Maude Charles Townshend (POW) Mubarak Al-Sabah Sir George Younghusband Süleyman Askerî Bey Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz
Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz
(died of typhus) Nureddin Bey Khalil Pasha Kâzım Karabekir Ali İhsan PashaStrength889,702 (total)[2]447,531 (peak)[3][4]c
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Libyan Desert
The Libyan Desert
Desert
forms the northern and eastern part of the Sahara Desert. It describes that part of the Sahara
Sahara
that lies within the present-day state of Libya; it also historically describes the desert to the south of Ancient Libya, a territory which lay to the east of the present-day state. The Libyan Desert
Desert
is one of the driest, harshest and most remote parts of the Sahara, the world's largest hot desert. This extended desert country is barren, dry and rainless.Contents1 Geography 2 Climate 3 History3.1 Historical desert 3.2 World
World
War I 3.3 Modern exploration 3.4 World
World
War II4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksGeography[edit] Modern Libya
Libya
is divided into the regions of Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and the Fezzan
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Cordite
Cordite
Cordite
is a family of smokeless propellants developed and produced in the United Kingdom since 1889 to replace gunpowder as a military propellant. Like gunpowder, cordite is classified as a low explosive because of its slow burning rates and consequently low brisance. These produce a subsonic deflagration wave rather than the supersonic detonation wave produced by brisants, or high explosives. The hot gases produced by burning gunpowder or cordite generate sufficient pressure to propel a bullet or shell to its target, but not so quickly as to routinely destroy the barrel of the gun. Cordite
Cordite
was used initially in the .303 British, Mark I and II, standard rifle cartridge between 1891 and 1915; shortages of cordite in World War I
World War I
led to United States–developed smokeless powders being imported into the UK for use in rifle cartridges
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Shrapnel Shell
Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and then ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. They relied almost entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality. The munition has been obsolete since the end of World War I
World War I
for anti-personnel use, when it was superseded by high-explosive shells for that role. The functioning and principles behind Shrapnel shells are fundamentally different from high-explosive shell fragmentation
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Historical Military Museum Of Cartagena (Spain)
The Museo Histórico Militar de Cartagena (Historical Military Museum of Cartagena) is a military museum dedicated to Spanish Army History, and is located in Cartagena, SpainContents1 The Building 2 History of the building 3 Units 4 Wars 5 The museum5.1 Patio 5.2 Ground floor 5.3 First floor6 Association of Friends of the Museum 7 Record of the MuseumThe Building[edit] Originally rectangular in shape, it had an area of 17,302 m2, formed by four pavilions and a central one that divided it into two bodies with its two courtyards
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Polish-Soviet War
Polish victoryPeace of RigaTerritorial changes Poland
Poland
re-takes control of present-day western Ukraine
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QF 4.7 Inch Gun Mk I-IV
Naval: United Kingdom Kingdom of Italy Empire of Japan Canada Field: United Kingdom Canada Union of South Africa Australia Coast defence: United Kingdom United States CanadaWars Second Boer War First World WarProduction historyDesigner Elswick OrdnanceDesigned ca
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Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museums
Imperial War Museums
(IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London. Founded as the Imperial War Museum
Imperial War Museum
in 1917, the museum was intended to record the civil and military war effort and sacrifice of Britain and its Empire during the First World War. The museum's remit has since expanded to include all conflicts in which British or Commonwealth forces have been involved since 1914. As of 2012, the museum aims "to provide for, and to encourage, the study and understanding of the history of modern war and 'wartime experience'."[2] Originally housed in the Crystal Palace at Sydenham Hill, the museum opened to the public in 1920
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