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BIOS
For IBM PC compatible
IBM PC compatible
computers, BIOS
BIOS
(/ˈbaɪɒs/ BY-oss; an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS
BIOS
or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.[1] The BIOS
BIOS
firmware comes pre-installed on a personal computer's system board, and it is the first software run when powered on. The name originates from the Basic Input/Output System used in the CP/M operating system in 1975.[2][3] Originally proprietary to the IBM PC, the BIOS
BIOS
has been reverse engineered by companies looking to create compatible systems
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Lawrence Livermore Laboratories
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
(LLNL) is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), it is primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy
Energy
(DOE) and managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a partnership of the University of California, Bechtel, BWX Technologies, AECOM, and Battelle Memorial Institute
Battelle Memorial Institute
in affiliation with the Texas A&M University System
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PL/M
The PL/M programming language (an acronym of Programming Language for Microcomputers[2][3]) is a high-level language conceived and developed by Gary Kildall[2][3][4][1] in 1973[2][3] for Hank Smith[2][3] at Intel
Intel
for its microprocessors. The language incorporated ideas from PL/I, ALGOL[citation needed] and XPL,[2][3] and had an integrated macro processor. Unlike other contemporary languages such as Pascal, C or BASIC, PL/M had no standard input or output routines. It included features targeted at the low-level hardware specific to the target microprocessors, and as such, it could support direct access to any location in memory, I/O ports and the processor interrupt flags in a very efficient manner. PL/M was the first higher level programming language for microprocessor-based computers and was the original implementation language for the CP/M
CP/M
operating system
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IO.SYS
IO.SYS is an essential part of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Windows 9x. It contains the default MS-DOS
MS-DOS
device drivers (hardware interfacing routines) and the DOS initialization program.Contents1 Boot sequence 2 Disk layout requirements 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBoot sequence[edit] In the PC bootup sequence, the first sector of the boot disk is loaded into memory and executed. If this is the DOS boot sector, it loads the first three sectors of IO.SYS into memory and transfers control to it. IO.SYS then:Loads the rest of itself into memory. Initializes each default device driver in turn (console, disk, serial port, etc..). At this point, the default devices are available. Loads the DOS kernel and calls its initialization routine. The kernel is stored in MSDOS.SYS with MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and in IO.SYS with Windows 9x
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DOS I/O System
IO.SYS is an essential part of MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and Windows 9x. It contains the default MS-DOS
MS-DOS
device drivers (hardware interfacing routines) and the DOS initialization program.Contents1 Boot sequence 2 Disk layout requirements 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBoot sequence[edit] In the PC bootup sequence, the first sector of the boot disk is loaded into memory and executed. If this is the DOS boot sector, it loads the first three sectors of IO.SYS into memory and transfers control to it. IO.SYS then:Loads the rest of itself into memory. Initializes each default device driver in turn (console, disk, serial port, etc..). At this point, the default devices are available. Loads the DOS kernel and calls its initialization routine. The kernel is stored in MSDOS.SYS with MS-DOS
MS-DOS
and in IO.SYS with Windows 9x
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Chipset
In a computer system, a chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals. It is usually found on the motherboard. Chipsets are usually designed to work with a specific family of microprocessors. Because it controls communications between the processor and external devices, the chipset plays a crucial role in determining system performance. Intel
Intel
ICH7 Southbridge on Intel
Intel
D945GCPE Desktop BoardContents1 Computers 2 Move toward processor integration in PCs 3 See also 4 NotesComputers[edit] In computing, the term chipset commonly refers to a set of specialized chips on a computer's motherboard or an expansion card
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Input/Output
In computing, input/output or I/O (or, informally, io or IO) is the communication between an information processing system, such as a computer, and the outside world, possibly a human or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation. I/O devices are the pieces of hardware used by a human (or other system) to communicate with a computer. For instance, a keyboard or computer mouse is an input device for a computer, while monitors and printers are output devices. Devices for communication between computers, such as modems and network cards, typically perform both input and output operations. The designation of a device as either input or output depends on perspective
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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing
Time-sharing
operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage, printing, and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it
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Omron Of America
$ 8.279 billion USD (FY 2015) (¥ 833.60 billion JPY) (FY 2015)Net income $ 453 Million USD (FY 2015) (¥ 45.64 billion JPY) (FY 2015)Number of employees39427 (June 2015)Website Official websiteFootnotes / references [1][2][3] Omron
Omron
Corporation (オムロン株式会社, Omuron Kabushiki-gaisha) is an electronics company based in Kyoto, Japan. Omron
Omron
was established by Kazuma Tateishi (立石一真) in 1933 (as the Tateishi Electric Manufacturing Company) and incorporated in 1948. The company originated in an area of Kyoto
Kyoto
called "Omuro (御室)", from which the name "OMRON" was derived. Prior to 1990, the corporation was known as Omron
Omron
Tateisi Electronics
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De Facto Standard
A de facto standard is a custom or convention that has achieved a dominant position by public acceptance or market forces (for example, by early entrance to the market). De facto is a Latin phrase that means in fact (literally by or from fact) in the sense of "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established", as opposed to de jure. The term de facto standard is used in contrast with obligatory standards (also known as "de jure standards"); or to express the dominant voluntary standard, when there is more than one standard available for the same use. In social sciences, a voluntary standard that is also a de facto standard is a typical solution to a coordination problem.[1] The choice of a de facto standard tends to be stable in situations in which all parties can realize mutual gains, but only by making mutually consistent decisions
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Interface (computing)
In computing, an interface is a shared boundary across which two or more separate components of a computer system exchange information. The exchange can be between software, computer hardware, peripheral devices, humans and combinations of these. Some computer hardware devices, such as a touchscreen, can both send and receive data through the interface, while others such as a mouse or microphone may only provide an interface to send data to a given system.[1]Contents1 Hardware interfaces 2 Software
Software
Interfaces2.1 Software
Software
interfaces in practice 2.2 Software
Software
interfaces in object-oriented languages 2.3 Programming to the interface3 User interfaces 4 See also 5 ReferencesHardware interfaces[edit] Main article: hardware interface Hardware interfaces exist in many of the components, such as the various buses, storage devices, other I/O
I/O
devices, etc
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Octopus (network)
Packet switching
Packet switching
is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload. Data in the header is used by networking hardware to direct the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software
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Proprietary Software
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code,[1] but sometimes patent rights.[2]Contents1 Software becoming proprietary 2 Legal basis2.1 Limitations3 Exclusive rights3.1 Use of the software 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code 3.3 Redistribution4 Interoperability with software and hardware4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols 4.2 Proprietary APIs 4.3 Vendor lock-in 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations5 Abandonment by owners 6 Formerly open-source software 7 Pricing and economics 8 Examples 9 See also 10 ReferencesSoftware becoming proprietary[edit] Until the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe co
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IMSAI
IMS Associates, Inc., or IMSAI, was a microcomputer company, responsible for one of the earliest successes in personal computing, the IMSAI 8080. The company was founded in 1973 by William Millard and was based in San Leandro, California.[1] Their first product launch was the IMSAI 8080 in 1975. One of the company's subsidiaries was the ill-fated ComputerLand.[2] IMS stood for "Information Management Sciences".[3] IMS Associates required all executives and key employees to take the EST Standard Training
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DIP Switch
A DIP switch
DIP switch
is a manual electric switch that is packaged with others in a group in a standard dual in-line package (DIP). The term may refer to each individual switch, or to the unit as a whole. This type of switch is designed to be used on a printed circuit board along with other electronic components and is commonly used to customize the behavior of an electronic device for specific situations. DIP switches are an alternative to jumper blocks. Their main advantages are that they are quicker to change and there are no parts to lose. The DIP switch
DIP switch
with sliding levers was granted US Patent 4012608 in 1976.[1] It was applied for 1974 and was used in 1977 in an ATARI Flipper game.[2] Types[edit] There are many different kinds of DIP switches
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