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BBC Symphony Orchestra
An orchestra (/ˈɔːrkɪstrə/ or US: /ˈɔːrˌkɛstrə/; Italian: [orˈkɛstra]) is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections. Other instruments such as the piano and celesta may sometimes appear in a fifth keyboard section or may stand alone, as may the concert harp and, for performances of some modern compositions, electronic instruments. The term orchestra derives from the Greek ὀρχήστρα (orchestra), the name for the area in front of a stage in ancient Greek theatre reserved for the Greek chorus.[1] A full-size orchestra may sometimes be called a symphony orchestra or philharmonic orchestra
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Orchestra (other)
An orchestra is an instrumental ensemble usually composed of string, brass, and woodwind sections, sometimes with a percussion section. Orchestra
Orchestra
may also refer to:MSC Orchestra, a cruise ship built for MSC Cruises "Orchestra", a song by the British band The Servant "Orchestra", the 79th episode of the television show The Suite Life of Zack & Cody "Orchestra", the place where the chorus sings and dances in the theatre of ancient Greece Orchestra
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Pipe Organ
The pipe organ is a musical instrument that produces sound by driving pressurized air (called wind) through organ pipes selected via a keyboard. Because each pipe produces a single pitch, the pipes are provided in sets called ranks, each of which has a common timbre and volume throughout the keyboard compass. Most organs have multiple ranks of pipes of differing timbre, pitch, and volume that the player can employ singly or in combination through the use of controls called stops. A pipe organ has one or more keyboards (called manuals) played by the hands, and a pedalboard played by the feet; each keyboard has its own group of stops. The keyboard(s), pedalboard, and stops are housed in the organ's console. The organ's continuous supply of wind allows it to sustain notes for as long as the corresponding keys are pressed, unlike the piano and harpsichord whose sound begins to dissipate immediately after a key is depressed
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Symphonies
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra. Although the term has had many meanings from its origins in the ancient Greek era, by the late 18th century the word had taken on the meaning common today: a work usually consisting of multiple distinct sections or movements, often four, with the first movement in sonata form. Symphonies are scored for string (violin, viola, cello, and double bass), brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments which altogether number about 30–100 musicians. Symphonies are notated in a musical score, which contains all the instrument parts. Orchestral musicians play from parts which contain just the notated music for their instrument
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Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
(German: [joˈhanəs ˈbʁaːms]; 7 May 1833 – 3 April 1897) was a German composer and pianist of the Romantic period. Born in Hamburg
Hamburg
into a Lutheran family, Brahms spent much of his professional life in Vienna, Austria. His reputation and status as a composer is such that he is sometimes grouped with Johann Sebastian Bach and Ludwig van Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven
as one of the "Three Bs" of music, a comment originally made by the nineteenth-century conductor Hans von Bülow. Brahms composed for symphony orchestra, chamber ensembles, piano, organ, and voice and chorus. A virtuoso pianist, he premiered many of his own works. He worked with some of the leading performers of his time, including the pianist Clara Schumann
Clara Schumann
and the violinist Joseph Joachim (the three were close friends)
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Richard Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner
Richard Wagner
(/ˈvɑːɡnər/; German: [ˈʁiçaʁt ˈvaːɡnɐ] ( listen); 22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas"). Unlike most opera composers, Wagner wrote both the libretto and the music for each of his stage works. Initially establishing his reputation as a composer of works in the romantic vein of Carl Maria von Weber
Carl Maria von Weber
and Giacomo Meyerbeer, Wagner revolutionised opera through his concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk
Gesamtkunstwerk
("total work of art"), by which he sought to synthesise the poetic, visual, musical and dramatic arts, with music subsidiary to drama. He described this vision in a series of essays published between 1849 and 1852
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Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
Gustav Mahler
(German: [ˈmaːlɐ]; 7 July 1860 – 18 May 1911) was an Austro-Bohemian late-Romantic composer, and one of the leading conductors of his generation. As a composer he acted as a bridge between the 19th century Austro-German tradition and the modernism of the early 20th century. While in his lifetime his status as a conductor was established beyond question, his own music gained wide popularity only after periods of relative neglect which included a ban on its performance in much of Europe during the Nazi era. After 1945 his compositions were rediscovered and championed by a new generation of listeners; Mahler then became one of the most frequently performed and recorded of all composers, a position he has sustained into the 21st century
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Conducting
Conducting
Conducting
is the art of directing a musical performance, such as an orchestral or choral concert
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Conductor's Baton
A baton is a stick that is used by conductors primarily to enlarge and enhance the manual and bodily movements associated with directing an ensemble of musicians.Contents1 Description 2 Usage 3 History3.1 Ancient history 3.2 16th–18th centuries 3.3 19th century 3.4 Jazz batons4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] Modern batons are generally made of a lightweight wood, fiberglass or carbon fiber which is tapered to a comfortable grip called a "bulb" that is usually made of cork, oak, walnut, rosewood, or occasionally aluminum and that may be tailored to a conductor's needs
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Tempo
In musical terminology, tempo [ˈtɛmpo] ("time" in Italian; plural: tempi [ˈtɛmpi]) is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is usually indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece (often using conventional Italian terms). Tempo is usually measured in beats per minute (BPM). In modern classical compositions a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will typically simply be stated in BPM. Tempo
Tempo
may be separated from articulation and metre, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando
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Concertmaster
The Concertmaster
Concertmaster
(from the German Konzertmeister) is the leader of the first violin section in an orchestra (or clarinet in a concert band) and the instrument-playing leader of the orchestra. After the conductor, the concertmaster is the second-most significant leader in an orchestra, symphonic band or other musical ensemble. Another common term in the U.S. is "First Chair." In the U.K., Australia and elsewhere in the English-speaking world, the term commonly used is "leader."Contents1 Orchestra 2 Other large ensembles 3 Duties 4 See also 5 ReferencesOrchestra[edit] In an orchestra, the concertmaster is the leader of the first violin section. There is another violin section, the second violins, led by the principal second violin
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Basso Continuo
Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of musical notation in which numerals and symbols (often accidentals) indicate intervals, chords, and non-chord tones that a musician playing piano, harpsichord, organ, lute (or other instruments capable of playing chords) play in relation to the bass note that these numbers and symbols appear above or below. Figured bass
Figured bass
is closely associated with basso continuo, a historically improvised accompaniment used in almost all genres of music in the Baroque period of
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Harpsichord
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard, a row of levers which the player presses. When the player presses one or more keys, a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small quill is triggered. "Harpsichord" designates the whole family of similar plucked-keyboard instruments, including the smaller virginals, muselar, and spinet. The harpsichord was widely used in Renaissance and Baroque music. During the late 18th century, it gradually disappeared from the musical scene, with the rise of the piano
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Early Music
Early music is music, especially Western art music, composed prior to the Classical era.[1][not in citation given] The term generally comprises Medieval music
Medieval music
(500–1400) and Renaissance music (1400–1600), but can also include Baroque music
Baroque music
(1600–1760), and, according to some authorities such as Kennedy (who excludes Baroque),[1] Ancient music
Ancient music
(before 500 AD)
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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(/ˈwʊlfɡæŋ æməˈdeɪəs ˈmoʊtsɑːrt/ MOHT-sart;[1] German: [ˈvɔlfɡaŋ amaˈdeːʊs ˈmoːtsaʁt]; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart,[2] was a prolific and influential composer of the classical era. Born in Salzburg, Mozart showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin, he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
Salzburg
court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna
Vienna
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
Salzburg
position
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Opera
Opera
Opera
(Italian: [ˈɔːpera]; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere [ˈɔːpere]) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto) and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting.[1] In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative, a speech-inflected style[2] and arias, a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera
Opera
incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery, and costumes and sometimes includes dance
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