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BBC Micro
16–32 KiB (Model A/B) 64–128 KiB (Model B+) 128 KiB (Master) Plus 32–128 KB ROM, expandable to 272 KiB STORAGE100–800 KB (DFS) 160–1280 KB (ADFS floppy disks) 20 MB (ADFS hard disk) DISPLAY PAL
PAL
/ NTSC
NTSC
,
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the UK includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea
North Sea
to its east, the English Channel
English Channel
to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world
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Computer Programming
COMPUTER PROGRAMMING (often shortened to PROGRAMMING) is a process that leads from an original formulation of a computing problem to executable computer programs . Programming involves activities such as analysis, developing understanding, generating algorithms , verification of requirements of algorithms including their correctness and resources consumption, and implementation (commonly referred to as CODING ) of algorithms in a target programming language . Source code is written in one or more programming languages. The purpose of programming is to find a sequence of instructions that will automate performing a specific task or solving a given problem. The process of programming thus often requires expertise in many different subjects, including knowledge of the application domain , specialized algorithms, and formal logic
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Christopher Evans (computer Scientist)
CHRISTOPHER RICHE EVANS (29 May 1931 – 10 October 1979) was a British psychologist , computer scientist , and author. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Selected works * 4 References * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYBorn in Aberdovey , Christopher Evans spent his childhood in Wales and was educated at Christ College, Brecon (1941–49). He spent two years in the RAF (1950–52), and worked as a science journalist and writer until 1957, when he began a B.A. course in Psychology
Psychology
at University College, London
University College, London
, graduating with honours in 1960
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Embedded Systems
An EMBEDDED SYSTEM is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints. It is embedded as part of a complete device often including hardware and mechanical parts. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Ninety-eight percent of all microprocessors are manufactured as components of embedded systems. Examples of properties of typically embedded computers when compared with general-purpose counterparts are low power consumption, small size, rugged operating ranges, and low per-unit cost. This comes at the price of limited processing resources, which make them significantly more difficult to program and to interact with
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Framebuffer
A FRAMEBUFFER (FRAME BUFFER, or sometimes FRAMESTORE) is a portion of RAM containing a bitmap that drives a video display from a memory buffer containing a complete frame of data. Modern video cards contain framebuffer circuitry at their core. This circuitry converts an in-memory bitmap into a video signal that can be displayed on a computer monitor. In computing , a SCREEN BUFFER is a part of computer memory used by a computer application for the representation of the content to be shown on the computer display . The screen buffer may also be called the VIDEO BUFFER, the REGENERATION BUFFER, or REGEN BUFFER for short. Screen buffers should be distinguished from video memory . To this end, the term OFF-SCREEN BUFFER is also used. The information in the buffer typically consists of color values for every pixel to be shown on the display
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Tablet Computer
A TABLET COMPUTER, commonly shortened to TABLET, is a mobile computer with a touchscreen display, which is usually in color, processing circuitry , and a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Most tablets also have sensors , including digital cameras , a microphone , and an accelerometer so images on screens are always displayed upright. The touchscreen display uses gestures by finger or stylus to replace the mouse , trackpad and keyboard used with desktop computers and laptops . Tablets are larger than smartphones or personal digital assistants with screens 7 inches (18 cm) or larger, measured diagonally. However, much of a tablet's functionality resembles that of a modern smartphone, using a virtual keyboard and running a mobile operating system . Portable computers can be classified according to the presence and physical appearance of keyboards
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Artificial Intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective intelligence
Collective action Self-organized criticality Herd mentality
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Microcomputer Revolution
The MICROCOMPUTER REVOLUTION (or PERSONAL COMPUTER REVOLUTION or DIGITAL REVOLUTION ) is a phrase used to describe the rapid advances of microprocessor -based computers from esoteric hobby projects to a commonplace fixture of homes in industrial societies during the 1970s and 1980s. Prior to 1977, the only contact most of the population had with computers was through utility bills, bank and payroll services, or computer-generated junk mail . Within a decade, computers became common consumer goods. The advent of affordable personal computers has had lasting impact on education, business, music, social interaction, and entertainment
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Computer Graphics
COMPUTER GRAPHICS are pictures and films created using computers . Usually, the term refers to computer-generated image data created with help from specialized graphical hardware and software . It is a vast and recent area in computer science . The phrase was coined in 1960, by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing
Boeing
. It is often abbreviated as CG, though sometimes erroneously referred to as computer-generated imagery (CGI). Some topics in computer graphics include user interface design , sprite graphics , vector graphics , 3D modeling , shaders , GPU design, implicit surface visualization with ray tracing , and computer vision , among others. The overall methodology depends heavily on the underlying sciences of geometry , optics , and physics . Computer
Computer
graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data effectively and meaningfully to the user
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National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)
The NATIONAL PHYSICAL LABORATORY (NPL) is the national measurement standards laboratory for the United Kingdom, based at Bushy Park
Bushy Park
in Teddington
Teddington
, London, England. It is the largest applied physics organisation in the UK. CONTENTS * 1 Description * 2 Operation * 3 Buildings * 4 Researchers * 5 Directors of NPL * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links DESCRIPTION The electricity Division of the National Physical Laboratory in 1944 NPL is an internationally respected centre of excellence in measurement and materials science . Since 1900, when Bushy House
Bushy House
was selected as the site of NPL, it has developed and maintained the primary national measurement standards
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Call For Bids
A CALL FOR BIDS, CALL FOR TENDERS, or INVITATION TO TENDER (ITT, often called TENDER for short) is a special procedure for generating competing offers from different bidders looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply, or service contracts. They are usually preceded by a pre-qualification questionnaire (PQQ). CONTENTS * 1 Types * 2 Origin of the term * 3 Double envelope system * 4 Tender box * 5 Security deposit * 6 Locating tenders * 7 Typical template contents (in project management) * 8 See also * 9 References TYPESOpen tenders, open calls for tenders, or advertised tenders are open to all vendors or contractors who can guarantee performance. Restricted tenders, restricted calls for tenders, or invited tenders are only open to selected prequalified vendors or contractors
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Television
TELEVISION or TV is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black-and-white ), or in color, and in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set , a television program ("TV show"), or the medium of television transmission . Television
Television
is a mass medium for entertainment, education , news , politics, gossip, and advertising. Television
Television
became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology was marketed to consumers. After World War II
World War II
, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, and television sets became commonplace in homes, businesses, and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion
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Tangerine Computer Systems
TANGERINE COMPUTER SYSTEMS was a British microcomputer company founded in 1979 by Dr. Paul Johnson, Mark Rainer and Nigel Penton Tilbury in St. Ives , Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
. The very first product was the successful TAN1648 VDU kit which received much acclaim in the technical press. The home computer market was beginning to move, albeit slowly, and it was essential to establish a presence. Development and expansion was imperative. It was decided that the latter two partners would relinquish their involvement in order to focus on their consultancy work. Barry Muncaster became involved operationally and the company moved to new premises in Ely , Cambridgeshire
Cambridgeshire
. The company was later renamed, and was known for most of the 1980s as ORIC PRODUCTS INTERNATIONAL
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Sinclair Research
SINCLAIR RESEARCH LTD is a British consumer electronics company founded by Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
in Cambridge
Cambridge
. It was originally incorporated in 1973 as Westminster Mail Order Ltd, renamed Sinclair Instrument Ltd, then Science of Cambridge
Cambridge
Ltd, then Sinclair Computers Ltd, and finally Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
Ltd in 1975. It remained dormant until 1976, when it was activated with the intention of continuing Sinclair's commercial work from his earlier company Sinclair Radionics , and adopted the name Sinclair Research
Sinclair Research
in 1981. In 1980, Clive Sinclair
Clive Sinclair
entered the home computer market with the ZX80
ZX80
at £99.95, at that time the cheapest personal computer for sale in the United Kingdom
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RGB
The RGB COLOR MODEL is an additive color model in which red , green and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors . The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors , red, green and blue. The main purpose of the RGB color model
RGB color model
is for the sensing, representation and display of images in electronic systems, such as televisions and computers, though it has also been used in conventional photography . Before the electronic age , the RGB color model already had a solid theory behind it, based in human perception of colors . RGB is a device-dependent color model: different devices detect or reproduce a given RGB value differently, since the color elements (such as phosphors or dyes ) and their response to the individual R, G and B levels vary from manufacturer to manufacturer, or even in the same device over time
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