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BBC Micro
16–32 KiB (Model A/B) 64–128 KiB (Model B+) 128 KiB (Master) Plus 32–128 KB ROM, expandable to 272 KiB STORAGE100–800 KB (DFS) 160–1280 KB (ADFS floppy disks) 20 MB (ADFS hard disk) DISPLAY PAL
PAL
/ NTSC , UHF
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Acorn Computers
ACORN COMPUTERS LTD. was a British computer company established in Cambridge
Cambridge
, England, in 1978. The company produced a number of computers which were especially popular in the UK , including the Acorn Electron
Acorn Electron
and the Acorn Archimedes . Acorn's BBC Micro
BBC Micro
computer dominated the UK educational computer market during the 1980s. It is more known for its BBC Micro
BBC Micro
model B computer than for its other products. Though the company was broken up into several independent operations in 1998, its legacy includes the development of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) personal computers. One of its operating systems , RISC OS
RISC OS
, continues to be developed by RISC OS
RISC OS
Open
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8-bit
In computer architecture , 8-BIT integers , memory addresses , or other data units are those that are 8 bits (1 octet ) wide. Also, 8-bit CPU and ALU architectures are those that are based on registers , address buses , or data buses of that size. 8-BIT is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm. The IBM System/360 introduced byte-addressable memory with 8-bit bytes, as opposed to bit-addressable or decimal digit-addressable or word-addressable memory, although its general purpose registers were 32 bits wide, and addresses were contained in the lower 24 bits of those addresses. Different models of System/360 had different internal data path widths; the IBM System/360 Model 30 (1965) implemented the 32-bit System/360 architecture, but had an 8 bit native path width, and performed 32-bit arithmetic 8 bits at a time
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Home Computer
HOME COMPUTERS were a class of microcomputers entering the market in 1977, and becoming common during the 1980s. They were marketed to consumers as affordable and accessible computers that, for the first time, were intended for the use of a single nontechnical user. These computers were a distinct market segment that typically cost much less than business, scientific or engineering-oriented computers of the time such as the IBM PC , and were generally less powerful in terms of memory and expandability. However, a home computer often had better graphics and sound than contemporary business computers. Their most common uses were playing video games , but they were also regularly used for word processing , doing homework, and programming
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Compact Cassette
The COMPACT CASSETTE or MUSICASSETTE (MC), also commonly called CASSETTE TAPE, AUDIO CASSETTE, or simply TAPE or CASSETTE, is an analog magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback . It was released by Philips in 1962, having been developed in Hasselt , Belgium . Compact cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a pre-recorded cassette, or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. It was designed originally for dictation machines , but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the Stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications. Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers
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LaserDisc
LASERDISC (abbreviated as LD) is a home video format and the first commercial optical disc storage medium, initially licensed, sold and marketed as MCA DISCOVISION in North America
North America
in 1978. Although the format was capable of offering higher-quality video and audio than its consumer rivals, VHS
VHS
and Betamax
Betamax
videotape, LaserDisc
LaserDisc
never managed to gain widespread use in North America
North America
, largely due to high costs for the players and video titles themselves and the inability to record TV programs. It was not a popular format in Europe
Europe
and Australia
Australia
when first released but eventually did gain traction in these regions to become popular in the 1990s
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BBC Domesday Project
The BBC
BBC
DOMESDAY PROJECT was a partnership between Acorn Computers
Acorn Computers
, Philips
Philips
, Logica
Logica
and the BBC
BBC
(with some funding from the European Commission 's ESPRIT programme) to mark the 900th anniversary of the original Domesday Book
Domesday Book
, an 11th-century census of England. It has been cited as an example of digital obsolescence on account of the physical medium used for data storage. This new multimedia edition of Domesday was compiled between 1984 and 1986 and published in 1986. It included a new "survey" of the United Kingdom, in which people, mostly school children, wrote about geography, history or social issues in their local area or just about their daily lives. Children from over 9,000 schools were involved. This was linked with maps, and many colour photos, statistical data, video and "virtual walks"
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Operating System
An OPERATING SYSTEM (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs . All computer programs , excluding firmware , require an operating system to function. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time , mass storage , printing , and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation , the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers
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Acorn MOS
Acorn 's MACHINE OPERATING SYSTEM (MOS) or OS is a discontinued computer operating system used in the Acorn BBC
BBC
computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained expansion bus. The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non-reentrant . Versions 0.10 to 1.20 were used on the BBC Micro
BBC Micro
, version 1.00 on the Electron , version 2 was used on the B+, and versions 3 to 5 were used in the BBC Master Series range. The final BBC
BBC
computer, the BBC
BBC
A3000, didn't run this operating system (but it also included its "asterisk" command line interface), was 32-bit
32-bit
and ran RISC OS
RISC OS

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Central Processing Unit
A CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic , logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions. The computer industry has used the term "central processing unit" at least since the early 1960s. Traditionally, the term "CPU" refers to a PROCESSOR, more specifically to its processing unit and control unit (CU), distinguishing these core elements of a computer from external components such as main memory and I/O circuitry. The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed over the course of their history, but their fundamental operation remains almost unchanged
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MOS Technology 6502
The MOS TECHNOLOGY 6502 (typically _"sixty-five-oh-two"_ or _"six-five-oh-two"_) is an 8-bit microprocessor that was designed by a small team led by Chuck Peddle for MOS Technology . When it was introduced in 1975, the 6502 was, by a considerable margin, the least expensive full-featured microprocessor on the market. It initially sold for less than one-sixth the cost of competing designs from larger companies, such as Motorola and Intel , and caused rapid decreases in pricing across the entire processor market. Along with the Zilog Z80 , it sparked a series of projects that resulted in the home computer revolution of the early 1980s. Popular home video game consoles and computers, such as the Atari 2600 , Atari 8-bit family , Apple II , Nintendo Entertainment System , Commodore 64 , and others, used the 6502 or variations of the basic design
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Kibibyte
The KIBIBYTE is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information . The binary prefix _kibi _ means 210, or 1024; therefore, 1 kibibyte is 1024 bytes. The unit symbol for the kibibyte is KIB. The unit was established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in 1998, has been accepted for use by all major standards organizations, and is part of the International System of Quantities . The kibibyte was designed to replace the kilobyte in those computer science contexts in which the term kilobyte is used to mean 1024 bytes. The interpretation of the older term "kilobyte" to denote 1024 bytes, conflicting with the SI definition of the prefix _kilo _ (1000), is still common. CONTENTS * 1 Definition * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 References DEFINITION 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1024 bytes
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PAL
PHASE ALTERNATING LINE (PAL) is a colour encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second ( 576i ). Other common colour encoding systems are NTSC
NTSC
and SECAM
SECAM
. All the countries using PAL
PAL
are currently in process of conversion or have already converted standards to DVB , ISDB
ISDB
or DTMB . This page primarily discusses the PAL
PAL
colour encoding system. The articles on broadcast television systems and analogue television further describe frame rates, image resolution and audio modulation. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Colour encoding * 2.1 PAL
PAL
vs. NTSC
NTSC
* 2.2 PAL
PAL
vs
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NTSC
NTSC, named after the NATIONAL TELEVISION SYSTEM COMMITTEE, is the analog television system that is used in the Philippines , and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas (except Brazil , Argentina , Paraguay , Uruguay , and French Guiana ); Burma ; South Korea ; Taiwan ; Japan ; and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers. NTSC was the first widely adopted broadcast color system and remained dominant until the 2000s, when it started to be replaced with different digital standards such as ATSC and others
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Ultra High Frequency
ULTRA HIGH FREQUENCY (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 MHz and 3 GHz, also known as the DECIMETRE BAND as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter . Radio waves with frequencies above the UHF band fall into the SHF (super-high frequency ) or microwave frequency range. Lower frequency signals fall into the VHF (very high fre