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Azraq
AZRAQ (Arabic : الأزرق‎‎ meaning "the blue one") is a small town in Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
in central-eastern Jordan
Jordan
, 100 kilometres (62 mi) east of Amman
Amman
. The population of Azraq was 9,021 in 2004. The Muwaffaq Salti Air Base is located in Azraq. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Demographics * 3 Wildlife reserve * 4 See also * 5 References HISTORYAzraq has long been an important settlement in a remote and now-arid desert area of Jordan. The strategic value of the town and its castle ( Qasr Azraq
Qasr Azraq
) is that it lies in the middle of the Azraq oasis , the only permanent source of fresh water in approximately 12,000 square kilometres of desert. The town is located on a major desert route that would have facilitated trade within the region. The Azraq oasis has a long history beginning in the Lower Palaeolithic
Lower Palaeolithic
period. Many Palaeolithic sites have been documented in the Azraq Wetlands Reserve . During the Epipalaeolithic
Epipalaeolithic
period the oasis was also an important focus of settlement. Azraq street view Nabatean
Nabatean
period settlement activity has also been documented in the area
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Azraq, Iran (other)
AZRAQ (Persian : ازرق‎‎) may refer to: * Azraq, Abadan * Azraq, Ahvaz This disambiguation page lists articles about distinct geographical locations with the same name. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Azraq,_Iran additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Jordan
JORDAN (/ˈdʒɔːrdən/ ; Arabic : الأردن‎‎ _Al-Urdunn_), officially THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN ( Arabic : المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية‎‎ _Al-Mamlakah Al-Urdunnīyah Al-Ḥāshimīyah_), is an Arab kingdom in Western Asia , on the East Bank of the Jordan River . Jordan is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the east and south; Iraq to the north-east; Syria to the north; Israel , Palestine and the Dead Sea to the west; and the Red Sea in its extreme south-west. Jordan is strategically located at the crossroads of Asia, Africa and Europe. The capital, Amman , is Jordan's most populous city as well as the country's economic, political and cultural centre. What is now Jordan has been inhabited by humans since the Paleolithic period. Three stable kingdoms emerged there at the end of the Bronze Age : Ammon , Moab and Edom . Later rulers include the Nabataean Kingdom , the Roman Empire , and the Ottoman Empire . After the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I , the Ottoman Empire was partitioned by Britain and France. The Emirate of Transjordan was established in 1921 by the then Emir Abdullah I and it became a British protectorate
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Governorates Of Jordan
Jordan is divided into twelve governorates (_muhafazah _) by the administrative divisions system of the Ministry of Interior. In 1994, four new governorates were created: Jerash , Ajloun , Madaba and Aqaba . Jerash Governorate and Ajloun Governorate were split from Irbid Governorate , Madaba Governorate was split from Amman Governorate and Aqaba Governorate was split from Ma\'an Governorate . Governorates are further subdivided into districts (_liwa_) and often into sub-districts (_qda_). GEOGRAPHYGeographically, the governorates of Jordan are located in one of three regions: the North Region, Central Region and the South Region. The three geographical regions are not distributed by area or populations but rather by geographical connectivity and distance among the population centres. The South Region is separated from the Central Region by the Mountains of Moab in Karak Governorate . The population centres of the Central and North Region are separated geographically by the mountains of Jerash Governorate
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Zarqa Governorate
ZARQA GOVERNORATE (Arabic محافظة الزرقاء Muħāfazat az-Zarqāʔ, local dialects ez-Zergā or ez-Zer'a) is the third largest governorate in Jordan
Jordan
by population. The capital of Zarqa governorate is Zarqa
Zarqa
City, which is the largest city in the governorate. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) east of the Jordanian capital Amman
Amman
. The second largest city in the governorate is Russeifa . Zarqa
Zarqa
Governorate hosts the largest military and air bases of the Jordanian armed forces. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Demographics * 4 Administrative divisions * 5 Economy * 6 References HISTORY The city of Russeifa
Russeifa
The land of Zarqa
Zarqa
Governorate has been inhabited since the Bronze Age , most prominent were the Ammonite kingdom and the Nabateans , who constructed the fort known as Qasr al Hallabat , which then was used as a fort by the Romans, and then as a desert palace by the Umayyads . The wetlands in Azraq The most significant historical remains are the Umayyad desert palaces, such as Qasr Amra
Qasr Amra
, a World Heritage site, Qasr al Hallabat , Qasr Shabib in the center of the city of Zarqa, as well as the Castle of Azraq
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Time Zone
A TIME ZONE is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Timezones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. Most of the time zones on land are offset from Coordinated Universal Time(UTC) by a whole number of hours ( UTC−12to UTC+14), but a few zones are offset by 30 or 45 minutes (for example Newfoundland Standard Timeis UTC−03:30, NepalStandard Timeis UTC+05:45, and Indian Standard Timeis UTC+05:30). Some higher latitude and temperate zone countries use daylight saving time for part of the year, typically by adjusting local clock time by an hour. Many land time zones are skewed toward the west of the corresponding nautical time zones . This also creates a permanent daylight saving time effect
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UTC
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME (French : _Temps universel coordonné_), abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), but GMT is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time (SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972. This change also adopted leap seconds to simplify future adjustments. This CCIR Recommendation 460 "stated that (a) carrier frequencies and time intervals should be maintained constant and should correspond to the definition of the SI second; (b) step adjustments, when necessary, should be exactly 1 s to maintain approximate agreement with Universal Time (UT); and (c) standard signals should contain information on the difference between UTC and UT." A number of proposals have been made to replace UTC with a new system that would eliminate leap seconds, and the decision to remove them altogether has been tabled until 2023
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UTC+2
UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2017-08-09T10:11:53+02:00
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), also sometimes erroneously referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. American inventor and politician Benjamin Franklin proposed a form of daylight time in 1784. He wrote an essay "An Economical Project for Diminishing the Cost of Light" to the editor of _The Journal of Paris _, suggesting, somewhat jokingly, that Parisians could economize candle usage by getting people out of bed earlier in the morning, making use of the natural morning light instead. New Zealander George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire and Austria-Hungary organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . The practice has both advocates and critics. Some early proponents of DST aimed to reduce evening use of incandescent lighting —once a primary use of electricity —today's heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST affects energy use is limited and contradictory
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UTC+3
UTC+03:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +03. In areas using this time offset, the time is three hours later than the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) . Following the ISO 8601 standard, a time with this offset would be written as, for example, 2017-08-10T00:39:25+03:00 (boldface only here to be clear). Some areas in the world use UTC+03:00 all year, other areas only part of the year. CONTENTS* 1 As standard time (all year round) * 1.1 Europe * 1.2 Africa * 1.3 Asia * 1.3.1 Arabia Standard Time
Arabia Standard Time
* 2 As daylight saving time (Northern Hemisphere summer only) * 2.1 Europe * 2.2 Western Asia * 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References AS STANDARD TIME (ALL YEAR ROUND)EUROPE Main articles: Further-eastern European Time , Moscow Time
Moscow Time
, and Time in Turkey
Turkey
Most of European Russia , including Moscow
Moscow
, St. Petersburg , Rostov on Don , Novaya Zemlya , Franz Josef Land . From October 26, 2014 Moscow
Moscow
and most other parts of European Russia started using UTC+3 again, all year around. Also on September 7, 2016, Turkey
Turkey
and Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
started using UTC+3 all year round
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Telephone Numbering Plan
A TELEPHONE NUMBERING PLAN is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints. Telephone numbers are the addresses of participants in a telephone network, reachable by a system of destination code routing. Telephone numbering plans are defined in each of administrative regions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN) and they are also present in private telephone networks. Numbering plans may follow a variety of design strategies which have often arisen from the historical evolution of individual telephone networks and local requirements. A broad division is commonly recognized, distinguishing open numbering plans and closed numbering plans. A closed numbering plan imposes a fixed number of digits assigned to every telephone, while an open numbering plan features a variable length of telephone numbers assigned to stations. An open plan permits the expansion of the total numbering capacity of the plan by addition of more digits to a subset of numbers. Many numbering plans subdivide their territory of service into geographic regions designated by a special prefix, often called AREA CODE, which is a set of digits forming the most-significant part of the dialing sequence to reach a telephone subscriber
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Shaheed Mwaffaq Air Base
MUWAFFAQ SALTI AIR BASE ( Arabic
Arabic
قاعدة الشهيد موفق السلطي الجوية - الازرق ) is a Royal Jordanian Air Force air base located in Azraq
Azraq
, Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current use * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY First Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti In 1918, during World War I, T.E. Lawrence
T.E. Lawrence
(also known as Lawrence of Arabia) used the historic castle in Azraq
Azraq
and the plains at that site as a base for use as a landing ground for the aircraft which were supporting the column pushing north towards Syria. The main qualities of the area were its good visibility and fine weather for flying. In 1976, the area was chosen by the Royal Jordanian Air Force for a major new air base. Construction started that same year and in November, 1980, No 1 (Northrop F-5A/B Freedom Fighter 's) and No 11 squadrons (F-5E/F Tiger II's) were deployed there. The air base was officially opened on May 24, 1981. It was named after Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti who died in battle with the Israeli Air Force on November 13, 1966, during the Battle of Samou . It was initially home to Nos 1 and 25 Mirage squadrons. Between 1997 and 2007 Mirage squadrons were based here
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Amman
AMMAN (English: /ɑːˈmɑːn/ ; Arabic : عمّان‎‎ _ʻammān_ pronounced ) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan , and the country's economic, political and cultural centre. Situated in north-central Jordan, Amman is the administrative centre of the Amman Governorate . The city has a population of 4,007,526 and a land area of 1,680 square kilometres (648.7 sq mi). Today, Amman is considered to be among the most liberal and westernized Arab cities. It is a major tourist destination in the region, particularly among Arab and European tourists. The earliest evidence of settlement in the area is a Neolithic site known as \ 'Ain Ghazal . Its successor was known as "Rabbath Ammon", which was the capital of the Ammonites , then as "Philadelphia", and finally as Amman. It was initially built on seven hills but now spans over 19 hills combining 27 districts, which are administered by the Greater Amman Municipality headed by its mayor Aqel Biltaji . Areas of Amman have either gained their names from the hills (Jabal) or the valleys (Wadi) they lie on, such as Jabal Lweibdeh and Wadi Abdoun. East Amman is predominantly filled with historic sites that frequently host cultural activities, while West Amman is more modern and serves as the economic center of the city
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Muwaffaq Salti Air Base
MUWAFFAQ SALTI AIR BASE ( Arabic
Arabic
قاعدة الشهيد موفق السلطي الجوية - الازرق ) is a Royal Jordanian Air Force air base located in Azraq
Azraq
, Zarqa Governorate
Zarqa Governorate
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Current use * 3 See also * 4 References HISTORY First Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti In 1918, during World War I, T.E. Lawrence
T.E. Lawrence
(also known as Lawrence of Arabia) used the historic castle in Azraq
Azraq
and the plains at that site as a base for use as a landing ground for the aircraft which were supporting the column pushing north towards Syria. The main qualities of the area were its good visibility and fine weather for flying. In 1976, the area was chosen by the Royal Jordanian Air Force for a major new air base. Construction started that same year and in November, 1980, No 1 (Northrop F-5A/B Freedom Fighter 's) and No 11 squadrons (F-5E/F Tiger II's) were deployed there. The air base was officially opened on May 24, 1981. It was named after Lieutenant Muwaffaq Salti who died in battle with the Israeli Air Force on November 13, 1966, during the Battle of Samou . It was initially home to Nos 1 and 25 Mirage squadrons. Between 1997 and 2007 Mirage squadrons were based here
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Qasr Azraq
QASR AL-AZRAQ (Arabic : قصر الأزرق‎‎, "Blue Fortress") is a large fortress located in present-day eastern Jordan
Jordan
. It is one of the desert castles , located on the outskirts of present-day Azraq , roughly 100 km (62 mi) east of Amman
Amman
. Its strategic value came from the nearby oasis, the only water source in a vast desert region. The name of the fortress and associated town came from these. The settlement was known in antiquity as Basie and the Romans were the first to make military use of the site, and later an early mosque was built in the middle. It did not assume its present form until an extensive renovation and expansion by the Ayyubids in the 13th century, using locally quarried basalt which makes the castle darker than most other buildings in the area. Later, it would be used by the Ottoman armies during that empire's hegemony over the region. During the Arab Revolt
Arab Revolt
, T.E. Lawrence
T.E. Lawrence
based his operations here in 1917–18, an experience he wrote about in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom
Seven Pillars of Wisdom
. The connection to "Lawrence of Arabia" has been one of the castle's major draws for tourists
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