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Ethnic Groups
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, society, culture or nation. Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage, ancestry, origin myth, history, homeland, language or dialect, symbolic systems such as religion, mythology and ritual, cuisine, dressing style, art, and physical appearance. Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population, often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool
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United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations, achieving international cooperation, and being a center for harmonizing the actions of nations. It is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. The UN is headquartered on international territory in New York City; other main offices are in Geneva, Nairobi, Vienna and The Hague. The UN was established after World War II with the aim of preventing future wars, succeeding the ineffective League of Nations. On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 and took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operations
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Republic
A republic (Latin: res publica, meaning “public affair”) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are attained, through democracy, oligarchy, autocracy, or a mix thereof, rather than being unalterably occupied. As such it has become the opposing form of government to a monarchy and has therefore no monarch as head of state. In the context of American constitutional law, the definition of republic refers specifically to a form of government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body

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Semi-presidential System
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter being responsible to the legislature of the state
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Demonym
A demonym (/ˈdɛmənɪm/; from Greek δῆμος, dêmos, "people, tribe" and όνομα, ónoma, "name") or gentilic (from Latin gentilis, "of a clan, or gens") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, usually derived from the name of the place or that of an ethnic group. As a sub-field of anthroponymy, the study of demonyms is called demonymy or demonymics. Examples of demonyms include Cochabambino, for someone from the city of Cochabamba; American for a person from the country called the United States of America (or more broadly from the continents of North America or South America); and Swahili, for a person of the Swahili coast. Demonyms do not always clearly distinguish place of origin or ethnicity from place of residence or citizenship, and many demonyms overlap with the ethnonym for the ethnically dominant group of a region
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List Of Countries And Dependencies By Area
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area. Entries in this list include, but are not limited to, those in the ISO 3166-1 standard, which includes sovereign states and dependent territories. All 193 Member states of the United Nations plus the Vatican City are given a rank number. Largely unrecognised states not in ISO 3166-1 are included in the list in ranked order
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Alma-Ata Protocol
The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The leaders of Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus had agreed to the Belavezha Accords on 8 December 1991, dissolving the Soviet Union and forming the CIS. On 21 December 1991, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan agreed to the Alma-Ata Protocols, joining the CIS. The latter agreement included the original three Belavezha signatories, as well as eight additional former Soviet republics. Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and Georgia were the only former republics that have not participated. The protocols consisted of declaration, three agreements and separate appendices. In addition, Marshal Yevgeny Shaposhnikov was confirmed as acting Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States
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Dominant-party System
A dominant-party system or one-party dominant system is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organisations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future". Many are de facto one-party systems, and often devolve into de jure one-party systems
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Georgian Language
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit. kartuli ena, pronounced [kʰɑrtʰuli ɛnɑ]) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians. It is the official language of Georgia. Georgian is written in its own writing system, the Georgian script
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússky yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia. It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union until its dissolution on 25 December 1991. Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch
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Kurdish Language
The Kurdish languages (Kurdî, کوردی; IPA: [ˈkuɾdiː]) constitute a dialect continuum spoken by Kurds in Kurdistan and the diaspora. The three Kurdish languages are Kurmanji (Northern Kurdish), Sorani (Central Kurdish), and Southern Kurdish (Palewani or Xwarig/Xwarîn)
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Avar Language
Avar (Магӏарул мацӏ Maǥarul macʼ, [maʕarul mat͡sʼ], "language of the mountains") or (Авар мацӏ Awar macʼ [awar mat͡sʼ] "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that b
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