HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff

picture info

Aymara Language
Aymara /aɪməˈrɑː/ (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people
Aymara people
of the Andes. It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers.[3][4] Aymara, along with Spanish, is one of the official languages of Bolivia
Bolivia
and parts of Peru. It is also spoken, to a much lesser extent, by some communities in northern Chile, where it is a recognized minority language. Some linguists have claimed that Aymara is related to its more widely spoken neighbor, Quechua. That claim, however, is disputed. Although there are indeed similarities, like the nearly-identical phonologies, the majority position among linguists today is that the similarities are better explained as areal features rising from prolonged cohabitation, rather than natural genealogical changes that would stem from a common protolanguage. Aymara is an agglutinating and, to a certain extent, a polysynthetic language
[...More...]

Glottalization
Glottalization is the complete or partial closure of the glottis during the articulation of another sound. Glottalization of vowels and other sonorants is most often realized as creaky voice (partial closure). Glottalization of obstruent consonants usually involves complete closure of the glottis; another way to describe this phenomenon is to say that a glottal stop is made simultaneously with another consonant. In certain cases, the glottal stop can even wholly replace the voiceless consonant. The term 'glottalized' is also used for ejective and implosive consonants; see glottalic consonant for examples. There are two other ways to represent glottalization of sonorants in the IPA: (a) the same way as ejectives, with an apostrophe; or (b) with the under-tilde for creaky voice
[...More...]

picture info

Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific study of language.[1] It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.[2] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 6th-century-BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini[3][4] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[5] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[6] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
[...More...]

Folk Etymology
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.[1][2][3] The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements
[...More...]

picture info

Iquique
Iquique
Iquique
(Spanish pronunciation: [iˈkike]) is a port city and commune in northern Chile, capital of both the Iquique Province
Iquique Province
and Tarapacá Region. It lies on the Pacific coast, west of the Pampa del Tamarugal which is part of Atacama Desert. It had a population of 180,601 according to the 2012 census.[2] It is also the main commune of the Greater Iquique. The city developed during the heyday of the saltpetre mining in Atacama Desert
Atacama Desert
in the 19th century. Originally a Peruvian
Peruvian
city with a large Chilean population, it was ceded to Chile as result of War of the Pacific
War of the Pacific
(1879–1883)
[...More...]

picture info

Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
Tiwanaku
(Spanish: Tiahuanaco or Tiahuanacu) is a Pre-Columbian archaeological site in western Bolivia. The site was first recorded in written history by Spanish conquistador Pedro Cieza de León
[...More...]

picture info

Tacna
Tacna
Tacna
is a city in southern Peru
Peru
and the regional capital of the Tacna Region. A very commercially active city, it is located only 35 km (22 mi) north of the border with Arica y Parinacota Region
Arica y Parinacota Region
from Chile, inland from the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and in the valley of the Caplina River. It is Peru's tenth most populous city. Initially called San Pedro de Tacna, it has gained a reputation for patriotism, with many monuments and streets named after heroes of Peru's struggle for independence (1821–1824) and the War of the Pacific (1879–1883)
[...More...]

Qulla People
The Qulla (Quechuan for south,[5] Hispanicized and mixed spellings Colla, Kolla) are an indigenous people of western Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina, living in Jujuy and Salta Provinces. The 2004 Complementary Indigenous Survey reported 53,019 Qulla households living in Argentina.[4] They moved freely between the borders of Argentina
Argentina
and Bolivia.[2] Their lands are part of the yungas or high altitude forests at the edge of the Amazon rainforest.[1]Contents1 History 2 Today 3 Indigenous Communities in Argentina 4 Language 5 Notable Kolla people 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksHistory[edit] The Qulla have lived in their region for centuries. Sillustani
Sillustani
is a prehistoric Qulla cemetery in Peru, with elaborate stone chullpas. Several groups made up the Qulla people, including the Zenta, and Gispira
[...More...]

picture info

Moquegua
Moquegua
Moquegua
(Spanish pronunciation: [moˈkeɣwa], founded by the Spanish colonists as Villa de Santa Catalina de Guadalcázar del Valle de Moquegua) is a city in southern Peru, located in the Moquegua Region, of which it is the capital. It is also capital of Mariscal Nieto Province and Moquegua
Moquegua
District. It is located 1144 kilometers south of the capital city of Lima.Contents1 History 2 Tourism 3 Economy 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]CathedralPlaza de Armas of Moquegua, designed by Gustave EiffelThis region was occupied for thousands of years by successive cultures of indigenous peoples. The Wari culture
Wari culture
built numerous monuments, and developed terraced fields to support crop cultivation on hillsides hundreds of years before the Inca
Inca
conquered them and expanded their territory into this area
[...More...]

Polysynthetic Language
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone). Polysynthetic languages typically have long "sentence-words" such as the Yupik word tuntussuqatarniksaitengqiggtuq which means "He had not yet said again that he was going to hunt reindeer." The word consists of the morphemes tuntu-ssur-qatar-ni-ksaite-ngqiggte-uq with the meanings, reindeer-hunt-future-say-negation-again-third.person.singular.indicative; and except for the morpheme tuntu "reindeer", none of the other morphemes can appear in isolation. Whereas isolating languages have a low morpheme-to-word ratio, polysynthetic languages have a very high ratio. There is no generally agreed upon definition of polysynthesis
[...More...]

picture info

Phonemic
A phoneme (/ˈfoʊniːm/) is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language. For example, in most dialects of English, the sound patterns /θʌm/ (thumb) and /dʌm/ (dumb) are two separate words distinguished by the substitution of one phoneme, /θ/, for another phoneme, /d/. (Two words like this that differ in meaning through a contrast of a single phoneme form what is called a minimal pair). In many other languages these would be interpreted as exactly the same set of phonemes (i.e. /θ/ and /d/ would be considered the same). In linguistics, phonemes (usually established by the use of minimal pairs, such as kill vs kiss or pat vs bat) are written between slashes, e.g. /p/
[...More...]

picture info

Protolanguage
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family. In the strict sense, a proto-language is the most recent common ancestor of a language family, immediately before the family started to diverge into the attested daughter languages. It is therefore equivalent with the ancestral language or parental language of a language family.[1] Moreover, a group of idioms (such as a dialect cluster) which are not considered separate languages (for whichever reasons) can also be described as descending from a unitary proto-language. Occasionally, the German term Ursprache (from Ur- "primordial" and Sprache "language", pronounced [ˈuːɐ̯ʃpʁaːxə]) is used instead.Contents1 Definition and verification 2 Proto-X vs
[...More...]

Areal Feature (linguistics)
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language. Contents1 Characteristics 2 Examples 3 See also 4 Notes 5 ReferencesCharacteristics[edit] Resemblances between two or more languages (whether in typology or in vocabulary) can be due to genetic relation (descent from a common ancestor language), to borrowing between languages, to retention of features when a population adopts a new language, or simply to chance. When little or no direct documentation of ancestor languages is available, determining whether a similarity is genetic or areal can be difficult
[...More...]

picture info

Vowel
Paired vowels are: unrounded • roundedManners of articulationObstruent    Stop     Affricate     Fricative        Strident            SibilantSonorant    Nasal     Approximant        Semivowel    Vowel     Vibrant        Flap/Tap         TrillLiquid    Rhotic     LateralOcclusive ContinuantAirstreamsEgressive Ingressive Ejective Implosive Nonexplosive Lingual (clicks) Linguo-pulmonic Linguo-ejective PercussiveSee alsoArticulatory phonetics Aspirated consonant No au
[...More...]

picture info

Minority Language
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory. Such people are termed linguistic minorities or language minorities. With a total number of 196 sovereign states recognized internationally (as of 2019)[1] and an estimated number of roughly 5,000 to 7,000 languages spoken worldwide,[2] it follows that the vast majority of languages are minority languages in every country in which they are spoken. Some minority languages are simultaneously also official languages, including the Irish language
Irish language
in Ireland
[...More...]

picture info

Consonant
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are [p], pronounced with the lips; [t], pronounced with the front of the tongue; [k], pronounced with the back of the tongue; [h], pronounced in the throat; [f] and [s], pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel (fricatives); and [m] and [n], which have air flowing through the nose (nasals)
[...More...]

.