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Ayers Rock
Uluru
Uluru
(/ˌuːləˈruː/, Pitjantjatjara: Uluṟu), also known as Ayers Rock (/ˌɛərz ˈrɒk/) and officially gazetted as "Uluru / Ayers Rock",[1] is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory
Northern Territory
in central Australia. It lies 335 km (208 mi) south west of the nearest large town, Alice Springs, 450 km (280 mi) by road. Uluru
Uluru
is sacred to the Pitjantjatjara
Pitjantjatjara
Anangu, the Aboriginal people of the area. The area around the formation is home to an abundance of springs, waterholes, rock caves and ancient paintings. Uluru
Uluru
is listed as a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site
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Musgrave Block
The Musgrave Block (also known as the Musgrave Province) is an east-west trending belt of Proterozoic granulite-gneiss basement rocks approximately 500 kilometres (310 mi) long. The Musgrave Block extends from western South Australia into Western Australia. The Musgrave Block is primarily exposed through the actions of the Petermann Orogeny at c. 535-550 Ma, which exhumed the orogenic belt along the Woodroffe Thrust.Geological interpretation of the West Musgrave Block, Western Australia. 50x50km grid for scale.Contents1 Geomorphology of Quaternary deposits 2 Palaeozoic rocks 3 Proterozoic basement 4 Events 5 Granites and Calderas5.1 Palgrave Volcanic Association 5.2 Skirmish Hill Caldera 5.3 Other Calderas6 Bentley Supergroup 7 References 8 See alsoGeomorphology of Quaternary deposits[edit] The Musgrave Block is currently passive geologically, with surficial processes described as residual erosion
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Inselberg
An inselberg or monadnock (/məˈnædnɒk/) is an isolated rock hill, knob, ridge, or small mountain that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or virtually level surrounding plain. In southern and south-central Africa, a similar formation of granite is known as a koppie, an Afrikaans
Afrikaans
word ("little head") from the Dutch word kopje.[1] If the inselberg is dome-shaped and formed from granite or gneiss, it can also be called a bornhardt, though not all bornhardts are inselbergs.Contents1 Etymology1.1 Inselberg 1.2 Monadnock2 Geology 3 Examples 4 Ecology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksEtymology[edit] Inselberg[edit] The word inselberg is a loan word from the German word Inselberg, which has the literal meaning of "island mountain"
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Chief Secretary Of South Australia
The Chief Secretary of South Australia (since 1856) or Colonial Secretary of South Australia (1836–1856) was a key role in the governance of the Colony of South Australia (1836–1900) and State of South Australia (from 1901) until it was abolished in 1982. It was the main executive and coordinating authority of government administration. It was the official channel of communication to the Governor of South Australia from government departments and the general public.[1] The Premier's Department was created in 1965, and over time assumed the functions of the Chief Secretary's Office. List of Colonial and Chief Secretaries of South Australia[edit]Colonial Secretaries 1836–1856[2]Ordinal Colonial Secretary PeriodRobert Gouger 1836–1837Thomas Bewes Strangways 1837–1838George Milner Stephen 1838–1839Robert Gouger 1839–1841George Hall acting July–October 1840J
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Roundness (geology)
Roundness is the degree of smoothing due to abrasion of sedimentary particles. It is expressed as the ratio of the average radius of curvature of the edges or corners to the radius of curvature of the maximum inscribed sphere.Contents1 Measure of roundness 2 Abrasion 3 Paleogeographic value of determining the degree of roundness of clastic material 4 Clast rounding in non-sedimentary environments 5 See also 6 ReferencesMeasure of roundness[edit]Schematic representation of difference in grain shape. Two parameters are shown: sphericity (vertical) and rounding (horizontal).Rounding, roundness or angularity are terms used to describe the shape of the corners on a particle (or clast) of sediment.[1] Such a particle may be a grain of sand, a pebble, cobble or boulder
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Bush Food
Bush tucker, also called bushfood, is any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Aboriginal Australians, but it can also describe any native fauna or flora used for culinary and/or medicinal purposes, regardless of the continent or culture. Examples of Australian native animal foods (meats) include kangaroo, emu and crocodile. In particular, kangaroo is quite common and can be found in Australian supermarkets, often cheaper than beef. Other animals, for example goanna and witchetty grubs, were eaten by Aboriginal Australians. Fish and shellfish are culinary features of the Australian coastal communities. Examples of Australian native plant foods include the fruits quandong, kutjera, muntries, riberry, Davidson's plum, and finger lime. Native spices include lemon myrtle, mountain pepper, and aniseed myrtle. A popular leafy vegetable is warrigal greens
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Dreamtime
Dreamtime
Dreamtime
(also dream time, dream-time) is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs. It was originally used by Francis Gillen, quickly adopted by his colleague Baldwin Spencer
Baldwin Spencer
and thereafter popularised by A. P. Elkin, who, however, later revised his views. The Dreaming is used to represent Aboriginal concepts of "time out of time," or "everywhen," during which the land was inhabited by ancestral figures, often of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities
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Color Constancy
Color
Color
constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions. A green apple for instance looks green to us at midday, when the main illumination is white sunlight, and also at sunset, when the main illumination is red. This helps us identify objects.Contents1 Color
Color
vision 2 Object Illuminance 3 Physiological basis3.1 Neural Mechanism3.1.1 Cone Adaptation4 Metamerism 5 Retinex theory 6 See also 7 References7.1 Retinex8 External links Color
Color
vision[edit] Main article: Color
Color
vision Color vision
Color vision
is a process by which organisms and machines are able to distinguish objects based on the different wavelengths of light reflected, transmitted, or emitted by the object
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Dawn
Dawn, from an Old English
Old English
verb dagian: "to become day", is the time that marks the beginning of twilight before sunrise. It is recognized by the appearance of indirect sunlight being scattered in the atmosphere, when the centre of the Sun's disc reaches 18° below the horizon.[1] This dawn twilight period will last until sunrise (when the Sun's upper limb breaks the horizon), as the diffused light becomes direct sunlight.Civil, nautical, and astronomical dawn, when defined as the beginning time of the corresponding twilight[2]Contents1 Types of dawn1.1 Astronomical dawn 1.2 Nautical dawn 1.3 Civil dawn2 Effects of latitude2.1 Equator 2.2 Polar regions2.2.1 Example3 Mythology and religion 4 Dawn
Dawn
in art 5 Literature 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksTypes of dawn[edit] Dawn
Dawn
begins with the first sight of lightness in the morning, and continues until the sun breaks the horizon
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Sunset
Sunset
Sunset
or sundown is the daily disappearance of the Sun
Sun
below the horizon as a result of Earth's rotation. The Sun
Sun
will set exactly due west at the equator on the spring and fall equinoxes, each of which occurs only once a year.Subcategories of twilightThe time of sunset is defined in astronomy as the moment when the trailing edge of the Sun's disk disappears below the horizon
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Plagioclase
Plagioclase
Plagioclase
is a series of tectosilicate (framework silicate) minerals within the feldspar group. Rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition, plagioclase is a continuous solid solution series, more properly known as the plagioclase feldspar series (from the Ancient Greek for "oblique fracture", in reference to its two cleavage angles). This was first shown by the German mineralogist Johann Friedrich Christian Hessel (1796–1872) in 1826. The series ranges from albite to anorthite endmembers (with respective compositions NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8), where sodium and calcium atoms can substitute for each other in the mineral's crystal lattice structure
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Surveying
A surveyor at work with a retroreflector used for distance measurement and orientation. Surveying
Surveying
or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, locations, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, trigonometry, regression analysis, physics, engineering, metrology, programming languages, and the law
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Joint (geology)
A joint is a break (fracture) of natural origin in the continuity of either a layer or body of rock that lacks any visible or measurable movement parallel to the surface (plane) of the fracture. Although they can occur singly, they most frequently occur as joint sets and systems. A joint set is a family of parallel, evenly spaced joints that can be identified through mapping and analysis of the orientations, spacing, and physical properties. A joint system consists of two or more intersecting joint sets.[1][2][3] The distinction between joints and faults hinges on the terms visible or measurable, a difference that depends on the scale of observation. Faults differ from joints in that they exhibit visible or measurable lateral movement between the opposite surfaces of the fracture
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Bed (geology)
In geology a bed is the smallest division of a geologic formation or stratigraphic rock series marked by well-defined divisional planes (bedding planes) separating it from layers above and below. A bed is the smallest lithostratigraphic unit, usually ranging in thickness from a centimetre to several metres and distinguishable from beds above and below it. Beds can be differentiated in various ways, including rock or mineral type and particle size
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Scree
Scree
Scree
is a collection of broken rock fragments at the base of crags, mountain cliffs, volcanoes or valley shoulders that has accumulated through periodic rockfall from adjacent cliff faces. Landforms associated with these materials are often called talus deposits. Talus deposits typically have a concave upwards form, while the maximum inclination corresponds to the angle of repose of the mean debris size. The term scree comes from the Old Norse
Old Norse
term for landslide, skriða,[1] while the term talus is a French word meaning a slope or embankment.[2][3] Formation[edit]Talus cones on north shore of Isfjord, Svalbard, Norway.Formation of scree or talus deposits are the result of physical and chemical weathering and erosion acting on a rock face. The predominant processes that degrade a rock slope depend largely on the regional climate (temperature, amount of rainfall, etc.)
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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