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Axle
An AXLE is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear . On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to the vehicle, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is supported. In the latter case, a bearing or bushing sits inside a central hole in the wheel to allow the wheel or gear to rotate around the axle. Sometimes, especially on bicycles , the latter type axle is referred to as a spindle . CONTENTS * 1 Terminology * 2 Vehicle
Vehicle
axles * 3 Structural features And Design * 4 Drive axle * 5 Dead axle (lazy axle) * 6 Lift axle * 7 Full-floating vs semi-floating * 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 External links TERMINOLOGYOn cars and trucks, several senses of the word "axle" occur in casual usage, referring to the shaft itself, its housing, or simply any transverse pair of wheels
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Shinkansen
The SHINKANSEN (新幹線, new trunk line), colloquially known in English as the BULLET TRAIN, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan
Japan
operated by five Japan Railways Group companies. Starting with the Tōkaidō Shinkansen (515.4 km, 320.3 mi) in 1964, the network has expanded to currently consist of 2,764.6 km (1,717.8 mi) of lines with maximum speeds of 240–320 km/h (150–200 mph), 283.5 km (176.2 mi) of Mini-shinkansen lines with a maximum speed of 130 km/h (80 mph), and 10.3 km (6.4 mi) of spur lines with Shinkansen services. The network presently links most major cities on the islands of Honshu
Honshu
and Kyushu
Kyushu
, and Hakodate
Hakodate
on northern island of Hokkaido
Hokkaido
, with an extension to Sapporo
Sapporo
under construction and scheduled to commence in March 2031
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Train
A TRAIN is a form of rail transport consisting of a series of vehicles that usually runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers . Motive power is provided by a separate locomotive or individual motors in self-propelled multiple units . Although historically steam propulsion dominated, the most common modern forms are diesel and electric locomotives, the latter supplied by overhead wires or additional rails . Other energy sources include horses , engine or water-driven rope or wire winch , gravity , pneumatics , batteries , and gas turbines . Train
Train
tracks usually consist of two running rails , sometimes supplemented by additional rails such as electric conducting rails and rack rails , with a limited number of monorails and maglev guideways in the mix. The word 'train' comes from the Old French
Old French
trahiner, from the Latin
Latin
trahere 'pull, draw'
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Semi Trailer
A SEMI-TRAILER is a trailer without a front axle. In the US, the term is also used to refer to the combination of a truck and a semitrailer, a tractor-trailer . A large proportion of a semitrailer's weight is supported by a tractor unit , or a detachable front-axle assembly known as a dolly , or the tail of another trailer . A semitrailer is normally equipped with landing gear (legs which can be lowered) to support it when it is uncoupled. Many semitrailers have wheels that are capable of being totally dismounted and are also relocatable (repositionable) to better distribute load to bearing wheel weight factors. Semitrailers are more popular for transport than full trailers , which have both front and rear axles. Ease of backing is cited as one of the semi's chief advantages
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Constant-velocity Joint
CONSTANT-VELOCITY JOINTS (AKA HOMOKINETIC or CV JOINTS) allow a drive shaft to transmit power through a variable angle, at constant rotational speed, without an appreciable increase in friction or play . They are mainly used in front wheel drive vehicles, and many modern rear wheel drive cars with independent rear suspension typically use CV joints at the ends of the rear axle halfshafts and increasingly use them on the drive shafts . Constant-velocity joints are protected by a rubber boot, a CV gaiter, usually filled with molybdenum disulfide grease. Cracks and splits in the boot will allow contaminants in, which would cause the joint to wear quickly
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Cargo
This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message ) Very small freight transporter - a cargo tricycle Animals used to transport goods - Mules carrying slate roof tiles in India in 1993 In economics , CARGO or FREIGHT are goods or produce being conveyed – generally for commercial gain – by ship , boat, or aircraft , although the term is now often extended to cover all types of FREIGHT, including that carried by train , van , truck , or intermodal container . The term cargo is also used in case of goods in the cold-chain , because the perishable inventory is always in transit towards a final end-use, even when it is held in cold storage or other similar climate-controlled facility
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Proxy (statistics)
In statistics , a PROXY or PROXY VARIABLE is a variable that is not in itself directly relevant, but that serves in place of an unobservable or immeasurable variable. In order for a variable to be a good proxy, it must have a close correlation , not necessarily linear, with the variable of interest. This correlation might be either positive or negative. Proxy variable must relate to unobserved variable, must correlate with disturbance, and must not correlate with regressors once disturbance is controlled for. EXAMPLESIn social sciences , proxy measurements are often required to stand in for variables that cannot be directly measured. This process of standing in is also known as operationalization . Per-capita GDP
GDP
is often used as a proxy for measures of standard of living or quality of life . Montgomery et al
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Vehicle
A VEHICLE (from Latin : vehiculum ) is a mobile machine that transports people or cargo . Typical vehicles include wagons , bicycles , motor vehicles (motorcycles , trucks , buses ), railed vehicles (trains , trams ), watercraft (ships , boats ), aircraft and spacecraft . Land vehicles are classified broadly by what is used to apply steering and drive forces against the ground: wheeled , tracked , railed or skied . ISO 3833-1977 is the standard, also internationally used in legislation, for road vehicles types, terms and definitions
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41xx Steel
41XX STEEL is a family of SAE steel grades , as specified by the Society of Automotive Engineers
Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE). Alloying elements include chromium and molybdenum , and as a result these materials are often informally referred to as CHROMOLY steel (common variant stylings include chrome-moly, cro-moly, CrMo, CRMO, CR-MOLY, and similar). They have an excellent strength to weight ratio and are considerably stronger and harder than standard 1020 steel, but are not easily welded (requiring thermal treatment both before after welding to avoid cold cracking ). While these grades of steel do contain chromium, it is not in great enough quantities to provide the corrosion resistance found in stainless steel
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Chrome-molybdenum Steel
41XX STEEL is a family of SAE steel grades , as specified by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE). Alloying elements include chromium and molybdenum , and as a result these materials are often informally referred to as CHROMOLY steel (common variant stylings include chrome-moly, cro-moly, CrMo, CRMO, CR-MOLY, and similar). They have an excellent strength to weight ratio and are considerably stronger and harder than standard 1020 steel, but are not easily welded (requiring thermal treatment both before after welding to avoid cold cracking ). While these grades of steel do contain chromium, it is not in great enough quantities to provide the corrosion resistance found in stainless steel
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Bridge
A BRIDGE is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water , valley , or road , for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, and the funds available to build it
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Östervåla
ÖSTERVåLA is a locality situated in Heby Municipality , Uppsala County , Sweden with 1,595 inhabitants in 2010. REFERENCES * ^ A B C "Tätorternas landareal, folkmängd och invånare per km2 2005 och 2010" (in Swedish). Statistics Sweden . 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012. * v * t * e Localities in Heby Municipality , Uppsala County , Sweden LOCALITIES: * Harbo * Heby (seat) * Morgongåva * Östervåla * Runhällen * Tärnsjö * Vittinge This article about a location in Uppsala County , Sweden is a stub . You can help by expanding it
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Motorcoach
A COACH (also MOTOR COACH, often simply referred to as a BUS) is a type of vehicle used for conveying passengers on excursions and on longer-distance intercity —or even international—bus service. Unlike transit buses designed for shorter journeys, coaches often have a luggage hold that is separate from the passenger cabin and are normally equipped with facilities required for longer trips, including comfortable seats and sometimes a toilet. The term "coach" was previously used for a horse-drawn carriage designed for the conveyance of more than one passenger , the passengers' luggage, and mail , that is covered for protection from the elements. The term was applied to railway carriages in the 19th century, and later to motor coaches
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Kart Racing
KART RACING or KARTING is a variant of open-wheel motorsport with small, open, four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts , or gearbox/shifter karts depending on the design. They are usually raced on scaled-down circuits . Karting is commonly perceived as the stepping stone to the higher ranks of motorsports. Karts vary widely in speed and some (known as Superkarts ) can reach speeds exceeding 260 kilometres per hour (160 mph), while recreational go-karts intended for the general public may be limited to lower speeds
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Carbon Steel
CARBON STEEL is a steel with carbon content up to 2.1% by weight. American Iron and Steel
Steel
Institute (AISI) definition of Carbon Steel states: Steel
Steel
is considered to be carbon steel when: * no minimum content is specified or required for chromium , cobalt , molybdenum , nickel , niobium , titanium , tungsten , vanadium or zirconium , or any other element to be added to obtain a desired alloying effect; * the specified minimum for copper does not exceed 0.40 percent; * or the maximum content specified for any of the following elements does not exceed the percentages noted: manganese 1.65, silicon 0.60, copper 0.60. The term "carbon steel" may also be used in reference to steel which is not stainless steel ; in this use carbon steel may include alloy steels . As the carbon percentage content rises, steel has the ability to become harder and stronger through heat treating ; however, it becomes less ductile
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Go-kart
A GO-KART, also written as GO-CART (often referred to as simply a KART), is a type of open-wheel car . Go-karts come in all shapes and forms, from motorless models to high-powered racing machines . Some, such as Superkarts , are able to beat racing cars or motorcycles on long circuits. Gravity racers , usually referred to as Soap Box Derby carts, are the simplest type of go-karts. They are propelled by gravity, with some races taking place down a single hill. Recreational karts can be powered by four-stroke engines or electric motors , while racing karts use a two-stroke or, rarely, higher powered four-stroke engines. Most of them are single seater but some recreational models can accommodate a passenger. In some countries, go-karts can be licensed for use on public roads. Typically there are some restrictions, e.g
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